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Chamber Clarkson 




Chamber Clarkson 






VOL. X. 

Chamber Clarkson 

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J J 

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V. '0 

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A. J. A. ... Sm A. J. Abbuthkot, K.C.S.I. 

T. A. A. . . T. A. Archeb. 

G. F. E. B. G. F. Russell Babker. 

R. B The Rev. Ronald Batnb. 

W. B The Rev. William Benham. 

G. T. B. . . G. T. Bbttant. 

A. C. B. . . A. C. BiCKLBY. 

W. G. B. . . ThbRev.PbofessobBlaoib/D.D 
G. C. B. . . G. C. BoASE. 

H. B Hbnbt Bradley. 

R. H. B. . . R. H. Bbodie. 

A. H. B. . . A. H. BuLLEN. 

H. M. C. . . H. Manitebs Chichesteb. 

R. C. C. . . . R. C. Chbistie. 

J. W. C. . . J. W. Clabk. 

A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. Clebke. 

J. C The Rev. James Coopeb. 

T. C Thompson Coopeb, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. Coubtney. 

CO Ohablbs Obbiohton, M.D. 

M. C The Rev. Pbofessob Cbeighton. 

L. Lionel Oust. 

T. W. R. D.. T. W. Rhys Davids. 

A. D Austin Dobson. 

J. W. E. . . ThbRev. J.W.Ebswobth,F.S.A. 
F. R . . . . Fbancis Espinasse. 
A. C.E.. . . A. C. EwALD,"F.S.A. 

L. F. . . . 
C. H. F. . 
S. R. G. . . 
R. G. . . . 
J. W.-G/. 
G. G. . . . 

R. E. G. . . 
W. A. G. . 
J. W. H. . 
J. A. H. . 
W. J. H. . 
T. F. H. . 
J. H. . . . 
R. H— T. . . 
W. H. . . 

B. D. J. . 

C. K. . . . 
J. K. . . . 
J. K., L. . 
S. L. L. 
N. McC. . 
G. P. M. . 
-ffi. M. . . 
T. M. . . . 
N. M.. . . 

. Louis Fagan. 

. C H. FiBTH. 

. S. R. Gabdineb, LL.D. 

. Richard Gabnett, LL.D. 

. J. Westby-Gibson, LL.D. 

. GoBDON Goodwin. 

. The Rev. Alexandeb Gobdon. 

. R. E. Gbaves. 

. W. A. Gbeenhill, M.D. 

. Pbofessob J. W. Hales. 

. J. A. Hamilton. 

. Pbofessob W. Jebomb Harrison 

. T. F. Hendebson. 

. Miss Jennett Humphbeys. 

. Robbbt Hunt, F.R.S. 

. The Rev. William Hunt. 

. B. D. Jackson. 

. Charles Kent. 

. Joseph Knight. 

. Professor J. K. Laughton. 

. S. L. IjEe. 

. Norman Maccoll. 

. G. P. Macdonell. 

. -SIneas Mackay, LL.D. 

. Sir Theodore Martin, K.C.Bv 

. Cosmo Monkhouse. 

. Norman Moobb, M.D. 


List of Writers, 

T. 0. . . . 

. The Bbt. Tkoicas Olden. 

J. F. P. . 

. J. F. Payne, MJ). 

G. G. P. . . 

. The Bey. Canon Pbrst. 

B. L. P. . 

. B. L. Poole. 

S. L.-P. . . 

. Stanley Lane-Poole. 

£• B. • . . 

. Ebnest Badfobd. 

J* Ji« B. . 

. J. M. Bioo. 

J, H. B. . 

. J. H. Bound. 

J. M. S. . . 

. J. M. Scott. 

B. S. S. . 

. £. S. Shuckbuboh. 

W. B. S. , 

. W. Barclay Squire. 

L. S. . . . 

. Leslie Stefhen. 

H. M. 8. . 

. H. M. Stephens. 

c. w. s. . 

. C. W. Sutton. 

H.B. T. . 

. H. R. Tedder. 

o. X . ... 

. Samuel Timmins. 

T. F. T. . 

. Professor T. F. Tout. 

Ju. V. . . . 

. The Rev. Canon Vbnables. 

^L. V . . . . 


A. W. W. 

. Professor A. W. Ward, LL.I) 

M. G. W. . 

. The Rev. M. G. Watkins. 

F. W-T. . . 

. Francis Watt. 

C. W-H. . 

. Charles Welsh. 

W. W. . . . Warwick Wroth. 

> w 

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• -. - •» 




• • • 

liATNE (<2. 1489), rebel, a kniffht of mat 
infiuidnce in the north, excited the Deopie to 
join the rebellion headed bj Sir Jonn JS^pre- 
mondin Northumberlandand Durham against 
the heayy subsidy of 1489. Henry, earl of 
Northumberland, who had orders to enforce 
the tax, endeavoured to persuade him to cease 
his agitation. Chamber would not hear him, 
and on 20 April the earl was slain by the 
rebels at Cock Lodge, near Thirsk. Then 
Thomas, earl of Surrey, was sent to nut 
down the insurrection. He took Chamber 
and utterly routed the rebels. Chamber was 
executed at York 'in great state,' being 
hanged on ' a nbbet set on a square pair of 
gallows ' with his chief accomplices hanging 
' upon the lower story round aoout him. 

[Fabyan's Chronicle, 683 (ed. 1811); Graf- 
ton^s Chronicle, ii. 176-7 (ed. 1809); Bacon's 
Henry Vll, 355-6 (ed. Bohn); Stew's Annals, 
474(ed. 1614).l W. H. 

CHAMBER, JOHN (1470-1549), phy- 
4sician. [See Chahbbb.] 

CHAMBER, JOHN (1546-1604), canon 
of Windsor and writer on astronomy, bom at 
Swillington, Yorkshire, in May 1546, was 
educated at Merton College, Oxford, where 
he mduated B.A. in 1569 (O:^. TJniv, Beg.^ 
Oxf. Hist. Soc., i. 272). He was elected a 
fellow in the same year, being ' chosen purely 
for his merits.' He was well versed in Greek, 
and after taking the M.A. degree turned his 
attention to medicine, astronomy, and astro- 
logy. He lectured in the university on the 
Ptolemaic system, and applied to the autho- 
rities to be permitted to lecture on Hippo- 
crates. Chamber was in holy orders nom 
1582, became fellow of Eton College, and in 
1601 canon of Windsor. He died at Windsor 
on 1 Aug. 1604, and was buried at the en- 


trance to the choir of St. George's Ch&pel: 
He left Merton College 1,000/. to buy lands 
in Yorkshire for the maintenance of two post- 
masterships for Eton scholars, to be called 
by his name. 

Chamber's works are : 1. ' Scholia ad Bar- 
laami Monachi Log^ticam Astronomiam,' 
16(X), 4to. 2. ' Treatise against Judicial As- 
trology' (Lond. 1601, 4to^, to which Sur 
Christopher Heydon repliea in his ' Defence 
of Judicial Astrology ' (Camb. 1603). 3. To 
Heydon's reply Chamber wrote an answer 
entitled ' A Confutation of Astrological Dse- 
monology in the Devil's School,' which was 
never prmted, and is extant among the Savile 
MSS. at the Bodleian Library. The dedica- 
tion to James I is dated 2 Feb. 1603^. 
4. ' Astronomical Encomium,' Chamber's Ox- 
ford lectures on Ptolemy in Latin and Eng- 
lish, Lond. 1601. Chamber was a friend of 
G^orffe Carleton, bishop of Chichester [q. v.], 
who aefended him from Heydon's attack in 
his ' Madnesse of Astrologes,' 1624. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon, ed. Bliss, i. 744 ; Fasti 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 181, 193 ; Brodrick's Memo- 
ries of Merton College, p. 269 ; Brit. Mas. Gat.] 

o. xj% L. 

CHAMBERLAIN. [See also Chak- 


Chambeblen, and Chahbeblin.] 

LAYNE, GEORGE, D.D. (1676-1634), 
bishop of Ypres, was the second son of George 
Chamberlain, and grandson of Sir Leonard 
Chamberlain or Chamberlayne [q. v.] He 
was bom in 1576 at Ghent, where nis father, 
a catholic exile, had settled. In 1699 he was 
admitted into the English college at Rome, 
where he was ordained priest. He became 
canon, archdeacon, and dean of St. Bavon in 
Ghent, and in 1626 succeeded, on the death of 


Chamberlain". 2 Chamberlain 

i- -A- 

Anthony de Hennin, to the bi8h()]»jric of Ypres* 
About that time his family ce^ided at Shir- 
bum in Oxfordshire. Tl}o*^states having 
fallen to an heiress, she m^^pfi^ John NeviUe, 
lord Abergavenny, asfd. rfar. Chamberlain, 
being the next heir ]p.are**came to England, 
not so much to put yi Lis claim as to resign 
it, in order to con^fitf the title of the heiress, 
and to exclude pief eiders. He governed his 
diocese till his dea);h, on 19 Dec. 1634. He 
composed BOjne poems and religious pieces in 

One John Chamberlain was member for 
Clitheroe in Lancashire in the parliament 
which met on 19 Nov. 1592, and for St. 
Germans in Cornwall in that which as* 
sembled on 24 Oct. 1597 ; but his identity 
with the subject of this notice has not been 

The Birch MSS. in the British Museum 
(Nos. 4173, 4174, 4175) contain coj>ies of 
letters, the originals of which are in the 
Public Record Office, written by Chamberlain 
to his friends from 4 May 1598 to 19 Jan. 


Hist.. . . ^ 

•*• • written by John Chamberlain during the 

ClfiAMBEBLAIN, JOHN (1653-1627)> reign of Queen Elizabeth. Edited from the 

1/tter^writer, was a younger son of Alder- originals by Sarah Williams,' was printed 

• ftiagfl* Richard Chamberlain (sheriff of Lon- for the Camden Society, Lond. 1861, 4to. 

. *dorf in 1561), by his first wife, Anne, daughter A large number of his letters are printed in 

of Robert and Margery Downe. He was < The Court and Times of James 1^' 2 vols.^ 

baptised at St.Olaves, in the Old Jewry, on Lond. 1848, and in Nichols's 'Progresses of 

15 Jan. 1553-4. The father, in his will James I;' and some others will be found in 

(dated 1558), remarks as to his son John : * The Court and Times of Charles I,' 2 vols. 

* Because that he hath been tender, sickly, Lond. 1848. 

and weak, I would have him brought up to _ 

learning, hereafter when that he comes to ^ fiy/^?f^^??*if ^^'"^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

Rome^irs either in the universitv or else *^^^ ^' ^^^' ^^^^ ^' ^ ' hooper's MS. collections 

some years, eiiuer in rne university, or eise ^^^ Athena Cantab. ; Dugdale'sSt. Paul's (1716), 

insomenlace beyond sea . . . ; and I wdl 139; Qent. Mag. 1826. i. 484; Hist. MSS. Comm. 

commend him to my lo^^ng and fnendly 3^ ^ep. 277 f Maty's New Review, v. 130; 

cousin, Thomas Goore, that he have the Notes and Queries. 2nd ser. xi. 266. 206, xii. 19, 

bringing of him up. Accordingly he was 20. 42 ;Ruggle'8 Ignoramus, ed. Hawkins, xxxvi.; 

sent to Cambridge and matriculated as a Sainsbury^s Original Papers relating to Sir P. P. 

pensioner of Trinity College in May 1570, Rubens; Willis's Not. Pari. iii. 130, 138.1 

but he left the university without having T. 0. 
taken a degree. It is obvious from his father s 

will that he inherited means which were CHAMBERLAIN, JOHN HENRY 
sufficient for his support, and he appears to (1831-1888), architect, son of Rev. Joseph 
have led a quiet private life in the society of Chamberlain, minister at Leicester of a con- 
his friends. He was an accomplished scholar gregation of Calvinistic baptists, was bom at 
and an admirable letter-writer — the Horace Leicester on 26 June 1831 and educated at 
Walpole of his day. He enjoyed great inti- schools in that town and in London. At an 
macY with some of the most eminent men earlv age he was articled to Mr. Henry God- 
in England, including Sir Dudley Carleton, dard, an architect of some note in Leicester, 
Sir Henry Savile, fiishop Anmrewes, Sir with whom he remained for several years. 
Tliomas ]3odley. Sir Thomas Edmondes, and On the completion of his articles there was 
Sir Ralph Winwood. His letters show that a brief interval of further study spent in a 
he was sometimes staying with Sir Rowland London office, and then he received the im- 
Lytton at Knebworth, sometimes with Sir pulse which, for the rest of his life, governed 
Iienry Wallop at Farlev, sometimes with his own course in his art. He became an 
Mr. Gent at Ascott (a small parish in Oxford- ardent student of the works of Ruakin, and 
shire), andat various other places. He seldom | was led to visit Venice and other Italian 
went far away from Lonaon, with the ex- ! cities, where he made careful drawings of 
ception of a voyage to Ireland in 1597, and the monuments of early Gothic architect 
of a journey in 1610, in company with Sir ture. Returning to England in 1856 he 
Dudley Carleton on his embassy to Venice, settled at Birmingham, and in the erection 
whence he returned in November 1611. His | of warehouses and residences endeavoured 
name occurs in the commission for the repair ' to effect an improvement in the style of the 
f)f St. Paul's Cathedral, issued 17 Nov. 1620. buildings. 

He was buried at St. Olave^s, in the Old 
Jewry, on 20 March 1626-7. 

Not long after this he entered into a part- 
nership with his lifelong friend, William 



Harris, but this being dissolved, he resumed 
practice on his own account. For a con- 
siderable time his prospects were not favour- 
able. His chief works at this period were the 
Hollings Memorial Column at Leicester, and 
the "Wesleyan Chapel in Essington Street. 
About 1859 he attracted the notice and the 
friendship of George William, fourth baron 
Lyttelton, for whom he executed various 
works. In 1864, while the hopes of any real 
success in his profession were still very re- 
mote, a partnership was, through the inter- 
vention of firiends, arranged between him and 
Mr. William Martin, who had much work in 
hand for the corporation and for other public 
bodies. It was a happy arrangement, for 
whilst Martin was gifted with skill in plan- 
ning and constructing, Chamberlain possessed 
the nigher artistic faculty of design. Among 
the most important buildings with which, in 
conjunction with his partner, he adorned Bir- 
mingham, were the Institute Buildings in 
Paradise Street and the Free Libraries in Ed- 
mund Street. In the buildings erected for the 
waterwork department, both in Birmingham 
and at the reservoirs at Whitacre, he proved 
how beauty and utility may be combined. In 
the line of business edifices which distinguish 
Corporation Street, Birmingham, he set an 
example of an improvement in street archi- 
tecture which has since been extensively imi- 
tated. The further mention of various private 
residences, several churches, and thirty board 
schools will not exhaust the list of his under- . 
takings. He likewise possessed great skill in 
designing stained glass, metal-work in iron 
and brass, and domestic furniture. One great 
event of his life was his appointment on the 
council of the Midland Institute in January 
1867. In the following year he consented to 
become honorary secretary to the council, and 
this office he held, without interruption, to 
the day of his death. When he undertook 
the management of the institute there were 
only a few hundred students, but through 
his incessant labour in developing the classes 
the number was advanced to four thousand. 
In regard to the school of art his work was 
not less eminent ; being appointed chairman 
in February 1874, the school, imder his fos- 
tering care, rapidly advanced in magnitude 
and mfluence. llie Society of Artists was 
another organisation which engaged his spe- 
cial attention ; he was elected a member in 
March 1861 and was appointed professor of 
architecture, and in 1879 became vice-presi- 
dent. For some years, while the arts de- 
partment of the Queen's College was in ex- 
istence, he was professor of architecture there ; 
he was one of the foimders and one of the 
honorary- secretaries of the Shakespeare Me- 

morial Library; for some years he sat on 
the committee of the old library in Union 
Street ; he was an original member of the 
Shakespeare Club; lie was chosen by Mr, 
Buskin one of the trustees of the St. George's 
Guild ; and finally, in 1880, he was nominated 
one of the justices of the borough. On 22 Oct. 
1883 he delivered a lecture on exotic art at 
the Birmingham and Midland Institute, and 
died very suddenly of heart disease later in 
the day. He was buried in the Birmingham 
cemetery on 27 Oct. He married in 1869 a 
daughter of Rev. George Abrahams. 

[The Architect, 27 Oct., 3 and 10 Nov. 1883 ; 
Times, 23, 24, and 29 Oct. 1883.] G. C. B. 

LAYNE, Sib LEONARD {d, 166n, go- 
vernor of Guernsey, was son of Sir Eaward 
Chamberlayne fcj. v.] of Shirbum Castle, Ox- 
fordshire, by Cicely, daughter of Sir John 
Vemey, knt. Care must be taken in distin- 
guishing this Leonard Chamberlain or Cham- 
berlayne from a contemporary of the same 
name, the son of another Sir Ldward Cham- 
berlayne of Gedding in Sufiblk [see imder 
Chambbrlaynb, Sib Edward, 1484 P-1543]. 
Leonard succeeded his father about 1543 as 
keeper of Woodstock Park. In Easter term 
(1642), 33 Henry VIII, there were proceedings 
in the exchequer with respect to his title to the 
manor of Barton St. John in Oxfordshire ; and 
in the same year he obtained from the crown 
a grant of Hampton Poyle in that county 
and other lands. In 34 Henry VIII the king 
panted to him and Richard Andrews land in 
aivers counties, including abbey lands and 
other ecclesiastical property. lie was es- 
cheator of the counties of Oxfordshire and 
Berkshire in 36 Henrv VIII, and sheriff of 
those counties in 38 Henry VIII. At the 
funeral of Henry VIII he bore the banner 
of the king and Queen Catherine. His name 
occurs in a special commission of oyer and 
terminer for the county of Oxford that bears 
date 2 Dec. 1648. On Sunday, 6 Oct. 1649, 
the members of the privy council who had 
combined against the protector Somerset sent 
for Sir John Markham, the lieutenant of the 
Tower, and ' required him to suffer certain 
others to enter for the good keeping thereof 1o 
his majestie*s use ; whereunto the said lieu- 
tenant according, Sir Edmimd Peckham, 
knight, and Leonard Chamberlain, esquire, 
with their servants, were commanded to enter 
into the Tower, as associates to the said lieu- 
tenant, for the better presidy and guard of the 
same' (Literary Bemaiiis of Edward VI, ed. 
Nichols, ii. 233). Such is the language of the 
Privy Council Book. It scarcely warrants the 
statement made by Holinshed (C/ironicles, iii. 



Chamberlain 4 Chamberlain 

1057) and others that Sir John Markham was ■ of that island till his own decease in 1570, was 
removed from the lieutenancy of the Tower, I his eldest son. His second son, George Cham- 
and Chamberlain appointed in his stead. \ berlain, was the father of George Chamberlain 
Chamberlain was in the commission for [ or Chamberlayne, bishop of Ypres [q. v.]. 

«hire and Berkshire. On 22 July 1553 the Cat. of Chancery Proceedingg. Eliz. ii. 172; 
nrivy council wrote to Sir John Williams, Guide to Arehaeological Antiquities in neigh- 
Leonard Chamberlain, and others of the bourhood of Oxford, 262; Haynes's State Papers, 
gentry of Oxfordshire, directing them to dis- 169, 167; Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. 410; 
miss the soldiers and repair to Queen Mary; Cal. of State Papcm, Dom. (1547-80), 93, 126 ; 
and on 12 Aug. following the council issued Lipscomb's Bucks, i. 577 ; Lysons's Bedford- 
a warrant for delivery of 2,000/. to him and »*i»'«. 76 ; Lysons's EnTirons, ii. 665, iii. 310 ; 
Sir John Williams to be employed about Machyn's Diary, xix. 136, 271, 334; Mem. 
her highnesses affairs. He was knighted by Sf ^^V,^".^'"^** » Reports of Deputy-keeper of 
Queen xMary at Westminster on 2 Oct. 1558, ^^""^ Tn -' TJ*' '''' ^^-Vl^'t. \?«^.' 

the day Jter her coronation, and he sat ?o1^ ^"iJ^^w^^^^^ 

4U« a^-iv^wv««i, ;« 4^1.^ »»«i:»».l«,f x^i,:^k «« *"3J Strypes Works; Wilhss Notitia Parlia- 

*^ ?^^ .^\?i, f .^ .^^^ mentaria,iii. (2). 27, 36, 43; Wood's Athen» 

sembled on tlie 5th of t^e same month. It Oxon. (Bliss), i. 686 ; Wotton's Baronetage, iii. 

IS probable that he was the gentleman porter 621.] TO. 
of the Tower who receiv^ the prisoners 

taken in Sir Thomas Wyatt's rebellion, one CHAMBERLAIN, ROBERT (A. 1640- 

of whom (Thomas Knevit) he ' toke by the 1660), poet, bom in 1607, son of Robert 

collar very roughlie' (Chronicle of Queen Chamberlain of Standish, Lancashire, was 

Jane, ed. Nichols, 52, 61). Queen Mary in clerk to Peter Ball, solicitor-general to Hen- 

the first year of her reign gpranted him the rietta Maria. Ball, apparently impressed 

site of the priory of Dunstable, and other with Chamberlain's literary promise, sent 

lands in Bedfordshire. He was constituted him to study at Exeter College in 1637, 

goyemor of Guernsey in 1553, and returned when he was thirty years old. At Oxford 

for the county of Oxford to the parliaments Chamberlain was popular with the uniyersity 

which met on 2 April and 12 Noy. 1554. wit«, and issued seyeral yolumes while in 

Duringhisgoyemmentofthe island of Ouem- residence. He neyer took a degree. The 

6ey he greatly strengthened and improyed the date of his death is not known. His literary 

works at Castle Comet. Heylyn, describing work consists of original apophthegms, a 

that castle as it existed in 1629, obsenres : comedy, some short poems, and collections of 

* By Sir Leonard Chamberlaine, goyemor ancient jokes. He was the intimate friend 

here in the time of Queen Mary, and by Sir of Thomas Rawlins and Thomas Nabbes, and 

Thomas Leighton, his successour in the reign was much attached to Peter Ball and his 

of Elizabeth, it was improyed to that majesty son William fq. y.] His works are : 1 . ' Noc- 

and beauty that now it hath been excel- tumall Lucubrations : or Meditations Diyine 

lently fortified according to the modeme art and Morall. Whereunto are added epigrams 

of war, and furnished with almost an hun- and epitaphs, written byRob. Chamberlain,' 

dred piece of ordnance, whereof about sixty London, 1638, 16mo. The first part, dedi- 

Are of brasse ' (Tx7PPEb, Chronicles of Castle cated to * Peter Balle, esquire,' consists of 

Comet, ed. 1851, pp. 27-30, 37). Chamber- apophthe^s, pointodly expressed ; the se- 

lain was present at the trials of Dr. Rowland cond, dedicated to Ball s son William, is pre- 

Taylor and John Bradford for heresy in ceded by a rough sonnet by Thomas Nabbes, 

January 1554-5 ; and he appears to haye and includes a number of short poems, many 

taken a somewhat actiye part against Brad- of them inscribed with the names of yarious 

ford (FoxB, Acts and Monuments, ed. Town- members of the Ball family and of other 

send, yii. 162). He died in Guernsey about personal friends. Another edition appeared 

August 1561 ; the place of burial, which did in 1652, * printed by T. F. for the use and 

not take place till 30 Oct., does not appear benefit ofAndrewPennycuyke, gent.' Penny- 

{'Maohtn, Diary, 271). cuyke was a well-known actor of the day. 

He had four wiyes ; one of them was A unique copy of this edition is in the Huth 

Dorothy, fourth daughter of John Newdi- Library. 2. 'The Swaggering Damsell, a 

gate, king's serjeant-at-law. Francis Cham- comedy, written by R. C.,' London, 1640. 

berlain, who in 1555 was joined with him in The dialogue is spirited, but the plot is coarse, 

the goyemment of Guernsey, and who, after A little blank yerse is interspersed with the 

Sir Leonard's death, continued sole goyemor prosei in which the greater part is written. 



There is no positive evidence that it was 
acted, although clearly written for the stage 
(Gekbbt, X. 116). 3. * Jocabella, or a Cabinet 
of Conceits. Whereunto are added epigrams 
and other poems, by R. C./ London, 1640, 
dedicated to John Wild. The ' merry con- 
ceits ' — 439 in number — are of the usual 
character. One (391) relates a poor joke in 
Shakespeare's 'Works;' another is headed 
'On mr. Nabbes, his Comedie called the 
Bride ; ' and a third concerns ' the Swines- 

Mr.W. C. Hazlitt attributes to Chamberlain 
three other anonymous collections of jests : 
* The Booke of Bvlls, Baited with two cen- 
turies of Bold Jests and Nimble Lies, . . . 
collected by A. S., gent.,' London, 1636 ; ' A 
New Booke of Mistakes, or Bulls with Tales 
and Buls without Tales,' London, 1637 ; and 
'Conceits, Clinches, Flashes, and Whimzies,' 
London, 1639. These books were all pub- 
lished by Chamberlain's own publisher, Daniel 
Frere, of Little Britain. > The * Booke of 
Bulls ' contains commendatory lines signed 
'R. C.,gent.,' i.e. probably Chamberlain him- 
self^ and it is on the whole unlikely that 
Chamberlain was the compiler. Of the second 
book the same may be said. But the third 
book, the ' Conceits, which has been frequently 
attributed to John Taylor, the Water-poet, 
contains commendatx)ry lines from the pen of 
Chamberlain's friend, Rawlins, and resembles 
the ' Jocabella ' in sufficiently numerous points 
to support the conclusion that it was a first 
edition of Chamberlain's acknowledged jest- 
book. It was reprinted by Mr. J. O. Halliwell- 
PhiUippe in 1860, and by Mr. W. C. Hazlitt 
in his 'Old English Jest Books' (iii.) in 
1864. In the Luttrell Collection of Broad- 
sides at the British Museum is a sheet of 
verse justifying the restoration of the esta- 
bUshed clergy, signed ' Rob. Chamberlaine ' 
and entitled ' Balaam's Asse Cudgeld, or the 
Cry of Town and Country against Scan- 
dalous and Seditious Scriblers,' London, 
1661. A sheet of verse (by William Cook) 
written in reply, was entitled 'A Dose for 
Chamberlain and a Pill for the Doctor,' 

Chamberlain contributed commendatory 
verses to Nabbes's * Spring's Glory,' 1638 ; to 
Rawlins's tragedy of ' The Rebellion,' 1640; 
to Tatham's * Fancies Theatre,* 1640 ; and to 
Leonard Blunt's * Asse upon Asse,* 1661. 
He has been erroneously credited by Wood 
and others with the authorship of Phineas 
Fletcher's « Sicelides, a Pastoral,' 1633. 

[Wood's Athenffi Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 675; 
Corser's CoUectaneH (Chetbam See.); Brit. Mus. 
Cat.; Huth Library Cat.; W. C. Huzlitt's 
Handbook to English Literature.] S. L. L. 

arithmetician, living in London, in Northum- 
berland Alley, Fenchurch Street, on 22 Oct. 
1678, was then an 'accomptant and prac- 
titioner of the mathematicks.' He may nave 
been the Robert Chamberlain who entered the 
Merchant Taylors' School on 13 June 1632 
(Robinson, Heff, of Mer. Taylors' School, i. 
170). Having been in business in Virginia 
and at home, ne published in 1679 * The Ao- 
comptant's Guide, or Merchant's Book-keeper^ 
. . . with Tables for the reducing of Flemish 
Ells into English, and English into Flemish^ 
. . . Also . . . Tables of Exchange . . . with 
a Journal or Ledger,' &c. In 1679 he also 
published ' A Plaine and Easie Explanation 
of the most Useful and Necessary Art of 
Arithmetick in Whole Numbers and Frac- 
tions . . . whereunto are added Rules and 
Tables of Interest, Rebate, Purchases, Gaging 
of Cask, and Extraction of the Square and 
Cube Roots. Composed by Robert Cham- 
berlain, Accomptant and Practitioner in the 
Mathematicks ; ' also called ' Chamberlain's 
Arithmetick.* His * effigies ' was engraved by 
Binneman to appear as frontispiece to his 
books, and an anonymous admirer wrote six 
lines of verse for it, given by Granger {Biog. 
Hist, iv. 102). Bromley, in his ' Catalogue 
of Portraits ' (p. 188), appears to record tnat 
Chamberlain died in 1696. 

[Chamberlain's Accomptant's Guide, and his 
Arithmetick, their Dedications, addresses to the 
Header, Frontispieces, and Title-pages ; Bromley's 
Cat. of Portraits, p. 188.] J. H. 

ceramist, is stated to have been the first ap- 
prentice of the original Worcester Porcelain 
Company, founded by Dr. Wall in 1761. In 
1776 Dr. Wall died, and in 1783 this fac- 
tory, after various changes of ownership, 
was bought by Mr. T. Flight. Chamberlam 
thereupon severed his connection with the 
firm, and in 1786, with his son Humphrey, 
sta.rted business on his own account, under 
the style of Chamberlain & Son. The two 
factones remained in rivalry until 1840, when 
they were amalgamated, and a joint-stock 
company formed to carry them on. With 
regard to Humphrey Chamberlain, here said 
to have been the son of Robert Chamberlain, 
there is some confusion. He is stated by Mr. 
Chafiers to have been the brother. Mr. Binns 
does not make the matter clearer. Hum- 
phrey Chamberlain, sen., died in 1841, being 
then seventy-nine years old. He therefore 
was born in 1762. Robert Chamberlain was 
apprenticed in 1751, and must consequently 
have been at least twenty years older than 
Humphrey. The fact that the firm waa 



known from the iirst as Chamberlain & Son 
(v. Green, Hist, of Worcester, 1796, ii. 22) 
helps to establish the point that Humphrey 
senior was Robert's son. In 1798, probably, 
Kobert. Chamberlain died ; for in that year we 
find Humphrey in partnership with Robert 
Chamberlain, jun. A second Humphrey 
Chamberlain (1791-1824), slightly connected 
with this firm, was a very talented painter in 
porcelain, and is also stated to have been the 
son of Robert Chamberlain, sen. But this 
is another confusion. Probably the second 
Humphrey was the grandson of the firm's 
founder, the son either of the elder Humphrey 
or the younger Robert. He seems not to have 
had any interest in the business. Humphrey 
Chamberlain, sen., retired in 1828, and the 
firm of Chamberlain & Co. was represented 
from that date till 1840 by Walter Chamber- 
lain and T. Lilly. 

[Binns's Century of Pottery in the City of 
Worcester, 2Dd edit. 1877 ; Jcwitt's Ceramic Art 
in Great Britain, 1878; Chaffers's Marks and 
Monograms upon Pottery and Porcelain, 1866.] 

E. R. 

LAYNE, THOMAS (rf. 1626), judge, was 
son of William Chamberlain, brother to Sir 
Thomas Chamberlayne, English envoy to the 
Low Countries. He was admitted a member of 
Gray's Inn in 1577, called to the bar 25 Jan. 
1585, and appointed reader to his inn in the 
autumn of 1607. In spite of the patronage of 
Lord-chancellor Ellesmere, he rose slowly at 
the bar, and did not obtain the degree of Ser- 
jeant until Michaelmas term 1614. Shortly 
afterwards he was knighted and made a justice 
in the counties of Anglesea, Carnarvon, and 
Merioneth during the royal pleasure (19 June 
1615). Hisjurisdiction was extended (28April 
1616) to Flint, Denbigh, and Montgomerv- 
shire, the office being made tenable for liie, 
and he was appointea chief justice of Chester. 
Here he continued till 1620, one of his last 
acts being (25 Aug. 1619) to cause the under- 
sherifi* to arrest and convey to the Marshalsea 
one John Edwards, a recusant, in spite of 
his holding the king's pardon. He did not, 
however, thereby lose favour, for in June 
1620 he was nominated to succeed Mr. Jus- 
tice Croke in the king's bench, being sworn 
in on 14 Oct., and on 3 Oct. 1621 received, 
with Sir R. Hutton, Sir F. Bamam, and Mr. 
Crewe, a prant of the fine of 40,000/. which 
had been imposed by parliament on Viscount 
St. Albans. That he was a rich man appears 
also from the fact that on his marriage (Fe- 
bruary 1022) to his second wife, Ladjr Berke- 
ley, only daughter of Lord-chamberlam Huns- 
don, he made her a jointure of 1,000/. a year 
and covenanted to leave her 10,000/. in money 

(Cham beblain's Letters), He appears, per- 
haps extra-judicially, to have acted as arbi- 
trator between a Mr.Cartwright and Mr. May- 
nett in 1623 and 1624, and several letters on 
the subject between him and Secretary Con- 
way are extant. Towards the end of 1624 
Sir James Whitelocke, serieant and chief jus- 
tice of Chester, proving wholly unable to act 
amicably with tne Lord President of Wales, 
Chamberlain returned to Chester as chief 
justice (Chamberlain to Carleton, 23 Oct. 
1624), and there being some doubt as to the 
sufficiency of the mere appointment to the 
office, the king writes, 2 Nov., to the presi- 
dent and council of Wales, directing them 
to admit and swear in Chamberlain as a 
member of the council. In this office he re- 
mained till his death. He was, however, 
summoned to Westminster Hall on the acces- 
sion of Charles I, and is styled, in the com- 
mission of 12 May 1625, justice of the com- 
mon pleas as well as chief justice of Chester, 
and in Easter term in the first year of Charles 
the case of Lord Sheffield v. RadclifTe was 
argued before him and other judges in the 
exchequer chamber. As this cause, how- 
ever, lasted two years, it may be that Cham- 
berlain, before quitting the king's bench, had 
heard a portion of the arguments. He died 
on 17 Sept. 1625. His iu-st wife was Eliza- 
beth , daughter of Sir George Fermor of Easton 
Nestor in Northamptonshire, and widow of 
Sir William Staffijrd of Blatherwick in the 
same county. His eldest son, Thomas Cham- 
berlain or Chamberlayne of Wickham, Ox- 
fordshire, took the royalist side in 1642, and 
was made a baronet; the title became extinct 
in 1776. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges; Gray's Inn 
Books ; Egerton MS. 468 ; Sir W. Jones's Rep. 
70; Croke's Jac, 690; Godbolt's Rep., 300; 
Rymer. xviii. 67 ; Wotton's Baronetage, 2, 376 
(ed. 1741); Greens Domestic State Papers, 
1616-24.] J. A. H. 


giinter, bom in London, was a student of the 
oyal Academy, and afterwards a pupil of 
John Opie, R.A. He practised as a portrait 
painter, and is stated to liave had much talent. 
His chief contributions to the Roval Aca- 
demy seem, however, to have been paintings 
of animals. In 1794 and the following year 
he exhibited two subject pieces, * A Fortune- 
teller * and * An Old Man Reading.' He was 
an infrequent exhibitor, and appeared in 1802 
for the last time with the * Portrait of a New- 
foundland Dog.* He died at Hull 12 July 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Eng. School ; Graves's 
Diet, of Artists.] E. R. 

Chamberlaine 7 Chamberlayne 

OHAMBERLAINE, JOHN (1746- age when his mother died in 1525 (/ny. ^o#e 

18I2)y antiquary, sacceeded Richard Dalton mortemy 16 Hen. VHI, No. 167). Henry VII 

in February 1791 as keeper of the king's made him keeper of Woodstock Park on 

drawinffB and medals. He deserves recogni- 10 Sept. 1508 {Pat. Roll, 24 Hen. VII, 

tion as naTing carried out his predecessor's p. 1, m. 11), and that office was, on 16 April 

proposals and published : 1. ' Imitations of 1532, renewed to him and his son Leonard 

Original Drawmgs, bjr Hans Holbein, in the in survivorship (Privy Seal, 23 Hen. VIH). 

Collection of His Majesty, for the Portraits In the summer of 1512 he led thirty men in 

of Illustrious Persons of the Court of SirWilliam Sandys's company in the fruitless 

Henry VUl. With Biographical Tracts,' expedition led by Thomas, marquis of Dorset, 

2 vols. fol. London, 1792-1800 (another edi- to Biscay, to aid Eling Ferdinand's invasion 

tion, with the engraviujg^ reduced, 4to,Lon- of France. In the following spring Lord 

don, I8I2). 2. ' Original Designs of the Edmund Howard carried on the war with 

most celebrated masters of Bolognese, Ro- France by sea until killed in a fight off 

^nan, Florentine, and Venetian Schools ; Brest on 25 April, and Chamberlayne was 

•comprising some of the Works of L. da captain of the Henry Totehill, 80 tons, 

Vinci, the Caracci, C. Lorrain, Raphael, 62 men, in Howard's fleet. In May of that 

Michael Anselo, the Poussins, and others in year, when Henry VIII in person invaded 

his Majesty^ Collection,' 2 parts, fol. Lon- France, Chamberlayne went in the retinue of 

^on, 1812 (this is a reissue, with additions, Charles Brandon, lord Lisle, who led the van- 

•of a work published in 1796-7). The plates guard of the English army. He was sheriff of 

for these fine publications were executed, Oxfordshire and Berkshire in 1517-18. In 

with few exceptions, by Bartolozzi and his 1520 he was at the Field of the Cloth of Gold 

pupil Tomkins. The letterpress accompany- and the subsequent meeting of Henry VIH 

ing the Holbein series was written with and the Emperor Charles V at Gravelines. 

scrupulous care by Edmund Lodge. Cham- He accompanied Thomas, earl of Surrey's ex- 

berlaine died at Paddington Green on 12 Jan. pedition, or rather raid, into Picardy in the 

1812 (pent, Mag, Ixxxii. i. 92). He had war of 1522. In the spring of 1526 he and 

been admitted to the Society of Antiquaries George Carew of MohunsOttery were refugees 

on 7 June 1792, and was for some years a in France, but why they fled the realm does not 

member of the Society of Arts. appear. He sat as a burgess for Wallingford 

[European Mag. Ixl 78 ; Lowndes's Biblio- in the parliament of 1529. When Catherine 

grapher's Manual (ed. Bohn), i. 405; Reuss's of Arragon after her divorce in 1533 was kept 

Alpnabetical Register of Living' Anthers, ii. virtually as a prisoner at Kimbolton, he 

189 ; Iionsides's Hist, of Twickenham (Nichols's seems to have h^d some office of authority 

BibL Topog. Brit. vol. x. No. 6), p. 94.] over her household. He was at Kimbolton 

G. Or, when Catherine died there in January 1536. 

OHAMBERLANE, ROBERT, D.D. {d, ?® ^^f *^^"^ t^'v^^ ^' -^^'l "^/^l' 

1638), Franciscan fria^, was a ^lative of daughter of Sir John Verney, knight, he left 

Vhsdr. He was at first a secular doctor of % «^^' Leonard afterwards governor of the 

^vinity at Sakmanca, and afterwards a ^ower and of Guernsey [see Chamberlain 

Franciscan friar and lecturer in the Lnsh or CaAMBERLATNE, Sir Leonard]. A cer- 

-college at Louvain. Two manuscript treatises tarn Sir Edward (^amber ayne is named as 

by Sn, 'De Scientia Dei ' and 'l)e futuris under-almoner to Henry VQl in 1516 {Cat, 

CWtin^ntibus,' were formerly nreserved in ^/ 5^' VIII n. App. 58), but this was 

the library of that college. He died on P®™P5,? P^^f^n x. ^ ^ qi,- v. 

11 June 1638 Edward Chamberlayne of Shirbum is 

--_,,..'., ... --. not to be confounded with his contemporary 

n![?^i^^^.^P*?_^?._^7^^°^?._^^^ Sir Edward Chamberlayne of Ged(ftng in 

Sir Robert 

who was 

cap. 28, 

CHAMBERLAYNE, Sir EDWARD and executed on 12 March 1491 for high 

•^1484 P-1543 ?), of Shirbum Castle in Ox- treason. This Edward Chamberlayne in 1622 

fordshire, came of a family which claimed succeeded his brother. Sir Francis Chamber- 

•descent firom the counts of Tancarville, layne, in the possessions of their mother, 

liereditary chamberlains to the dukes of 
Normandy and early Norman kings of Eng- 
land. Eldest son of Richard Chamberlayne 
of Shirbum, who died on 20 Aug. 1497, and 
iSibiUa Fowler, he was over forty years of 

Elizabeth Fitz-Kaaf, which had escaped the 
confiscation consequent upon Sir Robert's 
attainder. He was then Edward Chamber- 
layne, * esquire,* and over fifty-two years of 
age (Jnq, p. m. 14 Hen. VHI, No. 125). On 




11 March 1531 he obtained a reversal of his 
father's attainder, but without restitution of 
property. He died on 15 July 1541, and 
was buried at Bumham Broome in Norfolk. 
By his wife, Jane Starkev, he left four sons 
and a daughter. The third son, Leonard, 
died on 20 Aug. 1561 {Inq, p, m. 4 Eliz. 
No. 8), the same year and month as Sir 
J^Mmaid Chamberlayne of Shirbum. 

[Calendar of Henry VIII ; State Papers 
Henry VIII (the Chamberlain referred to in 
Tol. ix. pp. 366, 368-9, &c., although indexed as 
8ir Edward, seems to be Thomas Chamberlain) ; 
I'atent Rolls and InquiHitions post mortem; 
Wills of Sir Edward Chamberlayne of Gedding 
and Sir Leonard Chaml)erlayne of Shirbum; 
Ktrype 8 Memorials, i. i. 37 1 ; Blomefield's Norfolk ; 
Newoourt's Repert. ii. 466 ; Heralds' Visitations 
of Norfolk and Suifolk among Harleian MSS. ; 
Visitation of Oxford in 1634, Harl. MS. 1667, 
f. 29 6 ; Berry's County Genealogies, Hants, 
p. 337 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. (od. Bliss), iv. 
789 ; Chamljerlayne's Notitis, pt. ii. iii. cap. 3; 
Chronicle of Calais; Wriothesley's Chronicle, 
i. 2.] R. H. B. 

1703), author of ' The Present State of Eng- 
land,' grandson of Sir Thomas Chamberlayne, 
knight, at one time English ambassador in 
the Low Countries, and son of Thomas Cham- 
lierlayne, was bom at Odington, Gloucester- , 
shire, on 18 Dec. 1616. lie was first edu- 
cated at Gloucester, entered St. Edmund i 
llall, Oxford, at Michaelmas 1634, proceeded 
B.A. on 20 April 1638, and M.A. 6 March \ 
1(U1. During a part of 1641 he held the. 
office of rhetoric reader at Oxford, and as soon 
as the civil war broke out he began along con- 
tinental tour, visiting France, Spain, Italy, 
Hungary, Bohemia, Sweden^ ana the Low 
Countries. At the Ilestoration he returned 
to England, in 1669 became secretary to 
(yharles Howard, earl of Carlisle, and went 
to Stockholm to invest the king of Sweden 
with the order of the Garter. He was granted 
the degrees of LL.D. at Cambridge (January 
1670-1) and of D.C.L. at Oxford (22 June 
1672). About 1679 he became tutor to 
C^harles 11*8 illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy, 
duke of Grafton, and he was subsequently 
English tutor to Prince George of Denmark. 
He was one of the original members of the 
Koyal Society. In later life he lived at 
(yhelsea, and' he died there in May 1703 
( Lttttbell, v. 802). He was buried (27 May) 
in a vault in Chelsea churchyard. His friend 
Walter Harris wrote a long Latin epitaph, 
where it was stated that, with a view to 
benefiting iK)8terity, Chamberlayne had had 
some books of his own composition enclosed 
ill wax and buried with him. He married in 

1 658 Susannah, daughter of Richard Clifford^ 
by whom he had nine children. John Gham- 
berlayne (1666-1723^ [q. y.] was a younger 
son. Chamberlayne^ wife died on 17 Dec 
1703, and was buried beside her husband. 

Chamberlayne wrote and translated a num- 
ber of historical tracts, but his beetr-known 
work is a duodecimo handbook to the social 
and political condition of England, with liata 
of public officers and statistics, entitled ' An- 
gliseNotitisB, or the Present State of England.' 
The publication was an obvious adaptation of 
' L'Estat Nouveau de la France ' (Paris, 1661). 
The first edition appeared anonymously in 
1669 (not in 1667, as stated by Lowndee)^ 
and was dedicated to the Earl of Garliale. 
Two other editions, with the author's name, 
were issued later in the same year. With 
the fifth edition of 1671 is bouna up the ^nt 
edition of a second part, containing addi- 
tional information ; in the sixth edition of 
1673 a portrait of Charles U, by Faithome^ 
makes its first appearance ; in the ninth edi- 
tion of 1676 is a new dedication to the Earl 
of Danby ; with the eighteenth edition of 
1694 is bound up a new third part, first is- 
sued separately in 1683. Heame tells na- 
that Andrew Allam [q. v.] had contributed 
largely to the sixteentn edition (1689), and 
that his information was inserted by Cham- 
berlayne without acknowledgment in all 
later issues (Heabne, Collectums, Oxford 
Hist. Soc., i. 130). Chamberlayne issued 
the twentieth edition in 1702, and after hia 
death his son John continued to edit the* 
publication. The twenty-first edition (1708) 
Dears the new title ' Magnss BritannisB No- 
titia, or the Present State of Great Britain/ 
John Chamberlayne died after the issue of 
the twenty-second edition in 1723, but four- 
teen editions were subsequently issued by 
the booksellers, the last being the thirty-sixtn 
and bearing the date 1756. The popular 
handbook had its plagiarist in one Guy Miege, 
who brought out ' The New State of Eng- 
land ' in 1691, and although both Chamber- 
laynes called repeated attention to Miege'a 
theft, Miege continued his handbook till 1748. 
A French translation of Cliamberlayne*6 se- 
cond edition appeared in 1669. 

Chamberlayne's other books were : 1. 'The- 
Present War* Paralleled, or a Brief Relation 
of the Five Years* Civil Wars of Henry III^ 
King of England,' London, 1647. 2. * Eng- 
land's Wante,' London, 1667. 8. ' The Con- 
verted Presbyterian, or the Church of Eng- 
land Justified in Some Practices,' London,. 
1668. 4. ' An Academy or College wherein 
voung Ladies and Gentlemen may at a very 
Moderate Expence be Educated in the True 
Protestant lleligion and in all Virtuous 



Qualities/ London, 1671. 6. * A Dialogrue 
between an Englishman and a Dutchman 
concerning the late Dutch War/ London, 
1672. Chamberlayne published in 1653 a 
Tolume of translations rrom Italian, Spanish, 
and Portuguese, containing: 1. 'Rise and 
Fall of Count Olivarez/ 2. ' The Unparal- 
leled Imposture of Mich, di Molina, an. 1641.' 
3. < The Right of the present King of Por- 
tugal, Don John the Fourth.' 

[Notes and Qaeries, 6th ser. xii. 116, 137, 189, 
7th ser. i. 123, 302, 462, ii. 123 ; Biog. Brit. 
(Kippis); Wood's AthoDffi Ozon. iv. 789 ; Faulk- 
ner's History of Chelsea.] S. L. L. 

16d9), third baronet, poet, was the second 
son of Thomas Chamberlayne of Wickham, 
Oxfordshire, who was created a baronet in 
consideration of his royalist sympathies by 
Charles 1, 4 Feb. 1642-3, and died, while high 
sheriff of Oxfordshire, 6 Oct. 1648 (Dugdalb, 
IHary, p. 55 ; Datbkpokt, High Sheriffs of 
OxfordBhire, p. 47). His grandfather was 
Thomas Chamoerlayne or Chamberlain fq. y.], 
judge in the court of king's bench. On the 
death, without male issue, of his elder brother, 
Sir Tbomas, Chamberlayne succeeded late 
in life to the baronetcy. He died in October 
1609. By bis wife, Margaret Ooodwin, he 
bad three sons (James, Henry, and Thomas) 
and a daughter. James, the heir and fourth 
baronet, was appointed lieutenant-colonel of 
the horse guards blue in December 1750, and 
died in December 1767. 

Sir James was the author of two yolumes 
of sacred yerse, now rarely met with : 1. ' A 
Sacred Poem,' in rhyming couplets, detailing 
the life of Jesus Christ, and a paraphrase of 
eighteen of Dayid^s psalms, London, 1680 ; 
and 2. ' Manuductio ad Ccelum, in two i)arts, 
I. Of Joy and Sadness . . . II. Of Patience 
. . .' London, 1681, a yerse translation of 
Cardinal Bona's ' Manuductio ad Coelum, me- 
dullam continens sanctorum et yeterum phi- 
losophorum.' Sir R. L'Estrange brought out 
anotner translation of the same work in 1672, 
which became highly popular. 

[Wotton's Baronetage, ed. Kimber and John- 
son, i. 494 ; Corser's Collectanea Aoglo-Poetica, 
iii. 266-70 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. s. w. * Chamber- 
lain ' and * Chamberlayne.'] S. L. L. 

1723), miscellaneous writer, a younger son of 
Edwsjrd Chamberlayne [q. v.]> ^^^ hom about 
1666, probably in or near London. In 1685 
he publidied ' The Manner of making Coffee, 
Tea, and Chocolate as it is used m most 
parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, 
wiUi their Yertues. Neuly done out of 

French and Spanish.' This amusing tract 
became very widely popular. The same year 
he entered as a commoner Trinity College, 
Oxford, and from here, 24 June 1686, he 
dates his translation of *A Treasure of Health 
by Castor Durante Da Oualdo, Physician and 
Citizen of Rome.' Leaving Oxford without 
a dM;ree, he proceeded to Leyden, where on 
12 May 1688 ne entered himself as a student 
(Peacock, Index of Leuden Students^ 1883, 
p. 19). Here, it would seem, he chiefly 
studied modem languages (Sloane MS. 4040, 
f. 104), of which, accoraing to contemporary 
report, he knew sixteen. On his return he 
filled various offices about the court. He 
was successively gentleman waiter to Prince 
George of Denmark, gentleman of the Privy 
Chamber first to Queen Anne and then to 
King George I. He was also secretary to 
Queen Anne's Bounty Commission, ana on 
the commission of the peace for Middlesex. 
In 1702 Chamberlayne was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society. He contributed three 
papers to its * Transactions :' 1. ' A Relation 
of the Effects of a Storm of Thunder and 
Lightning at Sampford Courtney in Devon- 
shire on 7 Oct. 1711' (No. 336, p. 528). 
2. ' Remarks on the Plague at Copenhagen 
in the year 1711 ' (No. 337, p. 279). 3. * An 
Account of the Sunk Island in Humber ' 
(No. 361, p. 1014). In the 'Sloane MS.' 
there are a number of letters from Chamber- 
layne on the affairs of the society. None of 
these, however, are of special importance. 
Chamberlayne was also a member of the 
Society for the Propagation of Christian 
Knowledge. He translated for this body 
Osterwald's 'Arguments of the Book and 
Chapters of the Old and New Testament,' 
3 vols. 1716 ; new ed. 3 vols. 1833. 

Chamberlayne's most important work was 
his translation of Brandt's * History of the 
Reformation in the Low Countries,' 4 vols. 
1720-3. In the preface to a part of this 
published in 1719 he relates that Fagel as- 
sured Bishop Burnet * that it was worth his 
while to learn Dutch, only for the pleasure 
of reading Brandt's "History of the Re- 
formation." ' Chamberlayne also continued 
his father's 'Present State of England' after 
his death in 1703, and issued five editions. 
The son's name still appeared on editions that 
were published after his own death (as late 
as 1756). He also published Puffendorfs 
* History of Popedom, containing the Rise, 
Progress, and Decay thereof,' 1691 ; * Oratio 
Dominica in diversas omnium fere gentium 
linguas versa,' Amstelsedami, 1715; Nieu- 
wertyl's ' Religious Philosopher, or the right 
Use of contemplating the Works of the 
Creator,' 3 vols. 1718 ; Fontenelle's * Lives of 

Chamberlayne lo Chamberlen 

the French Philosophers/ 1721 ; Saurin's | in its beauties 'Pharonnida' bean oonaider* 
* Diaeertations, Historical, Critical, Theolo^- able resemblance to ' Endymion.' Southej 

warmly admired the poem, and in a note to 
his * Vision of the Maid of Orleans ' (jPmn»if| 
1-vol. ed. 1850, p. 79) speaks of Ghamber- 

cal, and Moral, of the most Memorable 
ETents of the Old and New Testaments,' 
1723. Chamberlayne died at his house in 

Petty-France (^now York Street), Westmin- I layne as * a poet to whom I am indebted for 
st«r/2 Not. 1723, and on the 6th was in- many hours of delight.' A romance founded 
Usrrred in the family burying-ground at Chel- on the poem was published in 1688, under 
sea, where he had a re^^fdence, and where on | the title of * Eromena, or the Noble Stranger.' 

In 1820 ' Pharonnida' was reprinted in 3 toIb. 
12mo. At the Restoration, in 1660, Cham- 
berlayne published ' England's Jubile, or a 

tlK chorch wall a tablet was placed to his 

'Boya^* Political .Sut« of Great Britain, xxvi. 

iA7 *IT2Z)\ Biotrrsphia BHtannica, i. 1282; ^ Poem on the happy Return of his Sacred 

y*?ilk*ti*r« CTi^lfl^a (2 Tola. 1829); A tkyiw's | Majesty Charles tne Second,' 4to, pp. 8. 

Olr^^hlr*; Vfc>W> Hirt. Royal Society, i. , [RetrospectiTe Reriew, toI. i; Corsers Col. 

^^*r^ ^Z ' '^i*"*^^^";*"^* (^: ^1««> , IccUnea ; Hntchins's Doiiet ed. 2. iii. 201.1 
jT. «M; JjfUamgniTtntiT jtLS. at Cambridge, tii. ' A H. B 

47, 4%, 40 ; l^tj:n U» J. .Strype ; Brit. Mus. Cat. | 

wr.»T«. oarf^r ^.TkamUrUyn*-, John, the names of , CHAMBERLEN H 

Tari-w* wr^fbi in v,me way cr.nnected with him | j^£ j) /^ 1720) physici 

ar* ?;T*n. Amonsr the Mafienm MSS. are a larce ' 4-1,^ ^i j/„4. i t)!*::- ro. 

HUGH, the elder, 

, ^.^.^. . ,— ^._w,, ,,— , oia^i and economiatf 

?.T« Amon^ the Maseum MSS. are a large ; ^j^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ J p^^^^ Chamberlen, M J)., by 
BTiat^ of ChamJi^Uynei. lettere, but they pos- , n.^--:-^ ^i^u janG eldest danirhter of Sir 
MM Titd* or u., TMlnf,,] F. W— x. 1 carnage witn Jane, emest aaugnter 01 oir 

^ . Ilu^h Myddelton, hart., was bom in the 

CHAMBERLAYNE, WILLIAM parish of St. Anne's, Blackfriars, between 

(\W4-\W^U phyhician and poet, was bom , l030 and 1634. It is doubtful whether he 
in 1<JI9. He pVa/^tiHi^ as a physician at \ ever took or obtained a degree in physic, 
Shafb^bury in lJ<ir»*ftHhire. During the 1 although he is styled doctor of medicine in 
eivil war» h**, was distinguished for his the state papers and on the lists of the Royal 
loyalty to Cliarl^fH I ; and it appears from a Society. From his father he inherited the 
« at th<* cl'i«^ of the s«.fCond book of faculty for bringing himself conspicuously 

* Pharonnida' that he was pn;sent at the before the public by schemes of a more or less 
H^feriod ^i«ttl'• of N#;wbury. He died in | visionary character. In 1666 he busied him- 
January ]0<^, and waj* biirir*rl at Shaftes- self with a project for freeing the dtyof the 
bury in th«; churchyard of the JIolv Trinity, plague, as we learn from a paper in hia 
where a moniim^'nt was erected to him \ handwriting, preserred in the Record Office 
by liis son Val^rnline fHiamUfrlayne. In i (CaL State Papera, Bom. 1665-6, p. 428). 
1658 he published * \^}vt*'n Victory, a Tragi- In August 1670, while staying at Fans, he 
Comedy,' 4 to, d<''licat<,Hl to Sir William , met the celebrated surgeon, Francois Mauri- 
Portman, liart. There are some fine pas- ceau, and two years later he published a 
sages in the play, and plenty of loyal S4>nti- ' translation of the latter^s treatise on mid- 
ment. An alteration, unrfer the title of ' wifery. This became for long afterwards the 
' Wits led by the NoM;,or a IVkjI'm I{<jvenge,' ' standard te.xt-book on the subject, and pass- 
was acted at theTheatn? Royal in 1078, and 1 ing through seyeral editions was republished 

from Shaft^jsbury 12 May H55i), is followed : notably those relating to the invention and 
by an * epistle to the reader,' in which (^ham- use of the obstetric forceps by the transla- 
berlayne statf»8 that 'Fortune luul placed tor's family. Chamberlen nad now acquired 
him in too low a Hph<;ar to !xj ]iap[)v in the ' considerable reputation in his profession, 
acquaintance; of the ageM mrire wifebrated more especially as a man-midwite, and on 
wits.' The jK>em is in rhymed heroics ; the ])etition of his father he obtained, in Fe- 
there are five l>ookH and four (!antoK to e^icli brunry 1673, the reversion of Sir John Hin- 
lxK)k. As the fourth Viok commences with ton's j)lace as physician in ordinary to the 
fresh pagination and in different typ', it has 1 king, wliich ofnce fell to him the following 
l}een coiyectured that the printing was in- : October. 

termptea by tlie autlifir's **mplr>yment in the 1 In 1685 Cliaml)erlen came again before the 
wars. In spite oi its diffuseness and in- public as the author of ' Manuale Medicum : 
tricacy, the story is intenjsting ; and much | or a small Treatise of the Art of Physick in 
of the poetry is remarkable for happy imagery > general and of Vomits and the Jesuits Fowder 
and rich expression. Both in its faults and ' m particular,' 8vo, London, 1685. By the 




tone of this little book, which was written, 
as he tells us in the preface, for the use of a 
son he sent to the East Indies, he gave ^eat 
offence to his more orthodox professional 
brethren, who regarded him, and not unrea- 
fionably, as a busy, adventurous empiric. 
Accordingly we find that in March 1688 the 
College of Physicians had, at the informa- 
tion of Dr. Charleton, taken action against 
him for the illegal and evil practice of me- 
dicine, and fined him 10/. on pain of being 
committed to Newgate. He continued, how- 
ever, to enjoy an extensive business at court, 
while he was always selected by James IX 
to attend his queen in her confinements. At 
the birth of the Prince James Edward, after- 
wards known as the Old Pretender, on 10 June 
1688, Chamberlen came too late to be pre- 
sent. His very curious letter to the Electress 
Sophia of Hanover on the circumstances, 
dat«d (but in a different handwriting) from 
the Hague on 4 Oct. 1713, and now preserved 
in the Birch MS. 4107, f. 150, has always been 
cited as most important evidence against the 
popular theory of the prince being a suppo- 
sititious child (Dalbtmple, Memoirs of Gt 
Brit. andIreL,ed.l77Sf ii. 31 1-13). Although 
valued for his professional skill, there is little 
doubt that Chamberlen's politics found small 
fieivour in the eyes of royalty ; indeed, in the 
letter referred to Chamberlen speaks of his 
' bein^ a noted wh^, and signally oppressed 
by King James.' Cooke, too (History of 
Partyy i. 453-4), commenting on the birth 
of the Old Pretender, alludes to Chamberlen 
as ' a known whig who had suffered for his 
political principles.' Thus it will be seen 
why it was thought necessary in June 1686 
to issue ' A Pardon to Hugh Chamberlain of 
all Treasons, misprisons of Treason, Insurrec- 
tion, Kebellions, & other Crimes and Of- 
fenses by him coiTiitted before the first day 
of June instant, and of all Indictments, Con- 
viccons, Paines and fforfeitures by reason 
thereof: With such Clauses and non ob- 
stantesas are usuall in Pardons of like nature ' 
{Docquet Books, Signet, Record Office). 

Chamberlen*8 last medical effort was pub- 
lished in 1694, with the title * A few Queries 
relating to the Practice of Physick, with re- 
marks upon some of them, modestly proposed 
to the serious consideration of ManKind, in 
order to their information how their lives 
and healths (which are so necessary, and 
therefore ought to he so dear to them) may 
be better preserved,' 8vo, London, 1694. It 
contains little more than what lie had already 
adduced in his * Manuale Medicum,' but at 
the end he publislied *A Proposal for the 
better securing, of health, intended in the 
year 1689 and still ready to be humbly 

offered to the Consideration of the Honour- 
able Houses of Parliament.' This desirable 
object, he suggests, might be attained by a 
small yearly sum to be assessed upon each 
house, in order that every family might be 
served 'much better and cheaper than at 

E resent, with Visits, Advice, Medicine, and 
urgery.' He suggests that the existing laws 
which provided against the sale of bad food 
and adulterated drinks should be revised and 
strictly enforced, besides periodical cleansings 
of the streets and houses. 

For several years, as he himself tells us, 
his famous land bank project had occupied 
much of his attention, out it was not until 
November 1690 that he issued from his house 
in Essex Street the first draft of his scheme, 
with the title, * Dr. Hugh Chamberlen*s Pro- 
posal to make England Rich and Happy.' 
The plan was frequently modified, but briefly 
stated, the bank was to advance money on 
the security of landed property by issuing 
large quantities of notes on the fallacy that 
a lease of land for a term of years might be 
worth many times the fee simple. The next 
nine years found Chamberlen living in an 
atmosphere of the keenest excitement. A 
glance at the bibliography of the subject, 
some forty-five pampnlets in number, which 
the assiduity of his bioffrapher. Dr. Aveling, 
has gathered together for the first time, will 
show howreadily Chamberlen met the attacks 
of foes and rivals alike. From the same 
source we find that he set apart three even- 
ings in the week to explain his project to all 
who cared to learn and to answer objections, 
while to members of parliament he paid 
especial court, in the hope of winning their 
support. In December 1 693 Chamberlen laid 
his plan before the commons, and petitioned 
to be heard. As the result a committee was 
appointed which reported that the plan was 
* practicable and would tend to the benefit 
of the nation.' By this time, however, the 
absurdity of the scheme had become apparent, 
and the report lay unnoticed on the table. 
Two years later the project was revived in a 
greatly modified form, much to Chamberlen's 
vexation ; the bill (7 & 8 Will. Ill, cap. 31) 
passed both houses and received the royal 
assent on 27 April 1696, but immediately 
afterwards the parliament was prorogued 
(Macaulay, Hist, of Eng. iv. eh. xxi.; Com- 
inon£ Journals, xi. 22, 80). 

The collapse of the land bank scheme was 
received with a storm of derision, and its 
unfortunate projector was forced eventually 
to fly the country. Although Luttrell (Be- 
lation of State Affairs, 1857, iv. 496) and the 
author of a broadside published on the oc- 
casion (* Hue and Cry after a Man-Midwife, 




&c.' in Brit. Mii8.) lend weight to the popular 
impression that Chamberlen retired to Hol- 
land immediately after his failure, that is, 
in March 1699, he in point of fact went no 
further than Scotland, where he resided some 
considerable time. For in 1700 he was urg- 
ing the latest development of his land bank 
scheme upon the parliament of Scotland, the 
advantages of which he advocated with his 
customary ability in a pamphlet of fifty pages, 
entitled * A Few Proposals humbly recom- 
mending .... the Establishing a Land- 
Credit in this Kingdom,' &c., 4to, Edinburgh, 
1700. Two years later we find him busied 
with a plan for the union of Scotland and 
England, which he explained in a volume 
called * The Great Advantages of both ELing- 
doms of Scotland and England, by an Union. 
By a Friend to Britain. Printed in the year 
1702.' This is undoubtedly one of the ablest 
pamphlets ever penned in support of a poli- 
tical cause. 'Ilis proposals, remarks Dr. 
Aveling in his exhaustive analysis of the 
book, *for the election of representative 
peers and compulsory education are proofs of 
nis astuteness and far-seeing policy.' 

Chamberlen ultimately withdrew to Am- 
sterdam, where he practised his profession 
for several years, but probably with little 
success, for we can only surmise that poverty 
forced him to part with the long-cherished 
family secret of the midwifery forceps to the 
Dutch surgeon Hendrik van Roonhuisen, 
whose acquaintance he had formed in that 
city. Altnough every search has been made, 
nothing can be discovered in regard to Cham- 
berlen's latter days. We have found, however, 
that he was still alive in November 1720, for 
on the 14th of that month he renounced ad- 
ministration to the estate of his second son, 
Peter, * late commander of H.M.'s ship " Mil- 
ford," a bachelor deceased,' and letters were 
granted to Hugh Chamberlen the vounger, 
M.D. [q. v.], the natural and lawful brotner 
(Administration Act Book, P. C. C. 1720). 
By his marriage on 28 May 1663 at St. Paul's, 
Covent Garden, with Dorothy, daughter of 
Colonel John Brett, Chamberlen had three 
sons, Hugh [q. v.], Peter, and Myddelton, and 
one daughter, Dorothy. He was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society on April 1681. 

[A full Account of Chamberlen's Life and Wri- 
tings in Dr. J. H. Aveling's Tho Chumberlcns 
and the Midwifery Forceps, pp. 125-7V> ; autho- 
rities cited above ; Francis's Hist, of the Bank 
of England, i. 67 ; Will of Col. J. Brett, proved 
in P. C. C. 28 March 1672.] G. G. 

CBLAMBERLEN, HUGH, the younger, 
(1664-1728), physician, eldest son of Hugh 
Chamberlen the elder [q.v.], was bom in 1664. 

He was educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and took the degree of M.A. in 168S 
per uteras regias. After studying medicine 
at Leyden he graduated M.D. at Cambridge 
in 1689. In 1694 he was admitted a fellow 
of the College of Physicians, and was censor 
in 1707, 1719, 1721. Chamberlen practised 
midwifery like his ancestors, and in that and 
other departments of physic had many fash- 
ionable patients. Swift writes to Stella (Ztff- 
t^rsy ed. 1768, iv. 81) that he had dined with 
Chamberlen. He attended Atterbury in the 
Tower. He married thrice, and had three 
daughters, but seems to have preferred the 
society of the old Duchess of Buckingham and 
Normanby to that of his wife. His own house 
was in King Street, Covent Garden, but he 
spent much time and at last died in the Buck- 
ingham House which occupied part of the site 
of the present Buckingham Palace. His only 
published work is a turgid Latin epithala- 
mium, written on the marriage of Princeas 
Anne in 1683. A monument to Chamberlen, 
put up by the son of the Duchess of Buck- 
ingham and Normanby, disfigures the north 
choir aisle of Westminster Aobey. Hia lifi^ 
size effigy reclines in doctoral rol>es on the lid 
of a sarcophagus surrounded by emblematic 
sculptures, while a long Latin epitaph by 
Atterbury praises his family, his life, his de- 
scendants, and his patron. The safe delivery 
of the Duchess of Buckingham and Normanby, 
which is mentioned by Atterbury as one of 
the reasons for the monument, is also com- 
memorated with gratitude in the duke's * Es-' 
say of Vulgar Errors ; ' while the * Psylas of 
Garth's Dispensary ' (6th edit. London, 1706, 
p. 91) is a third literarv memorial of this fiaflh- 
lonable physician. Cnamberlen died after a 
lonff illness on 17 June 1728. His library was 
sold in 1734 after the death of his widow, and 
there is a copy of the catalogue in the British 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys., 1878,i. 604 ; Aveling's 
The Chamberlens, London, 1882 ; Duke of Buck- 
ingham's Works, London, 1723, ii. 268.] 

In. ic 

1717), empiric, second sou of Peter Chamber- 
len, M.D. (1001-1683)rq. v.], was born in the 
parish of St. Anne's, Blackfriars, on 22 Oct. 
1635. The possession of the family secret 
gave him the opportunity of growing rich as 
an obstetrician. Like h is father and brother, 
Hugh Chamberlen the elder [q. v.], Paul had 
also his pnjject for the welfare of mankind. 
In a petition to parliament he states that he 
* hath several years imploy'd his Thoughts how 
he might be most serviceable to his Country, 
and humbly hopes he has fall'n upon some de- 




monstrable Ways, whereby the Govemment 
may be supplj'a at all Times with whatsover 
43111X18 of Mony they shall have occasion for 
without Annual Interest, and without alien- 
ating any more Branches of the Publick Re- 
venue ' (undated quarto sheet in Guildhall Li- 
brary). The proposal did not commend itself 
to parliament, and Chamberlen had to seek 
for fame and gain by less ambitious methods. 
He 18 best known as the inventor of the * cele- 
brated Anodyne Necklace, recommended to 
the world by Dr. Chamberlen for children's 
teeth, women in labour, etc.,' and as the author 
of various publications wherein the virtues of 
his invention are detailed not without a certain 
speciousness of reasoning nor some show of 
learning. Of these literary efforts perhaps 
the most amusing is what professes to be ' A 
PhiloBophical Essay,' 70 pp. 8vo, London, 
1717, i?niich, although stated in the preface 
to have been the work of an anonymous ad- 
mirer, was in reality from the doctor's pen, 
and dedicated with consummate impudence 
to ' Dr. Chamberlen and the Royal Society.' 
The necklace was of beads artificially pre- 
pared, small, like barleycorns, and cost five 
shillings {Notes arid Queries, 6th ser., ix. 132, 
X. 877). For years after the death of Paul 
Chamberlen, as we learn from Dr. Aveling 
{^The Ckamberlensandthe Midm/ety Forceps, 
pp. 180-^), all sorts of <^uack medicines were 
sold ' up one pair of Stairs at the Sign of the 
Anodyne Necklace next to the Rose Tavern 
without Temple Bar.' Chamberlen had mar- 
ried Mary Disbiowe, who came from the 
family ol Maior-general John Disbrowe or 
Desborough, the well-known parliamentarian 
And brotner-in-law to the Protector. He 
died at his house in G^reat Suffolk Street, 
Havmarket, on 3 Dec. 1717 (Hist Beg, 1717, 
p. 47), and was buried in tne parish church 
of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. His will, bear- 
ing date 24 May 1713, was proved by his 
reUct on 19 Dec. 1717 (Reg. in P. C. C. 227, 
Whitfield). Mrs. Chamberlen dying in July 
of the following year, 1718, was buried with 
her husband (WiUreg. in P. C. C. 138, Teni- 

Ijheir only son, Paul, if we may judge from 
the tone of his parents' wills, would appear 
to have led no very reputable life. He sub- 
sisted principally as a hack writer, and pub- 
lished in 1/30 a translation of the ' Anec- 
dotes Persanes ' of Madame de Gomez. His 
other works were : 1. ' Military History of 
Prince Eugene and the Duke of Marlborough,' 
folio, London, 1736. 2. 'An Impartial History 
of the Life and Rei^ of Queen Anne, . . . 
also the most matenal Incidents of the Life 
of the Duke of Ormond. In Three Parts,' 
folio, London, 1738. Of this no more than 

the first part was ever published. 3. ' His- 
tory and Antiquities of the Ancient Egyp- 
tians, Babylonians, Romans, Assyrians, 
Medes, Persians, Grecians, and Carthagi- 
nians,' folio, London, 1738 (an abridgment 
of Rollin). Some personal and political satire 
of much obscenity has also been attributed 
to his pen. 

[Authorities as above.] G. 6. 

CHAMBERLEN, PETER, the elder (d. 
163 1 ), surgeon, was the son of William Cham- 
berlen, a French protestant, who, when ob- 
liged to abandon his home in Paris on ac- 
count of his religion, sought shelter in 
England with his wife, Genevieve Vingnon, 
and three children, and settled at South- 
ampton in 1669. Bom in Paris, Peter was 
brea a surgeon, to which profession his father 
also probably belonged. For many years he 
continued at Southanipton, but growing tired 
of the fatigues of country practice, he had 
in 1690 removed to London and been ad- 
mitted into the livery of the Barber Sur- 
geons' Company. Chamberlen became one 
of the most celebrated accoucheurs of his 
day, and in that capacity attended the queens 
of James I and Charles 1, by whom he was 
held in high favour. His name is connected 
with the short midwifery forceps, which he 
was probably the first of his family to use, 
as shown by the researches of Dr. Aveling 
( The C?uimberlens and the Midwifery Forceps, 
pp. 215-26). 

Chamberlen, besides trading upon his valu- 
able secret, constantly endeavoured to add to 
his gains by illicit practice, and thus wasper- 
petually at warfiEure with the College of ^ly- 
sicians. After being repeatedly prosecuted for 
not confining himself strictly to the practice 
of surgery, as it was then understood, in 1612 
he was summoned before the college, charged 
with illegal and evil practice, and on 13 Nov. 
of that year it was unanimously agreed that he 
had given medicine wroujyrly, and his practice 
was condemned. It is evident that a warrant 
was signed for his apprehension and removal 
to Newgate, for four davs after his condem- 
nation a meeting took place at the college to 
consider his imprisonment and release. 

' Peter Chamberlen did not submit passively 
to his imprisonment. The lord mayor, at his 
request, and probably influenced by Thomas 
Chamberlen, master of the powerful Mercers' 
Company, and cousin of the prisoner, inter- 
ceded for him. A demand was made by the 
judges of the kingdom on their authority and 
writ that he should be discharged, but this 
demand the college could and did legally 
deny, as he had been committed for " mala 
praxis." Jjastly, the Archbishop of Canter- 

Chamberlen 14 Chamberlen 

bury, at the mandate of the queen, prevailed j Physicians. By her, who predeceased him, he 
with the president and censors, and Peter was had a family of five sons (of whom Peter i» 
released (Avelino, p. 8). noticed below) and three daughters. 

Chamberlen would appear to have spent ; [Aveling's The Chamberlens and the Mid- 
his latter days chiefly at Downe m iTent, ! ^\ p^ 15_29.3 q q 

where and in the surrounding villages he = x- r.^ j 

had purchased property. He died in London \ CHAMBERLEN, PETER, M.D. (1601- 
in December 1631, and was buried on the 1683), physician, was son of Peter Chamber- 
17th in the parish church of St. Dionis Back- len the younger [q. v.], a London barbeivsor- 
church (Beffisters, Harleian Society, iii. 220). I geon, and great-grandson of William Cham- 
His will, as ' of London, chirurgion,* dated berlen, a French protestant, who settled in 
on 29 Nov. 1631, was proved on the 16th of England in the reign of Elizabeth. The in- 
the foUowing December (Reg. in P. C. C. ventionofthe short forceps has been attributed 
130, St. John). By his wife Anne, who died to him, but a passage (p. Iviii) in Smellie's 
before him, he had an only daughter, Esther. , * Treatise ofMidwifery'(Ix)ndon, 1752) shows 

fAveling's The Chamberlens and the Mid- ^^*^i°^^®®*''lyP*rt <^^^^e last century it was 
wifery Forceps, pp. 4-14.] G. G. Chamberlen's grandfather who was considered 

the inventor. As the history of the inven- 

CHAMBERLEN, PETER, the younger tion is unknown, and as none of the Cham- 
(1572-1626), surgeon, younger brother of berlens ever showed much scientific spirit, it 
Peter Chamberlen the elder [q. v.], although may fairly be doubted whether the family is 
bearing the same christian name, was bom at ' to be credited with any invention at all, and 
Southampton on 8 Feb. 1572, a posthumous \ from the purely commercial spirit in which 
son. Electing, like his brother, to follow me- they treated their knowledge, it is possible 
dicine, he became in due time a member of that it was originally acquired by purchase 
the Barber Surgeons' Com{)any. About 1660, j from some obscure and forgotten practitioner, 
when residing in the parish of St. Anne's, The invention consisted in fashioning an in- 
Blackfriars, he obtain^ a license from the , strument of two distinct blades whicn, when 
bishop of London to practise midwifery, and I placed together, held the foetal head as be- 
by his skill therein acquired considerable repu- tween two hands, but which could be put into 
tation and wealth, lie possessed the family ' position separately, could then be interlocked 
secret as to the midwifery forceps, and often at the handle end of the blades, and used to- 
incurred the censure of the College of Physi- gether as an instrument of traction. AU pre- 
cians. In October 1610 he sought to put an | vious instruments had a fixed lock or were 
end to a long series of prosecutions, which had single levers, and could be useful in very few 
their origin in his want of medical diplomas, ' cases of difliculty, while theChamberlens'for- 
by joining the college, and appearing before ceps was applicable in many cases and without 
the censors was examined for the first time, j the use of any dangerous force. Their shape 
We are not told what the result was, but as was obviously suggested by that of the human 
he never proceeded further, it is probable that hand slightly flexed. Some of the old in- 
he was rejected for insufficient Knowledge of i stniments had approached the same shape, 
his profession. In 1616 he interested him- and it is fair to conjecture that it was while 
self in an attempt to obtain from the crown . using such a lever m his right hand, aided 
authority to organise the midwives of Lon- by hislefb hand in apposition, that the inventor 
don into a company. On the petition being oi the forceps hit upon his happy idea. Who- 
referred to the consideration of the college, ever was the inventor, the knowledge was con- 
they reported unfavourably of the scheme. ' fined to the Chamberlen family, and Peter 
It was afterwards revived in 1634 by Cham- Chamberlen's prosperity was due to it. He 
berlen's eldest son, Dr. Peter Chamberlen, was bom 8 May 1601, and was 'educated at 
only to meet with a similar fate. Merchant Taylors* School and Emmanuel 

Peter Chamberlen the younger, dying at College, Cambridge. He took the degree of 
his house, in the parish of St. Anne*R, Black- M.D. at Padua in 1619, and was afterwards 
friars, in August 1626 {Probate Act Book, ; incorporated at Oxford and at Cambridge. 
1626), was buried on the 16th at Downe in In 1628 he was admitted a fellow of the 
Kent, in accordance with the wish expressed ; College of Physicians (Munk, ColL of Phys, 
in his will. His will, ns of London, surgeon, . 1878, i. 194). He lectured on anatomy to 
bearing date 12 Aug. 1626, was proved on the the barber^surgeons, and was made physician 
22nd following (lleg. in P. C. C. 106, Ifele). , extraordinary to the king. In the College of 
He had married Sara, daughter of William '■ Physicians he advocated, in 1634, the incor- 
de Laune,aFrench protestant clergyman and | poration of midwives, a project which, after 
refugee, and a licentiate of the College of much controversy, came to nothing. Cham- 




berlen defended his conduct in a pamphlet 
called 'A Voice in Khama, or the Cry of 
the Women and Children, echoed forth in 
the compassions of Peter Chamberlen ' (Lon- 
don, 1647]|. It is an abusive production, re- 
sembling in style some of the vemacular 
writings of the Elizabethan surgeons, and 
shows that Chamberlen was not at home in 
the College of Physicians. He can find no 
better excuse for keeping secret knowledge, 
capable of saving hundreds of lives if widely 
known, than that ' the draper is not bound 
to find doth for all the naked because he 
hath enough in his shop, nor yet to afibrd it 
at the buyer^s price.' His next scheme, for 
his life was one long succession of schemes, 
was to institute a system of hydro-therapeu- 
tics, and he petitioned parliament (1648) to 
consider the question, especially as a preven- 
tive of plague. The College of Physicians, 
to whom the matter was referred, replied 
that all baths were useful in treatment, but 
that if public baths, as proposed by Cham- 
berlen, were erected, the house would have 
to draw up stringent regulations for their 
use. Chamberlen, in reply, wrote * A Vindi- 
cation of Public ArtificicJ Baths ' (London, 
1648), and, amidst other abuse, suggested that 
the college was made up of men opposed to 
puritan ideas. The breach grew wider and 
wider between Chamberlen and the other 
fellows, he ceased to attend, and in 1649 was 
dismissed from his fellowship. He now pub- 
lished a scheme of politics, a scheme for pro- 
pelling carriages by wind, and several theo- 
logical schemes, and becameprominent at a 
conventicle in Lothbury. He was first an 
independent and next an anabaptist, but in 
1660 joined in the general acclamation at the 
restoration of monarchy, and became physi- 
cian to the king. He lived near St. Stephen's 
Chiirch in Coleman Street, and irom tmie to 
time published theological pamphlets. A list 
of them may be found in Dr. Aveling's 'The 
Chamberlens ' (p. 81^ ; their ideas are confused, 
and they are mil oi phrases like those of his 
famous neighbour, CowleVs * Cutter.' Cham- 
berlen firetjuently visited Holland, and in Eng- 
land petitioned for monopolies of inventions, 
of which he had learnt the beginnings from 
the Butch. He obtained in 167^ a patent for 
all benefits arising from a new way of writing 
and printing true English; and somewhat 
later wrote to defend himself from charges of 
insanity and of Judaism. He so constantly 
put forward his seniority as a doctor and his 
age as claims to respect, that it is clear that 
even these just reasons failed to obtain him 
the veneration which nothing else in his way 
of life could claim. He died, 22 Dec. 1683, 
at Woodham Mortimer Hall in Essex, and 

has an altar tomb in the churchyard of the 
parish. He was twice married, and had in all 
lourteen sons, of whom Hugh the elder and 
Paul are separately noticed, and four daugh- 
ters, sixty-five grandchildren, and fourteen 
great-grandchildren. His monument, which 
states the number of his descendants and his 
dignities, followed by a long epitaph in English 
verse, was erected by Hope, the only surviv- 
ing child of his second wife. In 1818 several 
torcepsand other midwifery instruments were 
discovered in Woodham Mortimer Hall, in 
an old chest, concealed beneath the floor. 
The instruments are to be seen at 58 Bemers 
Street, London, and are fully described in the 
Medico-Chirurgical Society's * Transactions,' 
vol. xxvii. They show that the Chamberlens 
tried to improve their instruments, as there 
are four varieties of the short forceps. 

[Dr. J. H. Aveling's The Chamberlens, London, 
1882 ; Munk's ColL of Phys. 1878, i. ; Original 
Minute Book of Barbers' Company, MS.] 

N. M. 

CHAMBERLIC^, MASON (d. 1787), 
portrait painter, began life as a clerk in a 
counting-house. Afterwards showing a dis- 
position towards art, he became the pupil 
of Frank Hayman, R.A. In spite of this 
circumstance he seems to have prospered, 
gaining in 1764 the Society of Art* second 
premium of fifty guineas for an historical 
painting. He lived in the neighbourhood of 
Spitalfields, and there practised as a portrait 
painter. ' His likenesses were faithful, very 
carefully drawn and painted, but his colour- 
ing was thin, monotonous, and unpleasant ' 
(Kedgbave). He was a member of the In- 
corporated Society of Artists, and an original 
member of the Itoyal Academy. He was 
honoured by the attention of Peter Pindar 
(Dr. Wolcot) in the first of his Academy Odes. 
He was a frequent exhibitor in London gal- 
leries from 1760 to 1787. Twenty-two of 
his portraits were seen at the rooms of the 
Society of Artists, fifty at ^he Royal Aca- 
demy, and two at the * Free Society.' He 
painted portraits exclusively. One of Dr. 
Himter, nis presentation picture, is in the 
* diploma g^lery * of the Royal Academy ; 
another, a portrait of Dr. Chandler, is in the 
rooms of the Royal Society. Both of these 
have been enffraved. In later life he moved 
from Spitalfields to Bartlett's Buildinf^s, Hol- 
bom, and there died 20 Jan. 1787. His son, 
Mason Chamberlin, was a prolific painter, and 
exhibited sixtv-cight landscapes in London 
from 1780 to 1827, of which fifty-eight were 
exhibited at the Royal Academy, 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Eng. School ; Graves's 
Diet, of Artists.] E. K. 

Chambers i6 Chambers 

<15.'iOP-ir)92), Scottish historian and judge, 
was born in ItoM-shire and educated at Aber- 
deen, where he took orders. lie completed 
his studies in theology and law in France 
and Italy, probably at Bolojj^a, and on his 
return home obtained the offices of parson of 
Huddy, provost of Crichton, and cnancellor 
of the diocese of Ross. I'referring the legal 
branch of the clerical profession, he was 
ma^le an ordinary lord or judge of the court 

of session on 20 Jan. 15(M>, in room of Henry _^ 

Sinclair, bishop of Iloss, and also a privy | tion that the Druids were diligent chroniclers 
councillor. In I)ecembcr 1560 he received a | before, and the monks after, the reception of 
grant of the lands of Castl(*t^n for his scr- Christianity, and that their monuments and 
vices U) Queen Mary 'not only in this realmo, antiquities had been preserved in the islands 
but in sic forcyn (!untrios as it plesit hir ' of Man and lona. Though chiefly known 

bles touchant I'estat d'Escosse,' dedicated to 
Queen Mary. The history of Chambers in 
its earlier portion is mainly talren, so far as 
Scotland is concerned, from Boece, and has 
little independent yalue, though he mentions 
some other authorities he had consulted, and 
excites curiosity or scepticism by his refe- 
rence to Veremund the Spaniard's 'epistle to 
his book of the historians of Scotland dedi- 
cated to Malcolm III,' from which he ms^es 
a singular quotation defending the credibility 
of the early annals of Scotland by the asser- 

hienes to command him, and that therthrow 
baith he put his persoun in pf^rill, but alsua 
grotliff sii]Htr(txp<mdit himself.' 

Buchanan in his ' 1 )(*t(K;tio * calls Cham- 

as one of the curiosities of literature, the 
work of Chambers deserves note as an early 
specimen of a chronological abridgment of 
the comparative history of Europe. It had 

tiers a rliorit of Bothwell, and alleges that been his intention, he says, to have included 
liothwell got access to the queen's lodgings ' Spain, but the number of its separate king- 
in the <*xcncqiior through his house, the gate i doms led him to postpone this for another 
of which wai nnar t\ui garden of that of the I occasion, and it was never published. He 
queen prior to the murder of Damley. He ' returned to Scotland after the close of the 
was jiam(*(l in one of t\w tickets placed on ' regencies, andwas restored frcmi his forfeiture 

" - - 1683, and 

with a proviso 
the 'odious 

ihn slaughtpr of tho king, and do find the | murtherer of our soverane ladis dearest fader 
Karl of liothwoll^ Mr. Jnmos Balfour, parson ! and twa regentis.' But this was mercJy a 
nf Klisk, Mr. ])nvid(-hamb('rs,and black Mr. | formal exception, and on 21 June 1586 he 

John Hiions, the principal devisers thereof, 
and if tnis 1h« nni true, spoir at (Gilbert. Bal- 
four.' Till* 1 ruth of this anonymous accusa- 
tion is douhlTul, but it is cortain that Cham- 

resumed his seat on the bench of the court of 
session, which he held to his death in 1592. 

[Acta Pari. Scot. iii. 98, 314 ; Books of Sede- 
runt of Coart of Session ; Mackenzie's Lives of 

l)ers wns an ardont partisan of the queen. I Scottish Writers, iii. 891 ; Haig and Brunton's 
Ifewns with hor at the Imttle of I iaugside, j Senators of the College of Justice, p. 123; 
for his part in which ho was forfeit4»d by i Michel's Los Ecossais en France, ii. 211 J^ 
imrlinniont on \\) Aug. IHCSH. He then took ■ JR. M. 

mfugn in Snnin, and afti^r a short> stny nt the 

<«ourt of Philip 1 1, by whom ho wns well re- I CHAMBERS^ EPHRAIM (d. 1740), en- 
coivod, wont to Franc**. In 1572 ho pre- cycloprcdist, was bom, probably about 1680, at 
sonted to ('harlos IX, but it is doubtful Kendal, where his father occupied and owned 

added to it an account of the popes and em- globe maker, who encouraged his desire for 
p«»rors. this work was printed at Paris with the acquisition of knowled^. While thus 
a dtHlicntion to Hour}' III under the title occupitnl he formed the design of compiling 

d«»s I'npos ot Knip«*nnirs joincts ensomblo on edition of which had been published 

formo dMiannonii*.* In tho same volume is and was the onlv work ot the kind in the 

containoil a tract entitli»d 'IVscours do la language. After he had begun the enterprise 

Succos.'iion dos Fonimos nux posst^ssions do ho quitted Senox and took chambers in Gray's 

lours pariMis ot nux publics gouvomomonts,' Inn. whore he completed it. In 1728 was 

which ho had writ ton and dinlicated to Ca- issm^ by subscription, dedicated to the king, 

therino de Minlicis in \'ul\ and another * I^a and in two volumt^s folio, his 'Cyclopaedia, or 

lU»chercho dos singidarit^s plus rcmarqua- an In iversalDictionaiT of Arts and Sciences 




. . . compiled from the best authors/ &c., 
with an emborate preface explaining the plan 
of the work, and attemptins^ a classification 
of knowledge. The price of the book was four 
gruineas, but its value was at once recognised, 
and procured for its compiler the honour in 
1729 of being elected a member of the Royal 
Society. A new edition beinff called for, 
Chambers resolved to recast the first on a plan 

British Museum. It is to them that Johnson 
probably referred when he told Boswell that 
ne had * formed his style * partly upon * Cham- 
bers's proposal for his Dictionary' (Boswell's 
Johnson, edition of 1848, p. 69, and note by 
Malonb). a clause in a bill introduced into 
parliament compelling the publishers of an 
improved edition of a work to issue the im- 
provements separately led to the abandon- 
ment of the recast, and in 1738 simnly a 
second edition was issued with some altera- 
tions and additions. In 1739 a third edition 
appeared, and after the compiler's death a 
fourth in 1741, followed by a fifth in 1740-- 
in the case of such a work a singularly rapid 
sale. A French translation of it gave rise to 
Diderot's and D'Alembert's * Encyclop6die,' 
and the English original was finally ex- 
panded into Rees's once well-known * Ency- 
clopeedia.' Chambers is said to have edited, 
ana he certainly contributed to, the * Literary 
Magazine ... by a Society of Gentlemen,' 
17&-7, which consisted mainly of reviews 
of the chief new books. He translated from 
the French of Jean Dubreuil the * Practice 
of Perspective,' 4th edition, 1766, and co- 
operated with John Martyn, the botanist, 
in an abridged translation of the ' Philoso- 
phical History and Memoirs of the Royal 
Academy of Sciences at Paris,' 6 vols. 1742. 
During his later years he paid a visit to 
France in search of health, and is said to 
have rejected a promising invitation to issue 
there an edition (translation ?) of his * Cy- 
clopsedia ' and dedicate it to Louis XV. He 
left behind him a manuscript account of his 
French visit, which has never been published ; 
but some letters to his wife descriptive of it 
and on other subjects are printed in the 
' Gentleman's Magazine,' Ivii. 314, 351. As 
an author he was liberally and as an in- 
valid most kindly treated by the first Thomas 
Longman, the founder of the publishing house 
of that name, who during Chambers's life- 
time became the largest snareholder in the 
' Cyclopaedia.' Chambers was an avowed 
freethinker, irascible, kind to the poor, and 
extremely fruffaL He died 15 May 1740, 
and was buried in the cloisters of \\ estmin- 

TOL. X» 

ster Abbey, where, in an epitaph of his o>vn 
composition, he describes himself as ' multis 
pervulgatus, paucis notus; ^ui vitam inter 
lucem et mnbram, nee eruditus, nee idiota, 
Uteris deditus, transegit/ 

[Gent. Mag. for September 1786 ; Univ. Mag. 
for January 1785; Bioff. Brit. (Kippis); Chal- 
mers's Biog. Diet. ; Nichols's lit. Anecd. v. 659, 
&c. ; Histories of Publishing Houses (by the 
writer of this article), the House of Longman, in 
the Critic for March I860.] F. E. 

CHAMBERS, GEORGE (1803-1840), 
marine painter, bom in 1803, was the son 
of a Whitby seaman. "When ten years old he 
was sent to sea in a coasting vessel, and was 
afterwards apprenticed to the master of a 
brig trading in the Mediterranean and Baltic. 
He was early devoted to drawing, and pleased 
his skipper and crew by making sketches of 
different kinds of vessels, so much so that at 
the boy*8 request the captain cancelled his 
indentures in order that he might give him- 
self wholly to paint ing. Returning to Whitby 
he got employment as a house-painter. In 
the spare time which was allowed him from 
this occupation he took lessons in drawing. 
For three years he continued in this way ; 
then, becoming impatient, he worked his way 
to London in a tradiug vessel. Here he 
made drawings of ships and did generally 
what he could for a living, till, fortunately, 
he attracted the attention of the then im- 
portant Mr. T. Homer, and was engaged for 
seven years on the painting of that gentle- 
man's great panorama of London. After thi» 
he became scene-painter at the Pavilion 
Theatre. His paintings attracted the atten- 
tion of Admiral Lord Mark Kerr, and through 
him he was introduced to William IV. He 
painted in water colours as well as in oils, 
was elected an associate of the Water-Colour 
Society in 1834, and in 1836 a full member. 
He was a very frequent exhibitor at this so- 
ciety's galleries and at the Royal Academy 
of marme pictures, his naval battles being 
considered his best. Two important oil paint- 
ings by Chambers are in the collection of 
marine pictures at Greenwich : * The Bom- 
bardment of Algiers in 1816,' and the * Cap- 
ture of PortobeUo.' He was in a fair way to 
more than ordinary success, but his naturally 
weak constitution was worn out, and he died 
on 28 Oct. 1840. He had married young, 
and left a widow and children unprovided 
for. Among artists who showed kindness to 
the family were Turner and Clarkson Stan- 
field. The former * gave 10/. to the widow 
and attended the sale (of his pictures, &c.) on 
purpose to help it.' The latter put the last 
touches on a painting which the artist had left 

Chambers i8 Chambers 

[RadgraTe's Diet, of £ng. School ; Graves's 
Diet, of Artists; Watkins^s Memoir of Chambers, 
the Marine Artist, Whitby. 1837; Watkins's 
Life aod Career of George Chambers, 1841 ; Art 
Union, 1840, p. 186.] E. R. 

tical staif, Henry thus it is said, by a tardy 
act of repentance, erecting the noblest pos- 
sible monument to his first wife, who liad 
been buried in the abbey chureh in January 
1 536. Chambers now became the first bishop 
of the new see, and had his old home, *the 
abbot's lodgings,' alias Hhe abbot's side,' to- 
gether with * the great stone tower known 
as the knight's chamber,' granted him as his 
house of residence. Other members of the 

CHAMBERS, JOHN {d, 1556), the last 
abbot and the first bishop of Peterborough, 
was bom at Peterborougn, from which cir- 
cumstance he was sometimes called Burgh 
or Borowe. He became a monk in the great 
Benedictine abbey of that place, and was j house were provided for on the new foun- 
erentually elected its abbot in 1528. He dation. The list of prebendaries included 
studied both at Oxford and Cambridge, but the former ])rior and one of the brethren, 
chiefly at the latter, where, 'as it seems,' while the prior of St. Andrews at North- 
writes Wood, * he was admitted to the read- ampton became the dean. The new bishop 
ing of the sentences ' {Atherue Oxon. ii. 778), was consecrated in his former abbey church 
and where he took the degree of M.A. in 23 Oct. 1541, by Bishop Goodrich of Ely, 
1505, and that of B.D. in 1539. Two years assisted by his suffragan, Robert. Blyth, bishop 
after his election as abbot (1530) Chambers of Dover, and the suffragan of the bishop of 
received Wolsey, then on his last progress j Lincoln, Thomas Hallam, bishop (m/jflrfittw) 
to his northern province. The cardinal kept \ of Philadelphia (Rtmer, Ftfdera^ xi. 731-6 ; 
Easter at Peterborough with great state, j STXTBB8,j^wco/)rt/jSMorMi»ion, p. 79). Nothing 
After Wolsey's fall Chambers himself, who seems to be recorded of his episcopate, which 
is described as * a safe and conformable per- lasted through the reign of Edward VI into 
son,' by timely acquiescence maintained his that of Mary, when he saw the mass restored, 
position, with only some external modifica- j What we can gather of his character leads 
tions, to the end of his life. When Dr. Lay- to the conclusion that he would calmly ac- 
ton, the unscrupulous agent of Henry VUI, ' quiesce in this as he had acquiesced in former 
accompanied by Ricliard, the nephew of changes ; ' a man,' writes Mr. Ayliffe Poole, 
Thomas Cromwell, was at Ramsey Abbey, j * to live through history, which indeed he 
and had marked Peterborough as' his next did, with considerable success,' not a man to 
victim. Chambers desired an interview with ; make historv. He died, * in good and perfect 
Sir William Parr, afterwards marquis of memory,' 7 ^eb. 1556, and was buried in the 
Northampton, in the vain hope of averting \ choir of his cathedral with great pomp on 
dissolution by copious bribery. K the abbey 6 March. There is a cont«mporanemis ac- 

were spared, the king's majesty should enjoy 
the whole proceeds of the monastic estates for 
a year, and Cromwell himself should receive 

count of his funeral in Machyn's 'Diary,' 
pp. 101, 384. There were formerly two 
monuments to him : one with a monumental 

300/. ' if he would bee goode lorde to hym ' i brass put up by him in his lifetime, engraved 
(Letter of Parr to Cromwell, Cotton MSS., ! with a laudatory epitaph, with blanks left 
Cleopatra E. iv. 205 ; DuGDiiLB, Mon, Angl, i. for the dates of his decease, which were never 
365). Finding his abbey foredoomed, Cluim- filled in ; and another of great stateliness, 
hers discreetly made no further resistance. ' with a recumbent ef^^ described as exqui- 
The abbey accordingly was surrendered to | sitely carded. Both oi these were destroyed 
the king in 1539, Chambers being appointed during the havoc of the QiviX wars. Byhis 
guardian of the temporalities, with an annual will, dated 31 Dec. 1554, among other bequests 
pension of 266/. 13«. 4d, and a hundred loads ' he left a pix and two silver candlesticks to 
of wood. He became one of the royal chap- his cathedral. According to Fuller, Cham- 
lains and proceeded to his degree of B.D. at : hers was appointed by the convocation of 
Cambridge the same year (1539). Chambers, 1 542, in conjunction with Wakeman of Glou- 
enjoying a large command of money, was in ' cester, to revise the translation of the Apo- 
no want of powerful friends. At the close of calypse for the proposed new edition of the 
the same year Lord Russell, in the letter ^ great Bible, so capriciously set aside by the 
he wrote to Cromwell relating the judicial royal will (Dixon, Hist, of Ch, of England^ 
murder of Abbot ^\^liting of Glastonbury, of iii. 286). Godwin (De Prasulibu^, ii. 138) 
whom he had been one of the judges, found i has erroneously identified the bishop of 
room for an adroit complimentary reference , Peterborough with John Chambre [q. v.], 
to Abbot Chambers. On 4 Sept. 1541 let- ' a doctor of physic, of Merton College, Ox- 
ters patent were issued converting the abbey ! ford, who became dean of St. Stephen's, 
church of Peterborough into a cathedral . Westminster, and died in 1549 (Wood, FHstiy 
church, with a dean and chapter and ecclesias- i. 89). 




[Wood's Atheoffi Oxon. ii. 773 ; Cooper's Athense 
Cantab, i. 142; Gunton's Peterborough Cathe- 
dral, pp. 57» 530; Bugdale's Monast. Anglic, i. 
363-89 ; Wright's Letters concerning Suppres- 
.sion of Monasteries, pp. 178, 260 ; Rymer's Foe- 
dera, xi. 731-6; Ajuffe Poole's Diocesan Hist. 
Peterborough, S.P.C.K.] E. V. 

CHAMBERS, JOHN (1780-1839), bio- 
grapher and topographer, was born in Lon- 
don in Murch I78O. After receiving a good 
preliminary education he was placed in the 
office of an architect, where he remained for 
some time, but haying come into possession 
of an ample fortune by the death of his father, 
he determined to devote himself to the cul- 
tivation of art and literature jBolely as an 
amateur. In 1806 he became a member of 
the Society of Arts, and from 1809 to 1811 
acted as a chairman of the committee of polite 
arts. Chambers married, on 29 Sept. 1814, 
Mary, the daughter of Peter Le Neve Foster 
of Wymondham in Norfolk. The year after 
his marriage he quitted London for Worcester, 
and here planned and wrote most of his works. 
He remained at Worcester for nearly eight 
years, then removed to his wife's home at Wy- 
mondham, and, after staying there for about 
two years, finally fixed himself at Norwich 
that his sons might attend the grammar 
school. Chambers died in Dean's Square, 
Norwich, on 28 July 1839, leaving issue two 
sons and a daughter. The eldest son, well 
known as a theological writer, was vicar of St. 
Mary's and warden of the House of Charity, 
Soho, from 1856 until his death in 1874 [see 
CuAMBEBs, John Chables]; the youn^st 
son, Oswald Lyttleton, also entered into 
orders, and became in 1863 vicar of Hook, 
Yorkshire, where he died in 1883. Besides 
occasional contributions to the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine' and other periodicals, including a 
* Life ' of Inigo Jones to Arnold's * Magazme 
of the Fine Arts,' Chambers was the author of 
the following useful works : 1. ' A General 
History of Malvern,' 8vo, Worcester, 1817. 
Another edition, 8vo, Worcester, 1820. 2. *A 
General History of Worcester,' 8vo, Wor- 
cester, 1819. 3. * Biographical Illustrations 
of Worcestershire ; incluaing Lives of Per- 
sons, Natives or Residents, eminent either 
for Piety or Talent, to which is added a List 
of Living Authors of the County,' 8vo, 
Worcester, 1820. 4. ' A General History of 
the County of Norfolk, intended to convey 
all the information of a Norfolk Tour, with 
the more extended details of antiquarian, 
statistical, pictorial, architectural, and mis- 
cellaneous information ; including biographic 
cal notices, original and selected,' 2 vols. 
8vo, Norwich, 1829. This was published 
anonymously, Chambers having received the 

assistance of contributors, resident in the 

[Information from Miss Chambers; Oent. 
Mag. (1839). xii. 430.] G. G. 

1874), warden of * the House of Charity,' 
Loudon, was bom at the Tything, Worcester, 
on 23 Nov. 1817. When not quite seven 
years old he was sent to the grammar school 
at Norwich, to wliich place his parents had 
removed; he was the last head-boy who, 
according to ancient custom, made a Latin 
speech from the top step of the school to the 
mayor and aldermen, and who was taken in 
the mayor's coach to the Guild dinner. After 
reading for a year or two with a tutor. Cham- 
bers entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 
where he gained distinction in Hebrew and 
classical studies, and took his degree of B.A. 
in 1840, and of M.A. in 1843. While still 
an undergraduate he founded the first Sunday 
schools in Cambridge. In 1842 he was or^ 
dained deacon, and became curate of Sed- 
bergh, Yorkshire, where he helped to build a 
district church. He was ordained priest in 
1846, and about this time proceeded to Perth 
and founded the work of the church there. 
When, in 1855, the statutes and appointments 
of St. Ninian's Cathedral, of which he was 
the founder, had been settled, he retired from 
Perth and became vicar of St. Mary Magda- 
lene's at Harlow. This vicarage he ex- 
changed in 1856 for a London living, the 
perpetual curacy of St. Mary's, Crown Street, 
ooho, a benefice which he held until his 
death, together with the wardenship of the 
House of Charity, Soho, to which he w^as 
appointed in November 1856. Here, in the 
Sono district. Chambers spent many years 
of earnest labour and useful orgamsation. 
His religious views were those of the * ritu- 
alist ' school. On coming to Crown Street, 
Chambers found the church of St. Mary at- 
tended only by a scanty congregation, and 
the parish provided with an insignificant day- 
school. The benefice was worth 70/. per 
annum, but by his exertions it was raised to 
300/., and became a vicarage. Under his 
auspices new schools were built in place of 
hired rooms, and the number of children 
under efficient instruction was raised to 
nearly one thousand. A large clergy house 
was established, and the church w^as practi- 
cally rebuilt. Chambers got together a large 
staff of volunteer workers to help in the 
ragged schools and elsewhere, and his was 
the first parish in which church guilds and 
dinners for sick children and invalids were 
set on foot. The House of (?harity, founded 
in 1846, originallv occupied a hired house in 

c 2 

Chambers 20 Chambers 

His efforts were unceasing to improve the 
position of professional as well as amateur 
rowing on the Tliames^and he was the moTinir 
spirit in the old watermen's regatta, stjlea 
tne Thames regatta. lie was one of th& 
committee appointed to arrange the rules of 

Koi^e Street, Soho, but in 186.'i. under Cham- Although he now ceased to take part as a 
bers's wardenship, the institution acquired, competitor, he entered with more zeal than 
at a cost of upwards of 3,000/., and fitted j ever into the management and encouragement 
up, the freehold prfmises in Soho Square and of every species of exercise. He worked 
(treek Street which it now occunies, and i energetically at the Amateur Athletic Club, 
where formerly Alderman Beckford resided. ~" 
Chambers was instrumental in building the 
}>eautiful cha^iel attached to the House of 
Charity. He died in I^ondon on 21 May 

Chambers contributed to various papers 
and serials, and published, among other { the billiard championship, inaugurated in 
writings, * Sermons preached in Perth and j 1870, and early in 1871 he introduced a 
in other parts of Scotland,' London, 1857, j bicycle race in the amateur championship 
8vo ; * The Union of the Natural and Super- meeting at Lillie Bridge. He also greatly 
natural Substances in the Holy Eucharist,' ' assistea Webb when he swam across the 
a sermon, corrected and enlarged, with notes Channel, and Weston when he undertook 
and appendix, London, 1863, 16mo ; * Refor- his long journeys at Lillie Bridge. In addi- 
mation, not Deformation ' (lectures in de- , tion, amateur oarsmanship owes Chambers a 
fence of church principles, &c.), 1864, 8vo ; great debt. In April 1^8 he was one of 
* The English Reformation' (a lecture), Lon- the committee which finally drew up what 
don, 1871, 8vo ; and* The Destruction of Sin, ! is known as *The Putnej Definition of an 
l)eing Thirteen Addresses delivered ... in ' Amateur.* In the following year, as one of 
Advent, 1872 ''edited by J. J. E(lkington)], ' the Henley stewards, he was also mainly 

London (1874), 8vo. 

[Information mainly dorired from the Rev. 

instrumental in drafting an almost identical 
rule known as the Henley definition. At 
J. J. 'Eikin'gton,hi.s' friend and feUow-worker! ! the meeting held at Oxford in April 1880, 
and now chaplain to thi- House of Charity ; and , when the Amateur Athletic Association was 
from his sister, Miss Chambers.] W. W. 


formed, he was a prominent figure, and he 
ultimately handed oyer the cnampionship 
challenge cups, which had been previously 

1883), athlete and editor, the son of Wil- contendfed for at Lillie Bridge, to the care 

Ham Cliamb(»rs, of llafod, Cardiganshire, and 

of the association. As a coach he resumed 

Joanna Trant, daughter of Captain S. J. his care of the Cambridge crew in 1871, and 
Speke Payne, R.N., was bom at Llanelly, ! had the charge at Putney of the victors of 
South Wales, on 12 Feb. 1843. After re- j that and the next three years. The last time 
eeiving some education in France, he was j when he held office as an umpire was in the 
sent to Eton in IKKI As a schoolboy he ; match between the Thames Rowing Club 
was most active on land and water. He ' and the Hillsdale, U.S., four-oared crews, on 
proceedtKl to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 16 Sept. 1882. He was a constant contribu- 
Uctobt»r 1801. As an athlete he was the , tor to the 'Standard,' especially on sporting 
best walker in the university. In March 1 matters. In 1871 he assumed the editorship of 
lHti6 he won the seven-mile walking cham- * Land and Water,' the weekly journal which 
pionship in 59 minutes 32 seconds. In this Frank Buckland [see Buckland, Fbancis 
vear he founded the Amateur Athletic Club. 1 Trbveltan] had started five years before, and 
^Ihe club first met at Beaufort House, Wal- ! performedthedutiesof that post with energy- 
ham Green, but in March 1869 moved to I and ability throughout the remainder of his 
their own grounds at Lillie Bridge. He i life. He long suflered from ill-health, and 
rowed in the university race at Putney in died suddenly at his residence, 10 AVetherby 
1862 and 18<{.3, and was l)eaten. He com- ! Terrace, Earfs Court, London, on 4 March 

peted at Henley and at various metropolitan 
regattas in the latter year, and won the Col- 

1883, aged only 39. He was buried in Bromp- 
ton (Cemetery on 8 March. Chambers's per- 

qiuioun sculls at Camnridge. Having taken sonal popularity was very Jfreat, not only on 
his B.A. degree in 1860, he left Cambridge j account of his athletic ability, but for his 
to find that his father had become involved ' straightfon^-ardness and kindlmess. 
in pecuniary difficulties. Adopting literature | [Graphic. 24 March 1883, with portrait, pp. 
as a profession, he won his way to the front 296, 298 ; Land and Water, 10 and 31 March 
by his industry in writing for the press chiefly 1883 ; Illustrated Sporting and Bmmatic News,, 
on his favourite sport. On coming to London with portrait, 4 April 1874, p. 136 ; The Sport- 
he joined the Leander Club in 18i66, and won ing Mirror, with portrait, April 1883, pp. 121-3.) 
several sculling matches. G. C. B. 




CHAMBERS, IIICHAIU)(1588?-1658), 
was a merchant li\dng in the parish of St. Mary 
of the Arches, in the ward of Cheap, London 
< RusHWOBTH, i. 674). He distinguished 
himself by his opposition to the levy of ton- 
nage and poundage without the cfrant of par- 
liament in 1628. A case of silk grograms 
brought firom Bristol to London by a carrier, 
uuid consigned to Chambers, was seized by 
Che custom-house officers, although he offered 
to give security for future payment if the 
demand could be proved legal. Summoned 
to appear in the council-chamber (28 Sept. 
1628), Chambers used seditious language, 
saying * the merchants are in no part of tne 
world so screwed and wrung as in England ; 
that in Turkey they have more encourage- 
ment.' Chambers admitted making the &t 
part of this statement, but denied the offen- 
sive comparison with Turkey. He was com- 
mitted to the Marshalsea for contempt in 
using these words, but applying to the Iung*8 
Bench for a writ of habeas corpus, he was 
* bailed by the judges ' (28 Oct. 1628). The 
attorney-general then preferred an informa- 
tion against him in the Star-chamber, where 
the case was tried on 6 May 1629. Cham- 
bers was fined 2,000/., committed to the 
Fleet, and ordered to make submission. But 
when a form of submission was tendered to 
him he wrote at the foot of it, 'All the 
abovesaid contents and submission I, Richard 
Chambers, do utterly abhor and detest as 
most unjust and false, and never till death 
will acknowledge any part thereof,' to which 
he appended a selection of texts about unjust 
judfi^es. He proceeded also to bring an action 
against the custom-house officers in the ex- 
chequer for the recovery of his foods, and 
applied to the same court to invalidate the 
decree of the Star-chamber on the ground 
that it had exceeded its statutory powers 
(RusHWOBTH, i. 673). The judges of the 
court of exchequer, headed by Chief Baron 
Sir John Walter, appear to have remon- 
strated with the lord treasurer for attempt- 
ing to levy the fine before the question of its 
legality had been adjudged ; but Walter was 
removed, and the rest of the court rejected 
the plea put forward by Chambers. On the 
wider issue of the legality of tonnage and 
poundage Chambers pleaded in vain for a 
nearing. His imprisonment continued for 
six years, and the value of the goods seized 
for the tax is estimated by him at 7,060/. 
-(RusHWORTH, i. 677). The amount of the 
duty demanded was 864/. 2s. 2^d, Unde- 
terred by his sufferings, Chambers opposed 
the payment of ship-money, was imprisoned 
for nine months in Newgate, and Drought 
jui action in the King's Bench against the 

lord mayor for false imprisonment, which 
was summarily dismissed by Sir Robert 
Berkeley (Rusiiworth, ii. 823, Julv 1636). 
The long parliament ordered Chambers 
13,680/. m reparation of his losses. The 
popularity he had gained secured his election 
as alderman in 1642, and sheriff in 1644. 
When in November 1642 the king came to 
Brentford, Chambers headed a troop of horse 
to oppose him. Though the promised com- 
pensation was not paid, he was in 1648 ap- 
pointed to the post of surveyor in the London 
Custom House worth 600/. a year. But he 
lost both this post and his office of alderman 
by his refusal to proclaim the commonwealth 
(Commons Journals, 31 Maj and 1 June 
1649). He was even for a time imprisoned 
in the Gatehouse, but discharged on 30 April 
1651 with the gift of twenty nobles for his 
relief {Council Order Book, 30 April 1651). 
His petitions received no attention; 'he 
grew infirm,' says Rushworth, *and, being 
not relieved, was reduced to a low estate 
and condition.' He died on 20 Aug. 1658 at 
Homsey (Obituary ofR, Smyth, Camd. Soc, 
p. 47), aged about seventy (Kushworth). 

[Rushworth's Historical Collections; Calen- 
dars of Domestic State Papers; Gardiner's His- 
tory of England (1884), vii. 4-5, 37, 86-6. 114, 
168, viii. 103, 281, ix. 161.] C. H. F. 

CHAMBERS, ROBERT (1571-1624?), 
catholic divine, Was a native of Yorkshire, 
and arrived as a boy at the English college 
at Rheims in December 1582. He was ad- 
mitted on 24 Feb. 1592-3 into the English 
college at Rome, where he was ordained 
priest. In 1599 he was appointed confessor 
to the English Benedictine nuns at Brussels, 
and he held that office till 1623, when he left 
for England, where he died shortly after- 
wards. He is the author of : 1. * Palest ina, 
written by Mr. R[obert] C[hambers], P[riest] 
and Bachelor of Divinitie,' Florence, 1600, 
4to. A legendary and allegorical romance 
founded on the gospels. 2. * Miracles lately 
wrought by the intercession of the Glorious 
Virgin Mary at Mont-aigu, nere unto Siche 
in Brabant. Translated out of the French 
copie [of P.Numan] into English,' Antwerp, 
1606, 8vo. Robert Tynley published at 
Loudon, in 1609, * Two learned Sermons,' in 
the second of which * are answered many of 
the arguments published by R. Chambers, 
Priest, concerning Popish Miracles.' 

[Cat. of Printed Books in the Brit. Mus. to 
the year 1640, i. 310, 367, ii. 1071, iii. 1623; 
Diaries of the English College, Douay, 192, 196, 
232, 246-8; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 381; 
Foley's Records, vi. 190, 319; Lowndes's Bibl. 
Man. (Bohn), 407-] , T. C. 




CHAMBEHiS, <ih UOIJKUT (1737- I the three other mdge8,Inipey, Hjde, and Le- 
««'>; . Ir.'JJkbju'i;^*-. wa4 U^ni at N(;wcaBtle- maistre, a second vessel canrymgbut Sir Philip 
r^'lyz^t- ,u it'j7, ntA vrua the cMeHt srm of Francis, who was voyaging to Calcutta to 
;iv^. ^'s*xaA\^rt, mi atfimt-v of that city, take his place on the supreme counciL Four 
»:.v :£a.T.«^ 31l-,4 5l«;tcfl]fe. lli* was placed ' vears later Chambere received the honour of 
.-. ^'^ *y^AT»^ at I'M iinnr;i|ial M:hrx)l, then knighthood. In Oibtober 1770 he desired to 
r.i^r n^ «t\Arji*: of the \itr\, llu^fh Moises, succeed to the place on the council which was 
»x»'/«^ Utu^. hk « rua^t'-r liveh to thin day, and vacant by the death of Colonel Monson, and 
'. .:*:./ iss* tn-\t*ffA davf li»' MHSure^l the ('riend- in the ' IVivate Correspondence ' of Garrick 
#:i.|/, lA h.':f J )i*-n«;v«rrl'^t, of two other pupils, (ii. 183-4) is a letter soliciting the support 
4'^,t* rr/A^f i\f' wfll'kiiown lord Kldon, and of the great actor; but the efforts of Cnam- 
K ,« i/T'/ Ltrr, \l" j 1 J J a in ^jA t , af t erwardH lord hers were not succes«(ful. Wherever he went 
rr'/ji/U'll, Iti Julv 17''il hf wsh elected an he found friends. Mrs. Thrale could never 
<'Z.',,fA*;'/rj<'r of Liur-olii (.'m11**p^c, Oxford, and understand the reason of the partiality which 
yr ^■*:*f:*:0i V,.A, y, h'trh, J7*V<; but he was , all her acquaintances felt for Chambers. His 
«;>/.-« i-«j af'rJlo'A'of rniverhity (,*olU*gf*23 June domestic happiness was clouded by the loss 
j7*/J t and t'^/k bi^ t\tfy^f*; of .M.A. fn>m that of his eldest son in the wreck of the Grosvenor, 
• f,,i^'/*'. on J] July 17<fl. Tli*; last degree | Kast Indiaman, in 1782. SSome time afVer the 
?o y. bi^-b be pf'Hi'^rdwl WHS timt of li.C.L., i resignation by Impey of the office of chief 
J I \h-t'„ ]7<w. Cbarnli^r^ deterinined upon, justice Chambers was elevated to the post 

lilarknUfitf, Tbiq ]Kif*ition be was allow(*<), to Sir William Jones and Lord Teignmouth. 

wbHb<;r tb" <rliiiiute of tlint country would I England, with n constitution undermined by 

t'^r»-t: H it b bi»» roii-t it iit ion, and during tliat 

iM'rio'] Jobn Scott, arMf'd an bis deputy. J^rd 
<ir:libe|fj, t)u} ebfincellor of tbe univerHity, 

his life in the P^ast, and a peerage was offered 
to him, but he had not availed himself of the 
opportunities which a man less disinterested 

\ftmUiykfi\ on CbuniU;rH, in 17<Ui, tbe iK>Ht of. could have si>izodofenriching himself through 
prinfriiittl of New Inn I lull, a ])oM. wliicli re- | his official ]>08ition, and he was compelled to 
fjiiirr:<I no reHidt'nci*, and wsk conMMinently I diHiline the proffered honour and to accept a 
lii'ld by bim tbn)ngboui bin life. Wiiile re- j i)ension. In tbe autumn of 1802 his lungs 
^i<b'rit at Oxford be en^affed in tuition, and j were so much affected that he was ordered to 
uHntUii biM {iiipiU was Mr. Windbani. At this . the south of France, but tbe season was too 
\t*:r'i'A of life Uf: was niucli emi)loy(*d in law far advanced for him to proceed further than 
i'uii'^<'i*, and bih ineoni*.* was NuebaH to enable Parin. Soon afterwards he was seized by a 
biui to diri'line in 17f>>< tbe office of attorney- ]>aralytic stroke, and died near Paris 9 May 

1803 ; his bo<ly was brought to England and 

general in Juniiiira ns inade<]uute to bis pre- 
tenhion^. In 1 773 1 be Hiipreme court ofjudica- 
t lire in Id^nt^al was entablinbtnl, antl (.'bambcrH 
uar*aii|K;inted itA >e<'ond judge, KlijahlmiNiy 
Ihmuk biff eliief. AlnioM. inimediat(>ly before 
Hartiuff for tbe Kn^t be married (8 March 
1771) Fanny Wilton, tbe only daughter of 

buried in tbe Tem])le Church 23 May. A 
monument by Nollekeus to his memory was 
placed in that church. Tliere is also a tablet 
to bis memory in the chapel of University 
College, Oxford, where the year of his birtu 
is given as 17*(f>. Tbe epitaph on the monu* 

Jo'^eph Wilton, a celebnited H<*ulptor, and one ment of his friend, Sir William Jones, in the 
of tbe foundation nif *m1x*r.'* of t bu Royal Aca- latter cha]>el is said to have been composed 
demy. Sbewnstben in ber .sixtcKjntb year, byCham]>ers. f^dy Chambers died at Brigh* 
* f\(|iiiHitely l)<;aut iful,' say> Dr. Jobnson, and ton 15 April 1839. Avolumeof family prayers 
bi^ tahte is corrol>orati»d by tbe testimony of written by her was published in 1821. A por- 
Mtm. Tbnile, wbo adds tbat sbe '.stood for trait of Cliamlx^rs was painted by Sir Josnua 
Ilelx* at t,lie Koyal Academy.' His younger KeynoldsforMr.Tlirale'sstudy atStreatham^ 
brotlier, William Cbaniberri, a gn*at s])cciali8t and a second was taken by Mr. tlome, a painter 
in tbe dialects of Ilindontan, wbo became at Calcutta, shortly before the judge's depar- 
inter])nrter to tbe supreme court at liengal, ture. At the sale of the Thrale portraits in 
an<l wbojw* son, William Frederick, is noticed | 181G the former was l)ought by his widow for 

the dining 

ith Cham* 




bers was established in 1766, and lasted un- 
impaired until he left for India. In the ideal 
uniTersity of St. Andrews which Johnson 
and Boswell founded in their imagination, 
the chair of English law was assigned to 
Chambers, and when he sailed to his new 
country he carried with him a warm letter 
of introduction from the doctor to Warren 
Hastings. Sir Philip Francis was long on 
friendly terms with him, and stood godfather 
to his son in November 1779; but in Sir 
Philip's diary, under the date of February 
1780, are some severe reflections on Chambers. 
This temporary difference was soon composed, 
and on the return of Francis to London he 
wrote to Chambers a complimentary letter, 
although he condemned the other members of 
the supreme court. More letters followed, 
and in one of them Francis heartily congratu- 
lated his friend on his appointment as chief 
justice. In the much-debJated question of the 
trial of Nuncomar the conduct of Chambers 
was marked by deplorable weakness. Fox said 
that Chambers ' had acted verv weakly,' and 
Sir Gilbert Elliot spoke of his 'mild and 
flexible character ; ' but Francis endeavoured 
to sever his friend from the other judges on 
the ground that Chambers wished the trial 
to proceed under a statute of Queen Eliza- 
betn, which did not visit forgery with the 
penalty of death. ' A Treatise on Estates and 
Tenures, by the late Sir Robert Chambers,' 
was edited by his nephew. Sir Charles Ilar- 
court Chambers, in 1824, with the statement 
that it formed part of Sir Robert's Vinerian 
lectures, and that he had purposed to write, ' 
had his health permitted, a commentary on 
the common law. In 1834 W. II. Smoult, 
another kinsman, issued 'A Collection of 
Orders by the Supreme Court of Judicature 
at 'Bengal on the Plea Side of the Court, 
1774-1813, with notes from the note-books 
of Sir Robert Chambers and Mr. Justice Hyde,' 
and in 1838 there was privately printed a 
' Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts col- 
lected during his residence in India by the 
late Sir Robert Chambers. With a brief 
memoir by Lady Chambers.' The judge was 
throughout his life fond of books, and pos- 
sessed a large library, especially rich in ori- 
ental works. His collection of Sanskrit ma- 
nuscripts was purchased for the Royal Library 
at Berlin. His nephew. Sir Charles Harcourt 
Chambers, was a fellow of Trinity CoUege, 
Cambridge, B. A. 1809, M. A. 1814; appointed 
judge in Bengal 1823, removed to Bombay 
1827, and died 13 Oct. at Bombay (^Gent. 
Mag. for 1829, i. 666). \ 

[Boswell's JohDSon (ed. 1835), ii. 22, iii. 8, ; 
304-6. iv. 6, 112, v. 182, 189, vi. 193, viii. 40; . 
Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. iv. 627, v. 120, 472, vii. 

510; Parkes's Sir P. Francis, ii. 12, 116. 142, 
172, 186, 213, 251, 288, 294 ; Stephen's Nanco- 
inar and Impey, passim ; £. B. Impey's Elijah 
Impey. 177, 255-6, 304, 352; Mrs. Piozsi's Au- 
tobiog. (1861), ii. 75, 170-1 ; Gent. Mag. March 
1774, p. 141, May and June 1803, pp. 485, 593 ; 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. x. 430 (1860), 6th 
ser. xii. 256-7, 273 (1885).] W. P. C. 

CHAMBERS, ROBERT (1802-1871), 
Edinburgh publisher, author of *■ Vestiges of 
Creation,* was bom in Peebles 10 July 1802, 
of a family long settled in that town. His 
father was connected with the cotton trade. 
His mother, Jean Gibson, was also a native 
of Peebles. He has left some gi'aphic pic- 
tures, drawn from his own recollection, of 
the state of a small Scottish burgh in the 
early years of the century, where nightly read- 
ings of Josephus excited the keenest interest 
and ' the battle of Corunna and other pre- 
vailing news was stran^ly mingled with 
disquisitions on the Jewish wars.' Here at 
the burgh and grammar schools of the place 
he got for a few shillings a quarter's instruc- 
tion in Latin and the ordinary elements of 
an English education, as then understood. 
A slight lameness (due to a badly performed 
surgical operation, but cured in after life by 
skilful treatment) increased his inclination 
to study. His father had a copy of the 
fourth edition of the * Encyclopedia Britan- 
nica'in a chest in the attic. Robert un- 
earthed it, and it was to him what the ' gift 
of a whole toy-shop would have been to most 
children.* * I plunged into it,* he says, * I 
roamed through it Uke a bee.* This was in 
his eleventh year. About this time the 
father fell into increasing difficulties, and 
thought it advisable to leave Peebles for 
Edinburgh, where he filled various small ap- 
pointments. The succeeding years were after- 
wards known in the family as the 'dark ages.' 
Robert, who had been left at school in Peebles, 
soon joined the family in Edinburgh . He had 
been destined for the church, and it was due 
to this that he attended ' a noted classical 
academy * for some time, and acquired a fair 
knowledge of Latin. At thisperiod the family 
lived a few miles out of town. Robert, who 
lodged in the West Port with his elder brother 
William (1800-1883) [q. v.], found his chief 
amusement in wandering through the narrow 
wynds and among the gloomy, but imposing, 
houses of old Edinburgh. 

In 1816 he left school, and, having taught 
a little in Portobello, filled two situations as 
j unior clerk. From both of these he was soon 
disclmrged, and being now about sixteen, and 
without employment, his brother suggested 
to him that he should begin as a bookseller, 
furnishing a stall with his own school books. 




the old books in the house, and a few cheap 
pocket bibles. Robert, taking this advice, 
speedily started in the world in a small shop 
with space for a stall in firont in Leith Walk, 
opposite Pilrig Avenue. He prospered in 
tnis business, and in 1822 moved to better 
premises in India Place, from which he after- 
wards migrated to Hanover Street. He now 
made the acquaintance of Scott and other 
eminent men of Edinburgh, and began to 
engage extensively in literary work. He 
wrote ' Illustrations of the Author of Wa- 
verley ' (Edin. 1822) and * Traditions of Edin- 
burgh' (2 vols. Edin. 1823, new edit. 1868). 
This latter work, based to a great extent on 
traditions that were fast dying out, is valu- 
able and interesting. It delighted Scott, 
who wondered * where the boy got all the 
information.' Then followed the * Fires which 
have occurred in Edinburgh since the be- 

f inning of the Eighteenth Century * (Edin. 
824), * Walks in Edinburgh' (Edin. 1825), 

* Popular llh}Tnes of Scotland ' (Edin. 1826J 
(one of several volumes which he published 
on the songs of his country), 'Picture of 
Scotland ' (2 vols. Edin. 1826). The mate- 
rials for this last work were gathered in the 
course of successive tours made through the 
districts described. He also wn)te a variety 
of volumes for * Constable's Miscellany.' The 
first of tliese was * History of the liebellion 
of 1745' (1828, seventh edit. 1869). This 
was founded to a considerable extent on un- 
published sources. It is still the best known 
account of the rising. Other volumes were : 

* History of the Kebellions in Scotland from 
1638 to*1660' (1828),* History of the Rebel- 
lions in Scotland in 1689 and 1716' (1829), 

* Life of J ames I ' (1830). Other publications 
about this time were : Editions of * Scottish 
Ballads and Songs' (1829), of * Scottish Jests 
and Anecdotes,' of which the purpose was 
to prove that Scotchmen were * a witty and 
jocular' race; 'Biographical Dictionary of 
Eminent Scotsmen' (4 vols. Glasgow, 1832- 
1834; there are various later editions), * Ja- 
cobite Memoirs of the Rebellion of 1745' 
(1834; this was edited from a manuscript of 
Bishop Forbes). He also wrote (along with 
his brother) * A Gazetteer of Scotland,' Poems 
(1835 ), * A Life of Scott ' (new edition with 
notes by R. Carruthers, ed. 1871), 'Land 
of Burns' (with Professor AVilson, Glas- 
gow, 1840), and a large number of maga- 
zine articles. During the years thus occupied 
Robert's affairs had steadily grown more 
prosperous. * Chambers's Journal,' of which 
llobert wasjoint editor, had been established 
in 1832. The undertaking was a great suc- 
cess, and had led to the establishment of 
the firm of W. & R. Chambers. The busi- 

ness management of what was soon a large 
publishing business fell on William [see 
CuAJfBEKS, Wiluam], and Robert was left 
to carry- out his literary projects undisturbed. 
In 1840 he was elect-ed a member of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, and having 
soon after removed to the comparative quiet 
of St. Andrews, he laboured lor two years 
at the production of * Vestiges of the Natural 
History of Creat ion.' This well-known work 
is a clear and able exposition of a theory 
of development. When published in 1844 
it excited great attention, and was bitterly 
attacked. The author had foreseen this. He 
was anxious to escape strife, he did not wish 
to risk a sound literary reputation honestly 
won in other fields, or to bring his firm into 
discredit ; hence he published nis book ano- 
nymously. Extraordinary precautions were 
taken to avoid detection. All the publishing 
arrangements were conducted throi^h 31r. 
Alexander Ireland of Manchester. He got 
the proofs, sent them under fresh covers to 
Chambers, who returned them to Manchester, 
whence thev were sent to London. The au- 
thorship was attributed to many different 
hands — among them were Sir Charles Lyell 
and Prince Albert — but people came gene- 
rally to believe that Chambers was the author. 
In the 'Athenaeum' of 2 Dec 1854 it was 
said that he Mias been generally credited 
with the work.' The alleged heterodox 
opinions of the author were also used against 
him when, in 1848, a proposal was brought 
forward to make him lora provost of Edin- 
burgh. The secret of authorship was not 
fully disclosed till 1884, when Mr. Ireland, 
the * sole surviving depositary ' of the secret, 
edited a twelfth edition, in an introduction 
to which he gave full details as to the au- 
thorship of the work. Although the book was 
generally considered an attadk on the then 
orthodox mode of conceiving creation, and 
although (-arl Vogt, the German translator, 
in his preface (Braunschweig, 1851 ), expressly 
praises it on this account, yet C^hamoers, a 
man of true, though unsectarian piety, did 
not himself so regard it. He looked upon 
the question as one purely scientific and 
non-tncological. In 1845, after the fourth 
edition w^as published, he issued a tempe- 
rate reply to such criticism as seemed to him 
most noteworthy, entitled * Explanation ; a 
sequel to ** Vestiges of the Natural Historv of 
Creation,"' bv the author of that work, liar- 
win {Historical Introduction to Oritfin of 
Species) says that the work, from its * power- 
ful and brilliant style,' immediately had a 
very wide circulation. * In my opinion it- 
has done excellent service in this country in 
calling attention to the subject, in removing 


Chambers 25 Chambers 

rejudice, and in thus preparing the ground died at St. Andrews, 17 March 1871, and 
or the reception of analogous views.* was buried in the old church of St. Regulus 
When the * Vestiges ' were disposed of, there. Chambers was of a fairish type, with 
Chambers returned to Edinburgh ana resumed brown hair, which early became tin^d with 
the writing and editing of a number of useful grey; he was strongly made, thou^ some- 
works published by his firm. For about what under middle size. His opmions in 
twenty years he worked with extraordinary politics and religion were moderate and libe- 
Activity. Besides occasional pieces and school- ral. His disposition was genial, hospitable, 
books, such as his 'History of the British and kindly. When Leigh Hunt, in April 
Empire ' and ' History of the English Lan- 1834, started the ' London Journal,' which 

tuage and Literature, he produced, with Ko- seemed likely at first to prove a rival to 

ert Carruthers of Inverness, his * CyclopsBdia * Chambers's Journal,' Chambers, in a kindly 

of English Literature ' (2 vols. 1844), ' Ko- letter, wished him all success as a labourer 

mantic Scotch Ballads,' with original airs in a common field. He gave all the profits 

(1844), ' Ancient Sea Margins' (1848), ' His- of a cheap edition of his ' Life and Work of 

tory of Scotland '(new edit. 1849), 'Life and Burns' for the benefit of Mrs. Begg, the 

Works ofRobert Bums' (1851, 'after minute poet's sister. These are but two of many 

personal investigation'), 'Tracings of the like instances. As a writer Chambers is 

North of Europe (I80I), * The Threiplands vigorous, instructive, and interesting. He 

of Fingask' (written in 1858, published 1880), knew a ^eat deal of men and books, and in 

' Tracings in Iceland and the Faroe Islands ' commumcating his knowledge he remembered 

(1856), ' Domestic Annals of Scotland ' (3 his own precept, that dulness is ' the last of 

vols. 1859-1861 ; this work, based on original literary sms.' Thus he was well fitted to be 

research, comprehends the period from the a popular expounder of science and history. 

Reformation to the rebellion of 1745), ' Me- Occasional touches ofhumourgive his writing 

moirs of a Banking House ' (1860, by Sir additional interest. In treating, as he fre- 

William Forbes, edited by Chambers), * Edin- q uently did, of subjects illustrating Scottish 

burgh Papers' (1861, on miscellaneous sub- character, he uses the Scottish dialect with 

jects), ' Songs of Scotland prior to Burns ' singular force and effect. Chambers was 

( 1862). Most of these went through several twice married, but both his wives predeceaseil 

editions. In 1860 Chambers paid a visit to him. He was survived by three sons and 

the United States, and on his return removed six daughters. 

to London (March 1861), in order that he [Memoir of William and Robert Chambers, 

might consult authorities in the British Mu- with portraiu, by William Chambers (12rh edit. 

6eum for the 'Book of Days,' ' a miscellany 1883) ; Scotsman, 18 March 1871 ; original ma- 

of popular antiquities in connection with terials supplied by Mr. C. Chambers of Edin- 

the calendar, including anecdotes, biogra- burgh. A selection from his writings, containing 

phies, curiosities of literature, and oddities ^i» original poems, was published in 1847, in 

of human life and character' (2 vols. 1862- 7 vols. In Brit. Mus. Cat. is a list of seyend 

1864). During his residence in London the ^^'^ written m criticism of the • Vestiges. A 

degr4 of LLS. was conferred upon him by "defence to the numerous magazine articles on 

the University of St Andrews He wm the book is given m Poole s Index, p. 313. Some 

tne umveraity 01 ot. Anarews. Jie was interesting peraonal reminiscences of Chambers 

sdso elected a member of the Athenaeum ^^ ^ ^^^^^ -^ ^r. James Payn's Literary Re- 

Club. These were probably the most pleas- collections (1884).] F. W-t. 
ing to him of the vanous honours which 

were now the reward of his labours. When CHAMBERS, SABINE (1560P-1633), 

the ' Book of Days' was printed. Chambers Jesuit, was bom in Leicestershire in or about 

Tetumed to Scotland. The production of the 1560, and entered Broadgates Hall, Oxford, 

work had, however, injured his health to where he took the degrees in arts, that of 

auch an extent that he never auite recovered, master being completed in 1583, when * he had 

* That book was my death-blow,' he said, the vogue of a good disputant.' He was a 
A brief * Life of Smollett,' which appeared in tutor in Oxford, and in 1581 he had among 
1867, was the last of his printed productions, his pupils John Rider, afterwards protestant 

* A Catechism for the Young ' and ' The Life bisho]) of Killaloe. Having adopted the ca- 
and Preachings of Jesus Christ from the tholic religion hewithdrew to Paris, and there 
Evangelists ' were left unfinished. Among entered the Society of Jesus in 1587. Father 
his unpublished works are numerous anti(}ua- Parsons made him superior of the Jesuit col- 
rian papers, and an extensive inquiry into lege he had established at Eu in Normandy, 
spiritualistic and psychical research, together which institution was closed on 23 Dec. 1588 
with materials for another volume of the on the death of its patron, the murdered duke 
^ Domestic Annals of Scotland.' Chambers of Guise. After teaching theology at Dole, 




in the Rhenish province, he was sent to the 
English mission in 1609, and he resided in 
the London district for nearly a quarter of 
a century. He became a professed father of 
the society in 1618. He died on 10 or 16 
March 1032-^. He wrote * The Garden of 
our B. Lady. Or a deuout manner, how to 
serue her in her rosary. Written by S. C. of 
the Society of lesvs,' St. Omer, 1619, 8vo, 
pp. 272. *' Other matters, as *tis said, he 
hath written, but,' observes Wood, * being 
printed beyond sea, we have few copies of 
them come into these parts.' 

pYood's Athonae Oxen. (Bliss).^ ii. 276 ; 
Oliver's Jesuit Collections, 67 ; Foley's Records, 
vii. 127 ; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 410; Cut. of 
Printed Books in Brit. Mus. ; SouthTrell's Bibl. 
Scriptorum Soc. Jebu ; Backer's Bibl. des £cri- 
vains de In CompiigDie de Jesus.] T. C. 

1796), architect, who is said to have been de- 
scended from a Scotch family of Chalmers, 
who were barons of Tartas in France, was 
bom at Stockholm in 1726. His grandfather, 
a rich merchant, had supplied the armies of 
Charles XII with stores and money, and had 
suffered by receiving the base coin issued by 
that monarch. His lather, who resided many 
years in Sweden to prosecute his claims, re- 
turned to England in 1728, bringing with 
him the future Sir William, at that time 
about two years old, and settled at Ripon, 
where he had an estate. It was here that 
William was educated. . At the age of six- 
teen he began life as a supercargo to the 
Swedish East India Company, and in that 
capacity made one (jierhaps more than one) 
voyage to China. At Canton he took some 
sketches of architecture and costume, which 
were some time afterwards engraved by 
Grignion, Rooker, and other accomplished 
engravers, and published in 17o7 in a work 
caUed * Designs for Chinese Buildings,' &c. 
When eighteen he quitted the sea to devote 
himself to architecture, for which purpose he 
made a prolonged stay in Italy, studying the 
buildings and writings of Palladio and V ig- 
nola, and other Italian architects, from 
Michael Angelo to Bernini, upon which he 
formed his style. At Rome he resided with 
Cl^risseau and Joseph Wilton, the sculptor. 
He also studied under Cl^risseau in Paris. 
He returned to England in 1755, in company 
with Cipriani and Wilton, whose daughter 
(celebrated for her beautv) he married. He 
took a house in Poland Street, and soon ob- 
tained employment. His first work of im- 
portance is said to have been a villa for Lord 
Bessborough at Roehampton, but through 
Lord Bute, to whom he was recommended by 

John Carr, the architect of York [q. v.], he 
was introduced to Augusta, princess dowager 
of Wales, who was seeking a young architect 
to adorn the gardens of her ' villa,' or palace^ 
at Kew. This gave him the opportunity 
for indulging his taste for both classical 
and Chinese architecture, and between 1767 
and 1762 he erected, in what are now known 
as Kew Gardens, several neat semi-Roman 
temples, together with other buildings, which 
were derided as 'unmeaning falballas of 
Turkish and Chinese chequer work.' The 
most important of the oriental buildings wa» 
the well-known pagoda. EUs works at Kew 
were celebrated m a volume, to which he fur- 
nished the architectural designs, Cipriani the 
figures, and Kirby, T. Sandby, and Marlow 
the * views.' The drawings were engraved by 
Woollett, Paul Sandby, Major, Grignion^ 
and others, and published (1/63) in a folio 
volume called *• Plans, Elevations, &c., of the 
Gardens and BuQdings at Kew.' 

His standing in the profession was now 
assured. He had been employed to teach 
architectural drawing to the Prince of Whales 
(George III) ; his works at Kew had esta- 
blished him in royal favour, and he had also 
gained professional distinction by the publi- 
cation in 1769 of his * Treatise of Civil Ar- 
chitecture,' which, in spite of its ignorant de- 
preciation of Greek architecture, was a work 
of considerable merit, and for a long time re- 
mained a text-book for architectural stu- 
dents. A second edition was called for in 
1768, a third in 1791, and it has since been 
more than once republished. 

Chambers commenced to exhibit with the 
Society of Artists (in Spring Gardens) in 
1761, and was one of the first members and 
the first treasurer of the Royal Academy 
when established in 1768. In 1771, in re- 
turn for some highly finished drawings of 
Kew Gardens, he was created by the king of 
Sweden a knight of the Polar Star, and was 
allowed by George III to assume the title 
and style of a knight. In the following year 
(1772) he made an unfortunate literary ven- 
ture by publishing his * Dissertation on Orien- 
tal Gaxdening,' in which he endeavoured to 
prove the superiority of the Chinese system 
of landscape gardening over that practised 
in Europe. His preface is said to have been 
animated with irritation against 'Capability* 
Brown, whose design for Lord Clive's villa 
at Claremont had been preferred to his ; but 
the * Dissertation ' itself, with its absurd de- 
preciation of nature, its bombastic style, and 
its ridiculous descriptions (mainly borrowed 
from other works) of the ^rdens of the em- 
peror of China, was sufiicient to account for 
the satires which it called into life. The 




most important of these was ' An Heroic 
Epistle to Sir AV. C./ followed by ' An Heroic 
Postscript' to this epistle, in both of whicli 
the satire was keen and the verses pointed. 
These liTely nieces ,were published anony- 
moualy, ana their authorship was for some 
time a matter for conjecture. There is now 
no doubt that they were by William Mason, 
the poet fq. v.], the first book of whose 
' English Garden ' was published in 1772. 
According to Warton, the 'Heroic Epistle' 
was ' cut out by Walpole, but buclotimed by 

At this time Chambers was architect to 
the king and queen, and comptroller of his 
majesty^ works (an office afterwards changed 
to that of surveyor-general), and his fame 
and prosperity knew no serious check. He 
moved from Poland Street to Bemers Street, 
and thence to Norton (now Bolsover) Street, 
where he died. He had also an official resi- 
dence at Hampton Court, and a country house 
called Whitton Place, near Hounslow. In 
1774 he revisited Paris, and in 1775 he was 
appointed architect of Somerset House at a 
salary of 2,000/. ayear* The present structure 
was designed by Chambers for the accommoda- 
tion of government offices, the Roval Society, 
and the Itoyal Academy. The late Sir. Fergus- 
son [q. v.] caUs Chambers ' the most successful 
architect of the latter half of the eighteenth 
century,' and Somerset House 'the greatest 
architectural work of the reign of George IIL' 
Tlie best part of the design, according to this 
authority, ' is the north, or Strand, front, an 
enlarged and improved copy of a part of the 
old palace built by Inigo .fones, and pulled 
down to make way for the new builaings.' 
' The south j^rtion of this front is also ex- 
tremely pleasmg,' but after a severe criticism 
of the nver front he adds : ' It was evident, 
however, that the imagination of Cliambers 
could rise no higher than the conception of a 
square and impoetic mass.' 

Although not so much employed as Robert 
Adam [q. v.] in building great country houses 
for the nobility and gentry, he designed town 
mansions for Earl Gower at Whitehall and 
Ijord Melbourne in Piccadilly, Charlemont 
House, Dublin, and Duddin^tou House, near 
Edinburgh. He was the architect of the Al- 
bany in Piccadilly, and of the Market House 
at Worcester. Ho was employed by Eurl 
Pembroke at Wilton, by the Duke of Marl- 
borough at Blenheim, by I^ord Claremont at 
Marino in Ireland, and by the Duke of Bed- 
ford in Blootnsbur^'. lie also made some 
additions and alterations (Gothic) to Milton 
Abbey, near Dorchester. As he grew old 
Chambers retired somewhat from public busi- 
ness, and enjoyed more freely the society of 

his friends, among whom were such celebrated 
men as Johnson, Goldsmith, Keynolds, Bur- 
ney, and Garrick. He was a member of the 
Architects' Club, which met at the Thatched 
House, St. James's. In his later years he 
suffered much from asthma, and after a long 
and severe illness he died at his house in 
Norton Street, Marvlebone, 8 March 179(5,. 
and was buried in Poets' Comer, Westmin- 
ster Abbey. Chambers had five children,, 
four daughters and one son, who married a 
I daughter of Lord Rodney. He left a con- 
siderable fortune. 

[Gent. Mag. 1796; European Mag. 1796; 
Hardwick B Memoir of the Life of Sir William 
Chambers ; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. ; Cunning- 
ham s Lives of British Artists, 1831 ; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of Artists ; Bw- 
well's Life of Johnson ; Fergusson's Uist^ of 
Modem Architecture; EdwarcU's Anecdotes."] 

C. M. 

CHAMBERS, WILLLVM (1800-1883), 
Edinburgh publisher, was bom at Peebles on 
1(5 April 1800. His early life is described 
in the notice of his brother Robert [see 
Chambebs, Robert]. He attended the same 
schools, and read the same books. I le removed 
with the family to Edinburgh, and in 1814 
was apprenticed to Sutherland, a bookseller 
in Calton Street, for five years at 4s. a week. 
As his father went to live some miles out 
of town, he was obliged to support himself. 
His lodgings at the West Port cost him 
Is, 6d. per week, Is. 9d, he paid for his food, 
and 9d. was resen'ed for miscellaneous ex- 
penses. He thought himself fortunate in an 
arrangement he concluded with a baker 
whose bakehouse was situated in the (now 
removed) Canal Street. The baker and 
Chambers were fond of books, and it was 
agreed that the boy was to read to him and 
his men in the morning ; * a penny roll newly 
drawn from the oven* was to reward the 
reader. * Seated on a folded-up sack in the 
sole of the window, with a book in one hand, 
and a penny candle stuck in a bottle near the 
other. Chambers read * Roderick liandom,' 
and other works of the older novelists. He 
also found time to read a little on his own 
account. In May 1819 he finished his aj)- 
prenticeship, and immediately started busi- 
ness for himself as a bookseller in Leith Walk. 
The agent of a London bookseller to whom 
he had been useful gave him 10/. worth of 
books on credit ; these he wht^eled down in 
an empty tea-chest, and having erected a 
few rough shelves and a bookstall, he opened 
shop. He began to bind the books for him- 
self, then he bought an old printing-press 
and types for 3/. On this he printed several 

Chambers 28 Chambers 

little works ; one of these, * A History of the * Glenormiston ' (1849) ; ' Fiddy, an Auto- 


iider his early strugp^les over. He now rican Slaver}- and Colour/ 1857 ; * Something 
>\TOte *The Book of Scotland/ and (with of Italy/ 1862; * History of Peebles/ 1864; 
his brother) * A Gazetteer of Scotland.' The | * About Kailways/ 1866;"* "Wintering at Men- 
tirst of these, published in 1830, is an ac- tone,' 1870; *\*outh*s Companion and Coun- 
count of the machinery of Scottish govern- sellor,' new ed. 1870 ; * France, its History 
ment before the union. Although no second ', and llevolutions/ 1871 ; *AilieGilroy,aScot- 
t.'dition was ever published, this work is the | tisli Story/ 1872; * Biography, Exemplary 
most learned and valuable its author produced. | and Instructive/ 1873; * A Week at Wei- 
He soon became too busy for much original : wyn/ 1873; * Kindness to Animals,' 1877; 
work. He had already (6 Oct. 1821-12 Jan. * Stories of Old Families and Remarkable 
1822) published a fortnightly journal called Persons/ 2 vols. 1878. Chambers also pub- 
'The Kaleidoscope/ and some years afterwards lished privately a number of pamphlets on 
it occurred to hmi that the growing taste for Scottish subjects. In 1841 William and his 
cheap literature would insure the success of brother received the freedom of their native 
a low-priced weekly publication. Accord- ! town. A few years after he presented Peebles 
ingly the first number of * Chambers's Edin- | with * a suite of buildings consisting of a U- 
burgh Journal ' was issued on 4 Feb. 1832. . brary of 10,000 volumes, a reading-room, mu- 
The price was 1J</. per weekly part. The seum, ^allerv' of art, and lecture hall.' This 
success of the venture was at once assured ' was called the (.chambers Institution. (In 
by a circulation of 30,000. In a few years 1860 an account of it was published in Dutch 
this rose to 80,000. llobert was almost from ' by J. II. van Ijennep.) His favourite country 
the first associated with William in this en- residence was in the neighbourhood at the 
terprise, which soon led to the removal of , estate of Glenormiston, which he purchased 
both brothers to new premises, where they in 1849. In 1866 Chambers was cnosen lord 
established the firm of W. & R. Chambers. ' provost of Edinburgh. His term of office was 
The firm, under William's direction, soon si^alised by the passing of the Edinburgh 
t^mbarked on a career of extensive and sue- City Improvement Act (1867), of which Tie 
oessful publishing enterprise. Aiming at the | was the chief promoter. Under the powers 
production of clieap and useful literature, thus obtained a vast work of demolition and 
They produced (in addition to books men- reconstruction was begun. Spacious new 
tioned under Chambebs, Robert) * Cham- streets were run through the most crowded 
bers*s Information for the People/ 1833; ' and badlv constructed parts of old Edin- 

• Chambers's Educational Course, 1836 (tliis, burgh, 'f he result was tliat * the death-rate 
which is still in progress, contains works on a of Edinburgh, which in 1865 was 26,000 per 
^Tvat varietv of subjects) ; * Chambers's Mis- annum, had in 1882 fallen to 18,000.' Cham- 
♦."ollany of Cseful and Entertaining Tracts ;' hers was re-elected lord provost in 1868, but, 

• Chambers^ Encyclopa?dia,' 10 vols. 18o9-68 having accomplished his task, resigned next 

• partly Iwsed on the *Conver8ations-Lexi- year. One of the new streets to the north of 
kon'). llie various editions and wide popu- the college was called Chambers Street to 
laritv of these works prove that they fulfilled commemorate his ser\'ices. Chambers's latter 
the li«^pes of their publishers. One funda- years were occupied with a scheme for the 
mental rule in all their undertakings was restoration of St. Giles's Church, Edinburgh. 
TO 'avoid as fur as i>ossible mixing them- This great historic building had been ois- 
-^'Ivos up witli debatable 4ue^tions in jioli- figured and degraded in a number of ways, 
tics ana thei^logy.' Even after Robertas It was partitioned into four churches, and liad 
vloath. and 

appoanin(.v ^ ^ , ^ , 

blown over. William would not consent to often oivasion to attend public worship 

the woft^t of the authorship Iving divulged cially here. He conceived the idea * of at- 

during his own lifetime (^Irei..\nu's Intro- tempting a restoration of the building/ and 

duotion to twelt^h txlition. pp. viii and xv). so carrying it out that the church might be- 

i'hamWr^ found time, notwithstanding his ci>me, ' in a stMi^e, the Westminster Abbev 

basinet n.*sjx>nsibilitios, for a considerable of Si'otlaud.' i^The details of the scheme ax^ 

amount of litomry work. IWsides a number pivou in his ' Storj- of St. Giles's Church, 

v»f*ional piect**, ho pnHiuoeil : * Tour in EiUnburgh/ 1879.)* The work, owing to 

1 loUand and the Uliine Count ries,* 1839 i^from his unremitting exertion and generositv (he 

iuformatiou gatheivd during a joumoy thei^v); sik»uI between 2(.»,U00/.and 30,000/. onit j, waa 




completely successful. The reopening cei-e- 
mony was fixed for 23 May 1883. Chambers, 
who had been gradually falling, died on the 
20th of that month. He was buried near 
Peebles imder the shadow of the old tower of 
St. Andrews, which, in accordance with his 
direction, was then being restored. 

Chambers was married, and had a family 
of three. All his children died in infancy. 
His wife survived him. Chambers received 
the degree of LL.D. from Edinburgh Uni- 
versity in 1872, and shortly before his death 
he accepted the offer of a baronetcy made him 
by Mr. Gladstone, but this honour ho did not ! 
live to receive. Chambers was about the j 
middle height, ddrk in feature, with hair that , 
comparatively early became grey. Somewhat 
reser\'ed in manner, he was not popular 
with those who knew him slightly, ne had 
great business talents, and to him the success 
of the firm as a financial undertaking was 
chiefly due. He had no special literary 
faculty, but his writings exhibit strong com- 
mon sense, and he knew how to make a sub- 
ject interesting. It is, however, not as the 
popular writer or the successful publisher, 
but as the good citizen, that ho will be 
longest remembered. The name of William 
C-hambers will always be connected with the 
city of Edinburgh, which he beautified, and 
the church of St. Giles, which he restored. 
Portraits of the brothers Chambers, by Sir 
J. Watson Gordon, are in the possession of 
Mr. Robert Chambers of Edinburgh. 

[Chambers's Story of a Long and Busy Life 
(1882), and Memoir of himself (with portrait), 
13th ed. 1884; Scotoman, 21 May 1883 ; original 
materials supplied by Mr. C. Chambers of Edin- 
burgh^ F. W-T. 

RICK (1786-1866), M.D., was eldest son of 
William CHambers, a political servant of the 
East India Companv, and a distingiiished ori- 
ental scholar, who died inl793, by his marriage 
with Charity, daughter of Thomas PVaser, of 
Balmain, Inverness-shire. Sir Robert Cham- 
bers (1737-1803) [q. v.] was his uncle. He 
was bom in India in 1786, came to England in 
1793, was educated at Bath grammar school 
and at Westminster School ; from the latter 
foundation was elected to a scholarship at Tri- 
nity College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
B. A. 1808, M.A. 181 1, M.D. 1818. On leaving 
Cambridge he studied for the profession he 
had chosen at St. George's Hospital, the 
Windmill Street School of Medicine, and at 
Edinburgh. He was an inceptor candidate 
of the Royal College of Physicians, London, 
22 Dec. 1813, a candidate 30 Sept. 1818, a 
fellow 80 Sent. 1819, censor 1822 and 1836, 
coneiliarius 1836, 1841, and 1&46, and an 

elect in 1847. On 20 April 1816 he wa* 
elected physician to St. (xeorge*s Hospital, 
though the youngest of the candidates, and 
held the post until 1839 ; during that period 
he delivered a course of lectures on practical 
medicine, a report of which was printed in 
the * Medical Gazette.' For some time his 
private practice did not increase, and in 1820 
his receipts were only about 200/. ; however, 
from that year a change took place, until at 
last he attained that standing in the profes- 
sion in which a physician monopolises the 
greater part of the consulting practice among 
the upper classes. He was gazetted physician 
in ordmary to Queen Adelaide 26 Oct. 1836^ 
and physician in ordinary to William IV on 
4 May 1837. His majesty at St. James's 
palace, on 8 Aug. 1837, created him K.C.H. ; 
but at his urgent request allowed him to de- 
cline the assumption of the ordinary prefix of 
knighthood. In the succeeding reign he be- 
came physician in ordinary to Queen Victoria 
on 8 Aug. 1837, and to the Duchess of Kent 
in 1839. He continued to be the leading 
physician in London, with an income of from 
seven to nine thousand guineas a year, until 
1848, when bad health obliged him to retire 
into private life. Shortly after he had jpiven 
up the practice of his profession a notice of 
his death appeared in a medical journal, and 
was contradicted by himself. In 1834 a 
poisoned wound, obtained in a post-mortem 
examination, had nearly cost him his life, and 
from its effects he never fully recovered. On 
his retirement he took up his residence on his 
estate at Hordlecliffe, near Ly mington,Hamp- 
shire, where he died of paralysis on 16 Dec. 
1865. His success in practice depended 
mainly on the clear insight which he gained 
into all the bearings of a case by habituating 
himself to place all the facts before him in 
the order of their importance, with reference 
to present symptoms and immediate treat- 
ment required. His constant habit of taking 
notes of cases coming before him gave hivS 
mind a compactness and clearness in summing 
up facts which was the parent of j)racticai 
views in theory and successful decision in 
action. On 13 March 1828 he was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society. His only con- 
tribution to literature was a series of papers 
on cholera, printed in the ' Lancet ' on 10 
and 17 Feb. and 3 March 1849. He married, 
10 Feb. 1821, Mary, daughter of William 
Mackinen Eraser, M.D., of Lower Grosvenor 
Street, London. His manuscripts of cases in 
St. George's Hospital, 1814-28, in ten volumes 
folio, are preser^^ed in the library of the Royal 
Medical and Chirurgical Society. 

[Munks Coll. of Phys. (1878), iii. 196-200 ; 
Medical Circular, with portrait, 6 Oct. 1852, pp. 




373-4; Genu Mag. April 1866, p. 429; I*rc>- ! 
•ceedings Royal Society of London (1857). viii. • 
268 ; Lives of Eminent British Physicians, 1857 ; ' 
Medical Directory (1857), p. 732.] G. C. U. 

CHAMBR]^ SiK ALAN (1739-1823), ' 
judffe, descended from a family which had 1 
settled in Westmoreland in the reign of 1 
Henry III, and had acquired Halhead Hall ' 
in the reign of Henry VIII (Nicor.«oN and 
Brown, West moreiandandCumberlandf 177 7, 1 
i. 84-5), was the eldest son of Walter Cham- 1 
br6, of Halhead Hall, Kendal, barrister, by I 
his wife, Mar}', daughter of Jacob Morland, '. 
■of Capplethwaite Hall, in the same county. 
He was bom at Kendal on 4 Oct. 17*$9. 
After receiving an early education at the 
free gprammar school of the town he was sent 
to Sedbergh school, then under the care of 
Dr. Bateman. From Sedbergh he came up 
to London, where first of all he went into 
the office of Mr. Forth Wintour, solicitor, 
in Pall Mall. He also became a member of 
the Society of Staple Inn, and paid the cus- 
tomary dozen of claret on admission. His 
arms are still to be seen emblazoned on one 
•of the windows of the hall. He removed 
from this inn to the Middle Temple in Fe- 
bruary 1758, and in November 1764 from the 
Middle Temple to Gray's Inn. In May 1767 
he was called to the bar, and went the north- 
em circuit, of which he soon became one of 
the leaders. He was elected to the bench 
of Gray*8 Inn June 1781, and in 1783 filled 
the annual office of treasurer. In 1796 he 
was appointed recorder of Lancaster. On 
the retirement of Baron Perryn from the 
judicial bench he was chosen as his succes- 
sor. In order to qualify for the bench, it 
was necessary that Chambr6 should be made 
a seijeant. As Sir Richard Perryn had re- 
tired in the vacation just before the summer 
circuit, and Serjeants could only be called in 
term, a siiecial act of parliament (89 Geo. 
Ill, c. 67) was passed authorising for the first 
time the appointment of a scrjeant in the 
vacation. L' nder the provisions of this act 
Chambr^ received the degree of seijeant on 
2 July 1799, and on the same day was ap- 
pointed a baron of the exchequer. Lord 
•chief-justice Eyre dying five days after the 
special act had received the royal assent, the 
same difficulty again occurred, and a general 
act (39 Geo. Ill, c. 113) was thereupon passed 
in the some session authorising the appoint- 
ment of any barrister to the degree of Ser- 
jeant during the vacation if done for the 
purpose of filling up a vacancy on the bench. 
Lord Kldon was ttie first judge appointed 
under the provisions of this act. On 13 June 
tin the following year Cliambr6 was trans- 

ferred to the court of common pleas, as suc- 
cessor to Sir Francis Buller. In this court he 
remained until December 1815, when he re- 
signed his seat, and having sat on the bench 
rather more than fifteen years became entitled 
to a pension of 2ft00l, a year by virtue of an 
act passed in the same year in which he had 
been appointed a judge (39 Geo. Ill, c. 110). 
He died at the Crown Inn, Harrogate, on 
20 Sept. 1 8:^3, in his 84th year, and was buried 
in the family vault in Kendal parish church, 
where a monument was erected to his memory. 
He was never married, and was succeeded m 
his estates by his nephew, Thomas ChambrS. 
Chambr^ had a hign reputation at the bar 
both for his legal knowledge and for the jus- 
tice of his decisions. He is described by Lord 
Brougham in his sketxih of Lord Mansfield as 
being ' among the first ornaments of his pro- 
fession as among the most honest and amiable 
of men' (Historical Sketches^ 1839, i. 117). 
So extremely careful was he lest any of his 
actions should be misconstrued that, it is said, 
he once refused an invitation to a house where 
the judges usually dined when on circuit, be- 
cause the owner had been a defendant in one 
of the causes which had been tried at an assize 
at which he had lately presided. An excellent 
portrait of OhambnS, Tby Sir William Allan, 
18 in the possession of Mr. Alan Chambrd, of 
South Norwood, the present head of the family* 
It has been engraved by Henry Meyer. 

[Foss's Judges, viii (1864) 267-9; Cornelius 
Nicholson's Annals of Kendal, 1832, pp. 63, 255 ; 
Dumford and East's Term Reports, viii. (1817) 
421, 587; Gent. Mag. vol. xciii. pt. ii. p. 469; 
Law and Lawyers (1840), ii. 129.1 

G. F. R. B. 

CHAMBRE, JOHN (1470-1549), physi- 
cian, whose name is also spelt Chamber,(3ham- 
byr, and Chambers, bom in Northumberland, 
studied at Oxford, where he was elected fellow 
of Merton College in 1492, and, having taken 
orders, was presented to the living of Tich- 
marsh in Northamptonshire. He proceeded 
M.A., visited Italy, studied medicine there, 
and graduated in that faculty at Padua. On 
his return he l>ecame physician to King 
Henry VII, and fulfilled the duties of that 
dimcult situation so well that he was as much 
in favour with the prince as he had been with 
the old king, and was physician to Henry VUI 
throughout his reign. He received the de- 
gree of M.D. at Oxford in 1531. When theCol- 
lege of Physicians was founded in 1518, Dr. 
Chambre was the first named in the charter of 
those who were to form the body corporate, 
and he is also associated with the incorpora- 
tion of surgery in this country, for in Hol- 
bein's picture of the granting of a charter to 




tlie barber surgeons in 1641, Dr. Chambre 
is depicted kneeling first of the three royal 
physicians on the king's right hand, witness- 
ing the giving of the sealed charter into the 
hiuid of Thomas Yicary. He wears a gown 
trimmed with fur, and has a biretta-like cap 
on his head. He has a straight, but some- 
what short, nose, well-marked eyebrows, a 
very long clean-shaven chin, and an almost 
severe expression of face. Chambre was cen- 
sor of the College of Physicians in 1523. He 
wrote no medical book, but some of his pre- 
scriptions for lotions and plasters are pre- 
served in manuscript (Sloane MS, 1047, Brit. 
Mus. ff. 25-9, and 84-6), and a letter signed 
by him on the health of Queen Jane Seymour 
is extant. His first preferment was an ec- 
clesiastical one, and he received much ad- 
vancement in the church. In 1508 he was 
given the living of Bowden in Leicester- 
shire, from 1494 to 1509 beheld the prebend 
of Codringham in Lincoln Cathedral, and 
from 1509 to 1549 that of Leififhton Buzzard 
in the same, and in the same diocese, as then 
constituted, he held the archdeaconry of Bed- 
ford from 1525 to 1549, while he was also 
treasurer of Wells 1510 to 1543, and in 1537 
canon of Wiveliscombe ; he was precentor of 
Exeter 1524 to 1549, canon of W^indsor 1509 
to 1549, warden of Merton College, Oxford, 
1525 to 1544, archdeacon of Meath 1540 to 
1542, and dean of the collegiate chapel of St. 
Stephen's, Westminster. Thus in 1540 this 
royal physician was also head of a college at 
Oxford, and held preferments in one Irish 
and three English dioceses. He built the 
beautiful cloisters of St. Stephen's chapel at 
his own cost, but lived to see them aemo- 
lished while he himself acquiesced in the 
changes of the times. He died in 1549, and 
was buried in St. Margaret's, Westminster. 

[Le Neve, Fasti, 1854; Cotton's Fasti Eccle- 
«i8e Hibemicse, ili. 127; Brodrick's MemoriaU 
of Merton Colleg«», Oxf. Hist. Soc. 163-4 ; Hunk's 
Coll. of Phys. 1878. i. 11 ; Picture at Barbers' 
Hall, London ; original charter of Henry VIII 
at College of Physicians.] N. M. 

CHAMBRE, WILLIAM db (/. 1365 ?), 
whom Wharton considers to have been one 
of the continuators of Robert de Graystanes' 
' Historia Dunelmensis,' appears to have flou- 
rished in the latter half of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. Wharton, however, calls him the author 
•of all the * Cont inuat ion * of Gray stanes printed 
in the ' Anglia Sacra, and as this extends to 
1571, it is probable that he would have as- 
signed William de Chambre to the sixteenth 
century or later. The entire question, how- 
ever, in the absence of direct information, re- 
solves itself into one of internal evidence. The 

whole or part of the so-called * Continuation 
of Robert de Graystanes * is preserved in three 
manuscripts. In every case it follows imme- 
diately after Graystanes' * Historia Dunel- 
mensis,' which appears to have been completed 
about 1837. Of these three exemplars one is 
to be found in the library of the dean and 
chapter at York (xvi. i. 12) ; another at the 
British Museum {Cotton. MS. Titus A, ii.) ; 
and the third in the Bodleian Library at Ox- 
ford {FatrftLv MS. 6). The Cotton. MS., 
which, however, only contains a small part 
of the * Continuation,' breaks off after the 
conclusion of the life in 1345 of Richard de 
Bury ; Richard was the successful competitor 
of Graystanes for the see of Durham. Tliis 
part of the * Continuation ' bears a note 
ascribing the * Vita Ricardi ' to William de 
Chambre. The Oxford manuscript agrees with 
the Cotton. MS. up to the election of Richard, 
after which it omits the concluding passage 
of Gravstanes' work and transposes the posi- 
tion of the first paragraph relating to Rich- 
ard de Bury. Irom this point to the death 
of the last-named bishop it agrees almost 
verbally with the Cotton. MS. This Oxford 
manuscript, however, is continued in diflbr- 
ent hands to 1571 ; and it should be noticed 
that both the character of the writing and the 
colour of the ink show a very marked change 
at the point where the history of Graystanes 
and the * Vita Ricardi ' touch. Ink anS hand- 
writing again change at the conclusion of the 
' Vita,' and once or twice more in the course 
of the remaining fifteen leaves of this manu- 

The only reason given by Wharton for as- 
cribing the whole of the * Continuatio His- 
toriffi Dunelmensis,' as found in the Oxford 
manuscript, to William de Chambre, is that 
in the Cotton. MS. the 'Vita Ricardi' is 
assigned to this author. But it is evident 
from the description just given of this ' Vita ' 
that, even in the Oxford manuscript of tlie 
* Continuatio,' it stands out as a distinct 
work from Graystanes' * History ' which pro- 
cedes it, and the loose collection of docu- 
I ments that follows it. Hence it is quite con- 
ceivable, and even probable, that it was writ- 
ten, as the Cotton. MS. states, by William de 
Chambre, who, in this case, need not be con- 
sidered as the author of what follows in the 
I Oxford manuscript. This conclusion is sup- 
I ported by the account Mr. Raine gives of the 
York manuscript, the whole of which, includ- 
ing the * Vita Ricardi * (but apparently no 
more of the 'Continuatio Historine Dunel- 
mensis '), is written in a fourteenth-century 
hand. Hence the author of the * Vita ' must 
have lived in this century, and may very well 
have been a contemporary of the bishop 




wliose life he writes. "VVith regard to his name, 
there is no just reason for doubting the state- 
ment of the Cotton. MS. that he was called 
William de Chambre, more especially as Mr. 
Kaine has discovered a corrody granting a 
certain 'VVillielmus de TChambre the office of 
hall-marshal to the abbey of Durham, with ; 
the perquisites attached to this post. The 
date of tliis document (1365) would suit all ■ 
the requirements necessary for settling this I 
difficult question of authorship in favour of 
AVilliam ae C/hambre. Wharton has published 
the Cotton. MS. of Graystanes and Chambre, 
to which he has added the 'Continuation' 
from the Fairfax MS. Mr. Raine has issued 
Graystanes and Chambre from the York ma- 
nuscrii)t, adding the ' Continuation ' from the 
Fairfax MS. or from Wharton. 

[Fairfax MS. 6, in tho Bodleian Library ; Cata- 
logue of Cotton. MSS. 511; Historise Dunelmen- 
fcis Scriptores tres, ed. R^iine (Surtees Society), 
preface pp. viii, x, xiv-xvi, and pp. 122-156; 
Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. preface, pp. xlix-1, 
and pp. 765-784.] T. A. A. 

CHAMIER, ANTHONV (1725-1780), 
friend of Dr. Johnson, was the descendant of 
Daniel Chamier, minister of the reformed 
church of France, and the grandson of a se- 
cond Daniel Chamier, a minister of the same 
church, who, after the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes, sought refuge in England, 
and officiated in several French protestant 
churches in London. He was bom on 6 Oct. 
1725, and baptised in the Walloon chapel, 
Threadneedle Street, London, on 19 Oct., his 
parents being a third Daniel Chamier and Su- 
sanne de la Mejanelle. Early in life he was 
engaged on the Stock Exchange, a circum- 
stance which his enemies in later years did 
not allow him to forget. His wife was Do- 
rothy, daughter and coheiress of Robert Wil- 
son, mei-chant, of St. Mary Axe, London, and 
her sister married Thomas Bradshaw, who, 
from an under-clerkship in the war office, 
became private secretary to the Duke of 
Grafton, and joint secretary of the treasury 
in the Chatham and Grafton administrations. 
To this connection Chamier was indebted for 
his start in life. He obtained a place in the 

Eublic service, and in January 1772 was raised 
y Lord Barrington to the post of deputy 
secretary at war. This advancement brought 
down upon Chamier the anger of Philip 
Francis, who attacked the appointment in 
the coarsest language both in his private cor- 
respondence and in letters to the newspapers; 
ana as many of the productions in the public 
prints are believed to have been written by 
the author of the letters signed Junius, this 
attack has largely contributed to foster the 

belief that Francis was Junius. Chamier 
was created under-secretary of state for the 
southern department in 1775, and on 10 June 
1778 was returned to parliament for the 
borough of Tamworth. On 11 Sept. 1780, a 
month and a day before his death, ne was re- 
elected by the same constituency. He died 
in Savile Row, London, on 12 Oct. 1780, and 
was buried at St. James's, Piccadilly. He 
left no issue, and his property passed by will 
to his nephew, John Deschamps, with a tes- 
tamentary injunction to take the name and 
arms of the Chamier -family. 

Chamier was an original member in 1764 
of the Literary Club, and Dr. Johnson, when 
drawing up his scheme of a university at St. 
Andrews, assigned to him the chair of ' com- 
mercial politics.' His country house was at 
Streatham, and Johnson usea freauently to 
visit there, and within its walls ne passed 
his seventieth birthday. The doctor applied 
to Chamier in 1777 for assistance in aiding 
the unhappy Dr. Dodd, and when Heniy 
Welch, wno succeeded Fielding as magis- 
trate for Westminster, was driven firom ill- 
health to a warmer climate, it was through 
Chamier's interest that Johnson procured for 
him leave of absence without stoppage of pay. 
C'hamier sat to Sir Joshua Reynolds thrice 
(December 1762, January 1767, and Novem- 
ber 1777), and the two houses in which the 
great painter liked best to spend his leisure 
hours were those of the Homecks and 

[Boswell's Johnson (cd. 1836), ii. 271, iv. 112, 
vi. 210, 254, vii. 40, 85 ; Parkes's Sir P. Francis, 
i. 273-8 ; Courthope's Daniel Chamier and his . 
Descendiintfl, pp. 63-5; Agnew*s Protestant 
Exiles from Franco, ii. 246, 294-6; Leslie and 
Taylor's Sir Joshua Reynolds, i. 219, 228, 237, 
250, ii. 203, 386; Gent. Mag. October 1780, 
p. 495.] W. P. C. 

CHAMIER, FREDERICK (1796-1870), 
captain in the navy, son of John Chamier, 
member of council for the Madras presi- 
dency, by Georgiana Grace, eldest daughter 
of Aamiral Sir >Villiam Bumaby, bart., en- 
tered the navy in June 1809, on board the 
Salsette, in which he served on the Wal- 
cheren expedition. He was afterwards mid- 
shipman of the Fame and of the Arethusa in 
the Mediterranean, and from 1811 to 1814 
was in the Menelaus with Sir Peter Parker, 
and was on shore with him when Sir Peter 
was killed at Bellair on 30 Aug. 1814. On 
6 July 1815 he was promoted to the rank of . 
lieutenant, and continued serving in the 
Mediterranean, on the home station, and in 
the West Indies till 9 Aug. 1826, when he 
was promoted to the command of the Brito* 

Champion 33 Champion 

mart sloop, whicli he brought home and borough, and on both occasions through the 

paid off in 1827. He had no further em- influence of the Eliot family. His first con- 

plojment, and in 1833 was placed on the stituency was St. Germans (22 April 1754), 

retired list of the navy, on which he was pro- the second was Liskeard (30 March 1761). 

xnoted to be captain on 1 April 1856. 

On his retirement Chamier settled in the 

In the House of Commons he sat, like the 
illustrious Gibbon, who also represented the 

neighbourhood of Waltham Abbey and de- latter constituency, a mute observer of the 
voted himself to literary pursuits. He was ' scene, and although he dabbled in poetry, his 

the author of several novels, which, humble 
imitations of Marryat's, had at one time a 
considerable popularity, though now almost 
'Life '• 

effusions remained unpublished until after 
his death. He died on 22 Feb. 1801, and in 
the same year a volume of * Miscellanies in 

;ten. Amongst these may be named i verse and prose, English and Latin, by the late 

ofa Sailor '(1832),' Ben Brace' (1836), | Anthony Champion,' was published by his 

•The Arethu8a'(1837),*JackAdams'(1838), lifelong friend, William Henry, lord Lyttel- 

* Tom Bowline' (1841). Of greater real value ton. Is umerous entries relating to Champion's 

was his work of editing and continuing down ' ancestors will be found in the reprint by A. J. 

to 1827 James's * Naval History ' (1&7), in Jewers of the registers of St. Columb Major, 
the introduction to which he cleverly and [Life prefixed to Miscellanies; Return of 

good-humouredly disposed of some dispara- Members of Parliament, ii. 110, 124; J. H. 

ging criticisms on the original work which Jesse's Etonians, ii. 168-9.] W. P. C. 

had been nu^e by Captain E. P. Brenton CHAMPION, JOHN GEORGE (1815 ?- 

t'J-I-^r S' ^^ ^^^'"U'VJ' ' . 1854), botanist, was gazetted ensigi in the 

mthefollowingyearpubbshed an account ggth^'regiment in 1^1, and embarked for 

of what then took pk^ under the title 'A j^^. ^^j^ .^^ ^^ having then attained 

Review of the French Revolution ot 1848. ^^^ 8^^ ^^ j^ '^^^^/^ .^ ^ 

A few years later he published Mv Travels; j^^j^^ j^j^ his duties took him to Ceylon, 

Zfi:S'^l^!^(s':od),^rro: andthenceinl847toHongkong. HebroUi 

1 oect^ ^ ' ^- ^ rX' ' *^ * 1 his collection of dried plants to Enirland in 

1856). The narrative of this journey taken igso ; most of his novelties were described 

m the company of hjB wife and daughter is ^ ^^ Bentham in Hooker's * Journals,' and 

apparently meant to be autobiompl^^^^ but J^erwards served as part material fo^ the 

itisyittentWghoutmsuchad^^^^^ ' Jl^^lora Hongkongensls.' Before leaving 

would-be facetious style that it is difficult to ^^^^^^ ^^^ f^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 1^^ ^j^^ ^J 

^^^}f^^''^'^'S,^''A^^n^''^'\f7^ 8et%f his plants in the Kew herbarium, 

m^ttobefunny He^dmOc^^^^^ He was wounded at Inkermann, 6 Nov. 

He marned m 1882 Elizabeth, daughter ^g^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ lieutenant-coloAel for his 

of Mr John Soane of Chelsea, and grand- ^^^^[^^^ j^^^j^^^ ^^^^1 ^^^ j^^ ^^1 . . 

daughter of Sir John Soane. ^1^^ ^^^ ^ ^y^^^ ^i^^ ' ..^^ j^ y^^ .(J ^^ 

[O'Byme's Nav. Biog. Diet. ; Times, 2 Nov. Scutari 30 Nov. following, aged 89. His 

1870.] J. K. L. name is commemorated in the genus Ckanp' 

CHAMPION, ANTHONY (1725-1801), ^T^I^?^7 "i™??/ ''^^•^'' P^*""^® ^^ ^^® ^^^^"^ 

poet and versifier, was the son of Peter ^id i?^orfo/e«fl Champtonu 

Champion, a member of a family long resi- ^ [Harts Annual Army List, 1840, 1853 ; Bent- 

dent ii the parish of St. Columb in Corawall, ^"^ « ,^^^» Hongkongen«8, pp 8*-9* ; Gar- 

^irho ftcnuir^d a considerable fortune as a *^®°^" Chronicle (1854), pp. 819-20; Mohl u. 

WHO acquired a considers Die lortune as a Schlochtendal's Bot. Zeit. xiii. (1855). p. 488.1 
merchant at Leghorn. He was bom at Uroy- ^ ^^ jy y 

don on 5 Feb. 1724-5, and was first educated 

at Cheam School. In 1739 he was sent to CHAMPION, JOSEPH (/. 1762), calli- 

Eton, and, after stopping there for three years, grapher, was born at Cliatham in 1709. He 

matriculated at St. >iary Hall, Oxford, in was educated partly in St. Paul's school, but 

February 1742, where he was placed under the chiefly under the eminent penman, Charles 

care of Walter Harte, a distinguished tutor Snell, who kept Sir John Jolinson's free school 

and a respectable man of letters. At Oxford he in Foster Lane, and witli whom he served a 

remained for two years, when he left without regular apprenticeship. Afterwards he o])ened 

taking his degree, and entered as a student a board inff-school in St. Paul's Churchyard, 

at the Middle Temple. He ultimately became j and in 17(J1 he was master of a * new academy ' 
a bencher of the inn, and continued to reside in Bedford Street, near Bedford Row. 

within its precincts until his death, when he 
left the society the sum of 1 ,000/. Champion 
was twice returned to parliament for a Cornish 

TOL. X. 

His principal work^ are : 1. ' Practical 
Arithmetic,' 1733. 2. * Penmanship : or, the 
Art of Fair Writing,' London, 1740 ; oblong 

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[Hugh Owen's Two Centuriea of Ceramic 
Art in Bristol, 1873.] E. K- 

CHAMPION, THOMAS (d. 1619). [See 

(15(59 ?-1643 P), catholic divine, descended 
£rom a family of good account in Yorkshire, 
-was bom in that county in or about 1669. He 
was sent to the English college of Douay, 
then temporarily removed to 1-Uieims, where 
he arrived on 17 June 1590. After evincing 
much capacity in the study of the classics he 
completed his philosophical studies and was 
admitted to the minor orders on 24 Feb. 
1591-2. He and several others left for Rome 
on 19 Jan. 1592-3 in order to pursue their 
theological studies in the English college 
there. After being ordained priest he settled 
in the university of Paris, where he was 
created D.D., and elected a fellow of the 
Sorbonne. For some years he was the 
superior of Arras coUege, a small com- 
munity of English ecclesiastics in Paris who 
49pent their time in writing books of contro- 
versy, and he was engaged in a dispute with 
Dr. WilUam Reyner concerning the ad- 
ministration of that institution. Soon after 
Dr. Kellison was made president of the 
English coUege at Douay on the removal of 
Dr. Worthingfton, the cardinal protector, by 
A special deputation, appointed Champney 
vice-president. He accordingly left Paris 
and arrived at Douay on 25 April 1619. In 
addition to discharging the duties of vice- 
president he delivered lectures in divinity. 
Subsequently, at the request of the arch- 
bishop of MechUn, he was appointed con- 
fessor to the English Benedictine nuns at 
Brussels, and he held that post for three 
years, surrendering it on 23 Sept. 1628 in 
consequence of a complaint made by the 
Benedictine monks that he was one of the 
thirteen priests who had signed the protesta- 
tion of allegiance to Queen Elizabeth. He 
then exercised his former employments at 
Douay till he was sent to England, where he 
was chosen a canon of the chapter, and 
afterwards, in 1637, dean, on the death of 
Edward Bennet. He was living in January 
1643. Dodd teUs us that * he was very tall 
and lean ; yet of a strong constitution, and 
able to endure labour.' 

His works are: — 1. *An Answere to a 
Letter of a lesvited Gentleman, by his Cosin 
Maister A. C. Concerning the Appeale, 
State, Iesvit«,' 1601, 4to, sifie loco. 2. * A 
Manval of Controversies, wherein the Catho- 
lique Romane faith in all the cheefe pointes 
of controuersies of these daies is proved by 
holy Scripture. By A C. S/ (i.e. Anthony 

Champney, Sacerdos), Paris, 1614, 12mo. 
Richard Pilkington replied to this work in 
'The New Roman Catholick and Ancient 
Christian Religion compared,' which elicited 
from Champney 3. * Mr. Pilkinton, his 
Parallela disparalled. And the Catholicke 
Roman faith maintained against Protes- 
tantisme,'St.Omer, 1620,8vo. 4. 'ATVeatise 
of the Vocation of Bishops, and other Eccle- 
siasticall Ministers. Proving the Ministers 
of the pretended Reformed Chvrches in 
generall, to have no calling: against Monsieur 
du Plessis, and Mr. Doctour Feild : And in 
particuler the pretended Bishops in England, 
to be no true Bishops. Against Mr. Mason.' 
Douay, 1616, 4to. Addressed to ' Mr. Gorge 
Abbat, called Arch-bishop of Canterbvry.' 
A Latin translation appeared at Paris, 1618, 
8vo, with a dedicatory epistle by Champney 
to Henri de Gondy, bishop of Paris. This 
treatise was an answer to a work published 
in 1613 by Francis Mason, chaplain to 
George Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury 
and entitled * A Vindication of the Church 
of Englanii concerning the Consecration and 
Ordination of Bishops.' Mason's book was 
also, long afterwards, published in Latin. 
These works were the commencement of the 
controversy, which has been maintained 
down to the present day, respecting the 
validity of the Anglican ordinations. Henry 
Fern published an 'Examination of Anthony 
Champney's Exceptions against the lawful 
Calling and Ordination of the Protestant 
Bishops,' London, 1653, 8vo. 5. * An Answer 
to a Pamphlet [by D. Featley], intituled 
The Fisher catched in his owne Net. By 
A. C.,' 1623, 4to. 6. A volume of sermons, 
preached chiefly in the monastery of Benedic- 
tine nuns at Brussels. Manuscript formerly 
in the Carthusians' library at Nieuport. 7. * A 
History of Queen Elizabeth, civil and reli- 
gious, ad annum ElizabethsB 31 .' This manu- 
script work, preserved in the archives of the 
Old Chapter at Spanish Place, London, was 
largely used by Bishop Challoner in his * Me- 
moirs of Missionary Priests.' 8. * Legatum 
Antonii Champnei Doctoris Sorbonici Fratri- 
bus suis cleri Anglicani Sacerdotibus, testa- 
mento relictum,' dated 5 Jan. 1643, and printed 
with the * Monita quaedam vtilia pro Sacer- 
dotibvs Seminaristis Missionariis Angliae,' by 
Richard Smith, bishop of Chalcedon, Paris, 
1647, 12mo. 

[Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 81 ; Diaries of the 
English College, Douay, 231, 243, 249 ; Addit. 
MSS. 18393, 18394; Husenbeth's English Col- 
leges and Convents on the Continent ; G-illow's 
Bibl. Diet. i. 462; Jones's Popery Tracts, 212; 
Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. Mus. ; Panzani's 
Memoirs, 72.1 T. C. 

D 2 




CHAMPNEYS, JOHN (^.1648), reU- 

gious writer, bom near Bristol, is described 
y Strype as living in later life at * Stratford- 
on-the-Bow,' near London. He was a lay- 
man and an ardent reformer. He published 
in London in 1548 a controversial treatise in 
English, * The Harvest is at hand wherein 
the tares shall be bound and cast into the 
fyre and brent,* London (by H. Powell), 1648. 
Some extreme Calvinistic opinions advanced 
in this work and in others by the same writer, 
which are not now known, offended Arch- 
bishop Cranmer, who insisted on the author's 
recantation on 27 April 1648. The proceed- 
ings are described at length in Strype's 
'Cranmer,' ii. 92-4. At the beginning of 
Elizabeth's reign a writer of the same name, 
who had had to recant some Pelagian here- 
sies, published anonymously a reply to Jean 
Veron's ' Fruteful Treatise of Predestination' 
(1668 ?), which Veron answered in his 'Apo- 
Another John Champneys {d, 1566) was 

a skinner of London ; was sheriff in 1622 and 
lord mayor in 1634, when he was knighted. 
Stow states that he was struck blind in his 
later years, a divine judgment for having 
added ' a high tower of brick ' to his house in 
Mincing Lane, 'the first that I ever heard of 
in any private man's house, to overlook his 
neighbours in this city.* He was son of Ro- 
bert Champneys of Chew, Somersetshire, and 
was buried at Bexley, Kent, 8 Oct. 1666 
(Machtn, Diary, Camd. Soc. p. 115). His 
epitaph is given in Thorpe's ' Registrum Rof- 
fense,' p. 924. His family long continued in 

[Tanner's Bibliotheca Brit. ; Strype*8 Cranmor, 
ii. 92-4 ; Machyn's Diary, Camd. Soc. p. 362 ; 
Hasted's Kent, i. 160, iii. 326 ; Stow's Survey, 
ed. Thorns, p. 51 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] S. L. L. 


(1807-1876), dean of Lichfield, was eldest 
son of the Rev. William Betton Champneys, 
B.C.L. of St. John's College, Oxford, by his 
marriage with Martha, daughter of Montague 
Stable, of Kentish Town. He was bom in 
Camden Town, St. Pancras, London, 6 April 
1807, and was educated by the Rev. Richard 
Povah, rector of St. James's, Duke's Place, 
city of London, and having matriculated from 
Brasenose College, Oxford, on 3 J uly 1 824, was 
soon after elected to a scholarship. He took 
his B.A. degree in 1828, and his M.A. in 
1831, was then ordained to the curacy of Dor- 
chester, near Oxford, whence he was trans- 
ferred three months afterwards to the curacy 
of St. Ebbe's, in the city of Oxford, and in 
the same year was admitted a fellow of his 
college. In this parish he established na- 

tional schools, the first that were founded 
in the city, and during the severe visitation 
of the cholera in 1832 he assiduously de- 
voted himself to the sick. He was in 1837 
appointed rector of St. Mary's, Whitechapel, 
London, a parish containing thirty-three 
thousand people, where, mainly through his 
personal exertions in the course of a short 
time, three new churches were built. Here 
also he erected schools for boys and girls, and 
a special school for infants ; but finding that 
many children could not attend in conse- 
quence of being in want of suitable apparel, 
he set up a school of a lower grade, which 
was practically the first ragged school opened 
in the metropolis. In connection with the 
district he founded a provident society, as- 
sisted in the commencement of a shoeolack 
brigade, with a refuge and an industrial home 
for the boys, and co-operated with others in 
the work of building the Whitechapel Foun- 
dation Commercial School. He was the origi- 
nator of a local association for the promotion*, 
health, and comfort of the industrial classes, 
and also of the Church of England Young 
Men's Society, the first association of young 
men for religious purposes and mutual im- 
provement which was seen in Whitechapel 
The London coal-whippers were indebtea to 
him for the establishment of an oflice, under 
an act of parliament in 1843, where alone 
they could be legally hired, instead of as be* 
fore being oblig^ to wait in public-houses. 
His principles were evangelical and catho- 
lie. His sermons attracted working men by 
plain appeals to their good sense and rigm; 
feeling. On 3 Nov. 1861, on the recommen- 
dation of Lord John Russell, he was appointed 
to a canonry in St. Paul's, and the dean and 
chapter of that cathedral in 1860 gave him 
the vicarage of St. Pancras, a benefice at one 
time held by his grandfather. The rectory of 
Whitechapel had been held by him during 
twenty-three years, and on his removal he 
received many valuable testimonials and uni- 
versal expressions of regret at his departure. 
He was named dean of Lichfield on 11 Nov. 
1868 ; attached to the deanery was the rec- 
tory of Tatenhill, and his first act was to 
increase the stipend of the curate of that 
rectory from 100/. to 600/. a year, and to ex- 
pend another 600/. in rebuilding the chancel 
of the church. He died at the deancrv, Lich- 
field, on 4 Feb. 1875, and was buried in the 
cathedral yard on 9 Feb. He married, 
20 March 1838, Mary Anne, fourth daughter 
of Paul Storr, of Beckenham, Kent. He was 
a voluminous author of evangelical literature, 
but it is doubtful if many of his writings con- 
tinue to be read. His no me is found appended 
to upwards of fifty works, but a large num- 




ber of these are either books which he edited 
or to which he contributed recommendatory 
prefaces; whilst others are single sermons 
and lectures which had a local circulation. 

The titles of the most imporUnt of his own 
works are given below : 1. ' Plain Sermons 
on the Liturgy of the Church of England/ 
1845. 2. ' The Path of a Sunbeam/ 1845. 
S. ' The Church Catechism made plain/ 1847. 

4. ' A ChUd a Hundred Years Old/ 1848. 

5. ' Floating Lights/ 1849. 6. * A Quiet One 
in the Land ; Memoir of Mary Anne Partridge/ 
1849. 7. * Drops from the Well, a simple ex- 
planation of some of the Parables/ 1852. 
S. * Marriage with a Deceased Wife's Sister/ 
1861. 9. * The Golden Chord, or Faith, Hope, 
and Charity,' 1852. 10. * She hath done what 
she could/ 1853. 11. * An Example of Suf- 
fering, Affliction, and Patience, or a Brief 
Memoir of Helen S — ,' 28th thousand, 1853. 
12. 'Confirmation, or the Citizen of Zion 
taking up his Freedom,' 1856. 13. 'Sin and 
Salvation/ 1858. 14. ' The Sunday School 
Teacher/ 3rd edit. 1^57. 15. * A Story of 
the Great Plague,' 1^58. 16. ' The Spirit in 
the World/ 1862. 17. 'Early Rains; a Sketch 
of A. C. Savage,' 1863. 18. ' Facts and Frag- 
ments/ 1864. 19. ' Parish Work ; a brief 
Manual for the young Clergy,' 1865. 20. 
« Things New and Old,' 1869. 21. ' The Power 
of the Resurrection ; a Sketch of II. Adams, 
a Whitechapel ragged-school teacher,' 1871. 
22. 'A Simple Catechism for Protestant 
Children/ 57th thousand, 1877. He was also 
a writer in ' Home Words,' ' Our Own Fire- 
side/ and other periodicals. 

[Drawing-room Portrait Galleiy (4th seriesf 
1860). with portrait, pp. 1,2; Christian Cabinet 
Almanack, with portrait (1861), pp. 14, 31 ; Mil- 
ler's St. Pancras (1874), pp. 21, 22; Champ- 
neys's Story of the Tent maker, 1875, with me- 
moir and portrait ; The Guardian, 10 Feb. 1875, 
p. 168, and 17 Feb. p. 209.] G. C. B. 

navigator, accompanied ' Roger Bodenham 
with the great Barke Aucher ' on a journey 
to Condia and Chio in 1550. He was in 
1553 chosen to be captain of the Edward 
Bonaventure, and ' pilot-general ' of the ex- 
pedition which was fitted out under the 
command of Sir Hugh Willoughby fq. v.l 
in the Bona Esperanza, ' for the search ana 
discovery of the northern part of the world,' 
■and especially to look for a north-east pas- 
sage to India. Chancellor is described as 
' a man of great estimation for many good 
•parts of wit,' and as having been ' brought up 
by one Master Henrv Sidney,* the father of 
the better known Sir Philip. He seems to 
have been a seafaring man. Sidney said in 
commending him to the merchants adventu- 

rers in this expedition : ' I rejoice in myself 
that I have nourished and maintained that 
wit, which is like by some means and in some 
measure to profit and stead you in this worthy 
action. ... I do now part with Chancellor, 
not because I make little reckoning of the 
man, or because his maintenance is burdenous 
and chargeable unto me. . . You know the 
man by report,! by experience ; you by words, 
I by deeds ; you by speech and company, but 
I by the daily trial of his life have a full and 
perfect knowledge of him.* 

The ships, victualled for eighteen months, 
dropped down the river on 20 May, but were- 
delayed for several days at Harwich, waiting 
for a fair wind. During this time it was dis- 
covered that a considerable part of the pro- 
visions was bad, and that the wine casks were 
leaking. It was, however, too late to get the 
evil remedied before the expedition finally 
sailed. In a violent gale of wind off the Lo- 
foden Islands the ships were separated, nor 
did they again meet. Vardohuus had been 
given by the general as a rendezvous, and 
thither ChanceUor made his way ; but after 
waiting there seven davs without hearing 
anything of the other ships he determined to 
push on alone, and came some days later into 
the White Sea. Thence he was permitted 
and invited to ^o overland to Moscow, where 
he was entertained by the emperor, and ob- 
tained from him a letter to the king of Eng- 
land, granting freedom and every facility of 
trade to English ships. Of the barbaric splen- 
dour of the Russian court, of the manners, 
religion, and laws of the Russian people, of 
the Russian towns and trade, an account, 
furnished by Chancellor and his companions, 
and written by Clement Adams [q. v.], was 
published inHakliiyt's * Navigations,' and is 
curious, as the earliest account of a people 
then little known and still on the confines of 
barbarism. It was not till the following 
spring that Chancellor rejoined his ship, which 
had wintered in the neighbourhood of the 
modem Archangel, and in the course of the 
summer of 1 554 he returned to England. His 
voyage, his discovery of a convenient port, and 
his successful negotiation at Moscow, at once 
opened the Russian trade, and led to tlie es- 
tablishment of the Muscovy Company. Chan- 
cellor himself, still in the Edward Bonaven- 
ture, made a second voyage to the White Sea 
in the summer of 1555. He was at Moscow in 
November 1555, and on 25 July 1556 started 
in the Bonaventure on his journey home. 
The ship was cast away off Pitsligo (10 Nov. ) 
on the coast of Aberdeenshire in Aberdour 
Bay. Chancellor and the greater part of the 
crew perished with her. Of his family 
nothing is known, except that in 1553 he had 

Chancy 38 Chandler 

two flons, still boys, of whose orphanage he book of Daniel, in regard to which Collins 

is said to have had a melancholy foreboding, had anticipated the views of some modem 

The orthography of his name, too, is quite im- critics. He also published eight sermons, 

certain. No si'gnature seems to be extant, a ' Chronological Dissertation,' prefixed to 

Hakluyt, whose spelling of names is always K Amald's * Commentary on Ecclesiasticus ' 

wild, wavers between Chanceler and Chan- (1748) [see Arnald, Richard], and a short 

celour, and Clement Adams latinises it tm preface to Cud worth's 'Treatise on Immut- 

Cancelerus. Hakluyt prints Chancellor's able Morality ' when first nublished in 1781. 

* Booke of the great and mighty Emperor of He died, after a long illness, in London 

Russia . . .' dedicated to the author's uncle, on 20 July 1760, and was buried at Fam- 

Christopher Frothingham. liam Royal. , ^ , . 

rTT , ^ .. T» • • 1 XT • 4.' a ^ 1 : T Chandler was accused of havmff inven 

[Hakluyt's Pnncpvl Nangations, &c.^oU.] ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ Durham. King (%nec 

dotes, p. 118) mentions him as one of the 

CHANCY or CHAWNEY, MAURICE, prelates who died ' shamefiilly rich.' On the 

[See Chaunct.] other hand, it is said that he gave 60/. to 

. ^^^, ,,^ » ^T^T^ X-. ^ -./^ -I rM ^N rci the living of Monkwearmouth, 200/. towards 

CHANDLER, ANNE (1740-1814). [See ^ ^^^^^ g^ ^he minister of Stockton, 2,000/. 

Candler.] foP ^jjg benefit of clergymen's widows in his 

CHANDLER, BENJAMIN, M.D. (1737- diocese, and that he never sold any of his 

1786),surgeon,who practised for many years patent offices. He married Barbara, eldest 

at Canterbury, was admitted extra-licentiate daughter of Sir Humphrey Briggs, and had 

of the London College of Physicians on by her two sons and three daughters. His 

31 Oct. 1783, and died on 10 May 1786. He ' great riches ' went, upon their decease with- 

wrote ' An Essay towards an Investigation out issue, to James Lesley, bishop of Lime- 

of the present successful and most general rick, who had been his chaplain and had 

Method of Inoculation,' 8vo, London, 1767, married his niece. Miss Lister {Gent, Mag. 

which was the earliest detailed account of for 1793, p. 974, where are other particulars 

the practice, and ' An Inquiry into the various about his family). 

Theories and Methods of Cure in Apoplexies [Shaw*s Staffordshire, i. 279 ; Hutchinson's 

and Palsies,' 8vo, Canterbury, 1786, wnich is Durham, i. 574; Whiston's Life, i. 422; Le 

a criticism of CuUen's two chapters on that Neve's Fasti, i. 658, 619; ii. 665; iii. 86, 297.] 

subject, and a comparison of his views with L. S. 
those of others and the results of his own 

experience. CHANDLER, JOHANNA (1820-1875), 

[Munk's Coll. of Pbys., 1878, ii. 331 ; Chand- pWlanthropist, bom in 1820, was one of the 

ler's works cited.] G. T. B. *ouf children of a Mr. Chandler. She was 

early left an orphan, and taken to the home 

CHANDLER, EDWARD (1668P-1750), of her mother's parents, Mr. and Mrs.Pinnock, 

bishop of Durham, was son of Samuel Chand- of St. Pancras j)arish, London. On the death 

ler of Dublin. He was educated at Emma- of Mrs. Pinnock in 1856 her granddaughters 

nuel College, Cambridge, and in 1693 became resolved to devote themselves to providing 

M.A., was ordained priest, and appointed a hospital for paralytics. Johanna and her 

chaplain to Lloyd, bishop of Winchester, sisters learned to make flowers and light 

In 1697 he became prebendary of I^ichfield ; ornaments of Barbadoes rice-shells, strung 

became D.D. in 1701, and in 1703 received together with pearl and white glass beads, 

the stall in Salisbury vacant by the death of and produced by this hard labour for two 

l^ncelot Addison. In 1706 he became pre- years 200/. Johanna then applied to the 

bendary of Worcester. He was consecrated public for subscriptions. The lord mayor, Al- 

bishob of Lichfield on 17 Nov. 1717. In 
1730 ne was translated to Durham, and con- 
firmed on 21 Nov. Chandler was a man of 

derman Wire, himself a paralytic sufferer,, 
allowed her to call a meeting at the Mansion 
House on 2 Nov. 1859, at which he presided, 

more learning than capacity. He gained and at which the subscriptions reached 800/. 
some reputation by * A Defence of Christianity A committee was formed, a house was rented 
from the Prophecies, &c.' (1725), in answer ' in Queen Square, and was formally opened 
to C'oUins's well-known ' Grounds and Rea- by May 1860, with the title of the ^National 
eons of the Christian Religion.' - Collins hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic* 
having replied in his ' Scheme of Liberal The institution flourished, and Miss Chandler 
Prophecy,' Chandler published in 1728 'A raised subscriptions and founded the Sama^- 
Vindication ofthe" Defence of Christianity."' . ri tan Society, to give aid to outdoor patients ; 
The main point at issue was the date ofthe she also founded the home for convalesoeiit 




wouen patients at East Finchley. She and 
her broUier devoted most of their time to 
the work until her death from apoplexy at her 
house, 43 Albany Street, on 12 Jan. 1875. 
Her brother Edward Henry, who continued 
Miss Chandler's work, died unmarried, in the 
sixty-sixth year of his age, in August 1881. 

[Facta non Verba, pp. 101-25 ; London Mirror, 
23 Jan. 1876; Christian World, 22 Jan. 1876; 
private information.] J. H. 

CHANDLER, JOHN (1700-1780), apo- 
thecary, was for many years a partner with 
Messrs. Smith & Newsom as apothecaries in 
King Street, Cheapside. He published in 
1729 *A Discourse concerning the Small- 
pox, occasioned by Dr. Holland s Essay,' and 
m 1761 * A Treatise on the Disease called a 

[Gent. Mag. 1780.1.691.] 

G. T. B. 

CHANDLER, J. W. (Ji. 1800), portrait 
painter, a natural son of Lord Warwick, 
worked in London towards the end of the 
last century. About 1800 he was invited 
to Aberdeenshire, where he painted a good 
many portraits. Afterwards he settled in 
Edinburgh. He indulged freethinking specu- 
lations, was melancholic, and attempted to 
kill himself. He was unsuccessful, however, 
and died under confinement * about 1804-5,' 
being then less than thirty years old. He 
was considered a promising painter. From 
1787 to 1791 he exhibited ten portraits at the 
Royal Academy. A portrait by Chandler of 
Lord St. Helens was engraved in mezzotint 
by William Ward, A.R.A. ' His works are 
little known, and such as may be seen are 
stiff, weakly painted, and do not sustain the 
character of talent.* 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Eng. School ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists.] E. R. 

CHANDLER, MARY (1687-1745), 
poetess, bom at Malmesbury, Wiltshire, in 
1687, was the eldest daughter of Henry 
Chandler, a dissenting minister, afterwards 
settled at Bath, her mother having been a 
Miss Bridgman of Marlborough, and one of 
her brothers being Dr. Samuel Chandler [q. v.] 
In her youth her spine became crookea, ana 
her health suffered, yet she set up a shop in 
Bath about 1705, when not yet out of her 
teens, and enlivened her hours by writing 
rhyming riddles and poems to friends (ib. p. 
353), and by reading poetry. The neighoour- 
ing gentry nad her to visit them, among them 
being Mrs. Boteler, Mrs. Moor, Lady Russell, 
and the Duchess of Somerset. She was asked 
80 freauently for copies of her verses that 
she at last resolved to print them. She was 

i permitted to inscribe her book to the Prin- 
cess Amelia. Swift's Mrs. Barber was her 
literary friend and neighbour, and she was 
also a friend of Elizabeth Rowe. Her volume 
is called * A Description of Bath,* and going 
speedily through two editions, a third was 
issued m 1736, a fourth in 1738, and a fifth 
in 1741. A wealthy gentleman, of sixty^ 
struck yith one of her poems, travelled eighty 
miles to see her, and, after buying a pair of 

f loves of her, offered to make her his wife, 
liss Chandler turned the incident into verse, 
and a sixth edition of her book being called 
for in 1744, it appeared with a sub-title, ' To 
which is added a True Tale, by the same 
Author.' Soon afterwards Miss Chandler 
was able to retire from business; and she 
commenced a poem *0n the Attributes of 
God,' but this was never finished, for she died 
on 11 Sept. 1745. 

A seventh edition of her poems was issued 
i in 1755, and an eiffhth in 1767. She dedi- 
cated her book to her brother John, and her 

* Life,' in Theophilus Gibber's * Lives of the 
Poets,' was written by her brother Samuel. 

[Th. Gibber's Poets, v. 345-63 ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. v. 304, 308 ; Mary Chandler's Description 
of Bath, 3rd ed. 1736, p. 21 et seq., and 6th ed. 
1744, pp. 79-84.] J. H. 

printer and bookseller in partnership with 
CflBsar Ward, carried on business in London 
(at the Ship, just without Temple Bar), in 
York (Coney Street), and in Scarborough. 
In 1737 they issued an octavo catalogue of 
twenty-two pages descriptive of books sold 
and published by them. The firm became 
the proprietors in 1739 of the printing busi- 
ness of Alexander Staples of Coney Street, 
and of the ' York Courant,' which was subse- 
quently edited and published by Ward alone. 
Among the books printed by them at York 
were: *The Trial of the Tsotorious High- 
wayman Richard Turpin at York Assizes, on 
the 22nd day of March 1739,' 1 739, 8vo ; * Neu- 
ropathia, autore Milcolumbo Flemyng, M.D.' 
1740, 8vo ; * ReliquisB Eboracenses, per 
H[eneage] D[eringt, Ripensem,* 1743, 8vo, 
and a few others. They also published : * A 
General Dictionary, Historical and Critical,^ 
1734-41, 10 vols, folio; *A New Abridge- 
ment of the State Trials to 1737,' folio; 

* Jus Parliament arium by Wm. Petyt,' 1739, 
folio, and other works of less importance. 

While still in partnership with Ward, 
Chandler undertook, apparently as a private 
speculation, an extensive work, * The History 
and Proceedings of the House of Commons 
from the Restoration to the present time 
[1743], containing the most remarkable mo- 




tions, speeches, resolves, reports, and confe- 
rences to be met with in that interval,' 1 742-4, 
14 vols., the last volume printed by William 
Sandby, who was Chandler's snccessor. On 
the publication of the first eight volumes 
Chandler was admitted to an audience with 
Frederick, prince of Wales, who accepted 
the dedication. A companion work, some- 
times erroneously ascribed to Chandler, was 
published by Ebenezer Timberland, also of 
Ship Yard, Temple Bar, * The History and 
Proceedings of the House of Lords from the 
Restoration in 1600 to the Present Time,' 
1742-3, 8 vols. 8vo, with the announcement 
that ' the general good reception which Mr. 
Chandler's edition' of the debates of the 
House of Commons met with had ' induc'd 
him to publish the debates of the House of 
Lords during the same period.' 

At one time Ward and Chandler seem to 
have been in prosperous circumstances. Gent 
says * they carried on abundance of business 
in the bookselling way' (X(/5?, p. 191); the 
enterprise shown in opening shops at London, 
York, and Scarborough was unusual in those 
days. Gent also informs us that Chandler's 
* Debates,' * by the run they seemed to take, 
one would have imagined that he would have 
ascended to the apex of his desires ; but, alas! 
his thoughts soared too high ' (tb. 191 ). He fell 
into debt, and, to avoid the shame of a debtors' 
prison, Chandler blew his brains out in bed in 
the early part of the year 1 744. His partner 
W^ard struggled on until June 1745, when 
his name appeared in the * London Gazette.' 

[Life of Thomas G«*nt, printer, of York, by 
himself, 1832 ; K. Davies's Memoir of the York 
Press. 1868, pp. 242-8 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. 
V. 151.] H. R. T. 

CHANDLER, RICHARD (1738-1810), 
classical antiquar}^ and traveller, son of Daniel 
Chandler, was bom at Elson, in Hampshire, 
in 1738. He was educated at Winchester 
school, on the foundation. He entered Queen's 
College, Oxford, on 9 May 1755, and obtained 
a demyship at Magdalen (.''ollege, 24 July 1757, 
becoming in 1770 (25 July) a probationer fel- 
low of the same society. Short ly after taking 
his degree of B.A. he publislied, anonymously, 
in 1759, * Elegiaca Grjeca,' being the frag- 
ments of Tvrt^eus, Simonides, Theognis, Al- 
cajus, Sap])ho, and others, accompanied by 
succinct notes. This book Chandler printed 
without accents. His first publication of 
magnitude was his description of the Oxford 
Marbles. On the acquisition of the Pomfret 
portion of the Arundel Marbles in 1755 the 
university determined to make provision for 
A handsome publication of its entire archseo- 
logical treasures. With this task Chandler 

was entrusted, and his * Marmora Oxoniensia' 
was published at Oxford (' impensis Acade- 
misB ) in 1763. It was a sumptuous folio 
volume in two parts, describing the lapidary 
inscriptions in the collections as well as the 
statues and other antiquities. The decipher- 
ment of the inscriptions had already been 
attempted by Selden, whose work was after- 
wards edited by Dean Prideaux ; Mai tt aire 
had also undertaken a more elaborate edition, 
but he omitted to transcribe or collate the 
inscriptions, which, indeed, Prideaux had 
pronounced a hopeless task. The second part 
of the * Marmora Was illustrated by a number 
of plates of the statues and antiquities, drawn 
and engraved by J. Miller. The style is not 
very true to the original, and the busts, in 
particular, are veiy badly represented. The 
Pomfret section of the Arundel Marbles had 
been abominably * restored' by the Italian 
sculptor Guelfi ; these restorations have now 
for tlie most part been done away with, in 
accordance with the advice of Prof. C. T. New- 
ton, but t he engravings in Chandler's book dis- 
play the marbles as restored by Guelfi. The 
sculptures described by Chandler (now in 
the university galleries, Oxford) have been 
since re-described by Prof. A. Michaelis in 
his * Ancient Marbles in Great Britain * (p. 
538 f[.)y who throughout gives references to 
the ' Marmora Oxoniensia. In 1764 Chand- 
ler was introduced to the society of Dilet- 
tanti by W^ood, the editor of the * Ruins of 
Palmyra,' and, being already favourably 
known by his * Marmora,' was commissioned 
by the society to undertake a tour of explo- 
ration at its expense in Asia Minor and 
Greece. This was the first independent mis- 
sion of the society (which had been formed 
about 1733 by some gentlemen fond of classi- 
cal travel and antiquities). Chandler was 
accompanied by Nicholas Revett, an archi- 
tect who had already given proof of his 
abilities in connection with Stuart's ' Ruins 
of Athens,' and by a young painter of talent 
named Pars. Chandler himself was appointed 
treasurer for the little party, and had the 
command of the exptnlition. The instruc- 
tions drawn up by the Dilettanti Society (17 
May 1764) directed the travellers to make 
Smyrna their headquarters, and thence * to 
make excursions to the several remains of 
antiquity in that neighbourhood ; ' to make 
exact plans and measurements, to make * ac- 
curate drawings of the bas-reliefs and orna- 
ments,' ' copying all the inscriptions you shall 
meet with,' and keeping * minute diaries.* 
Chandler and his companions embarked at 
Gravesend on 9 June 1 / 64, and spent about 
a year in Asia Minor. Among the places 
which they visited, and which Chandler in 




his ' Travels ' more or less fully describes, 
are: Tenedos, Alexandria Troas, Chios, 
Smyrna, Erythrse, Teos, Priene, lasus (in 
Caria), Mylassa (Caria), Stratonicea, Lao- 
diceia (ad Lycum), Hierapolis, Sardes, and 
Ephesus, where Chandler asks if a wonder of 
the world, the temnle of Artemis, can really 
ha\e * vanished like a phantom, without 
leaving a trace behind. The party left 
Smyrna for Athens on 20 Aug. 1765. At 
Athens Chandler expresses his regret that 
* so much admirable sculpture as is still ex- 
tant about (the Parthenon) . . . should 
be all likely to perish as it were immaturely 
from ignorant contempt and brutal violence.* 
*We purchased two fine fragments of the 
frieze (of the Parthenon) which we found 
inserted over the doorways in the town, and 
were presented with a beautiful trunk which 
had fallen from the metopes, and lay neg- 
lected in the garden of a Turk.' Besides 
Athens, Chandler and his friends visited other 
parts of Greece Proper ; they had originally 
intended to proceed from Zant« to Ithaca, 
Cephallenia, and Corcyra (Corfu), but the 
plan w^as given up, partly on account of * the 
infirm state of health under which we 
laboured.' They embarked on 1 Sept. 1766 
(new style), reaching England on 2 Nov. in 
that year. Col. Leake has devoted some 
criticism to Chandler's researches in Attica. 
The researches of Chandler and of his pre- 
decessor, Stuart, in connection with the 
topography of Athens * have cleared up ' (he 
says) *• much that had been left obscure and 
faulty by Spon and Wheler, and in some 
instances Chandler's superior learning enabled 
him to correct the mistaken impressions of 
Stuart, but others he has left uncorrected, 
and he has added many errors and negli- 
gences of his own, as well in the application 
of ancient evidence as in regard to the actual 
condition of the ruined buildings.' 

The valuable materials collected by Chand- 
ler and his companions were communicated 
to the world in three important publications : 
1 . a fine illustrated volume entitled ' Ionian 
Antiquities; or, Ruins of Magnificent and 
Famous Buildings in Ionia,' published at the 
expense of the Society of Dilettanti in 1709 
(London, folio) : the account of the archi- 
tecture was by Revett, the historical part of 
the work being by Chandler. 2. ' Inscrip- 
tiones antiquae, plcrceque nondiim editae, 
in Asia Minore et Grajcia, presertim Athenis, 
collect ne (cum appendice),' Oxford, 1774, 
folio. In this work, for which Chandler him- 
self was alone responsible, the author prints 
the Greek texts both in uncial and cursive 
characters, and provides a translation (in 
Latin) and some short notes. This book made 

accessible to scholars for the first time a 
number of valuable texts, which have since 
been re-edited in Boeckh's great * Corpus In- 
scriptionum Graecarum.* 3. ' Travels m Asia 
Minor ; or, an Account of a Tour made at the 
Expense of the Society of Dilettanti,' Oxford, 
1775, 4to ; and ' Travels in Greece; or, an Ac- 
count of, &c.,' Oxford, 1776, 4to. These two 
books, which practically form a single work, 
contain Chandler's journal. Several editions 
of the work have been published, among 
others an edition in 2 vols. London, 1817, 4to, 
and a French translation in 8 vols., Paris, 
1806, 8vo. A copy of the first edition (1776- 
1776, 2 vols.), in the British Museum, con- 
tains numerous manuscript notes made by 
Chandler's companion, Revett ; these were 
transcribed and printed in the edition of the 
' Travels in Asia Alinor and Greece,' published 
by R. Churton at Oxford in 1825 (2 vols. 8vo). 
In 1772 Chandler was senior proctor of his 
university ; in 1773 he was admitted to the 
degrees of B.D. (23 April) and D.D. (17 Dec.) 
In July 1779 he was presented by his col- 
lege to the consolidated livings of East 
Worldham and West Tisted, near Alton, 
Hampshire. In 1786 (2 Oct.) he married 
Benigna, daughter of Liebert Dorrien, by 
whom he had a son, William Berkeley, and 
a daughter, Georgina. Chandler spent the 
winter after his marriage at Nimes, and then 
visited Switzerland, living chiefly at Vevay 
and Rolle. In 1787 he proceeded to Italy 
and occupied himself at Florence and at 
Rome (in the Vatican) in collating manu- 
scripts of his favourite poet, Pindar ; he also 
began to examine some interesting manu- 
scripts of the Greek Testament in the Vati- 
can, but we are told that while he was * poring 
upon them with great avidity, the jealousy 
of the papal court deprived him of them.' In 
1800 Chandler was presented to the rectory 
and vicarage of Tilehurst, near Reading, Berk- 
shire, where he resided till his death, which 
took place 9 Feb. 1810, after he had only par- 
tially recovered from a paralytic or apoplectic 
seizure. While at Tilehurst he ])ublished 
*The History of Ilium or Troy,' 1802, 4to; 
another work by him, * The Life of W. Wayn- 
flete. Bishop of Winchester, collected from 
Records, Registers, Manuscripts, and other 
authentic evidences,' was published posthu- 
mously (London, 1811, 8vo, edited by C. 

[Chandler's works ; R. Churton's Account of 
the Author, prefixed to his edition of Chandler's 
Travels, 2 vols., Oxford, 1825, 8vo ; Gentle- 
man's Magazine, 1810 (Ixxx.) 188 ; Leake's To- 
pography of Athens, 2nd edit., 1841, i. pp. 97, 
98, 326-8 ; Michaelis, Ancient Marbles in Great 
Britain.] W. W. 




CHANDLER, SAMUEL (1693-1766), 
nonconformist diiine, was grandson of a 
tradesman at Taunton, and son of Samuel 
Chandler {d. 1717), minister of a congrega- 
tion at Ilungerford, and afterwards for many 
years at Bath. The son was bom in 1693, 
educated at Bridgewater, and afterwards 
under Samuel Jones at Gloucester, where he 
was the fellow-pupil of Bishop Butler and 
Archbishop Seeker. He finished his studies 
at Leyden, and in 1716 was chosen minister 
of the presbyterian congregation at Peckham. 
The loss of his wife's fortune in the South Sea 
scheme forced him to open a bookshop. He 
was appointed to deliver a set of lectures in ! 
defence of Christianity, first in conjunction I 
with Lardner and afterwards alone. Chandler 
published the substance of liis discourses, in 
answer to Collins s * Grounds and Reasons,' 
in 1725. The archbishop (Wake) acknow- 
ledged the book (14 Feb. 1725) with an ex- 
pression of regret that Chandler should have 
to sell books i nst ead of writing them . Chand- 
ler's rising reputation led to his being ap- 
pointed in 1726 minister at the Old Jewry, 
as assistant to Thomas Leavesley; in 1728 
he became sole pastor, and held tiie post for 
forty years. He was an industrious writer, 
and took part in many controversies as a de- 
fender of toleration and of the christian ra- 
tionalism of the day. In 1748 he had some 
discussion with Gooch, translated in that year 
from Norwich to Ely, and Sherlock, then 
bishop of Salisbury, who introduced him to 
Archlnshop Herring to talk over the possibi- 
lity of a measure of comprehension (Letters 
to and from Dr. Doddridge (1790), n. 113). 
Nothing came of the discussion. The bishops, 
it is said, expressed a A\'ish to be rid of the 
Athanasinn Creed ; and Herring agreed with 
Chandler's desire that the articles might be 
expressed in scripture language. Chandler 

f>rofessed himself ^ a moderate Calvinist,* and, 
ike the liberal dissenters of his time, inclined 
towards Arianism. Chandler declined, it is 
said, offers of proferment in the establislied 
church. He was respected as a substantially 
benevolent man, though stem in manner and 
sharp in controversv. lie planned and helped 
in establishing a fiind for the widows and 
orj)hans of dissenting ministers. He was 
elected F.S. A. and (in 1754) F.U.S., and re- 
ceived the degree of D.D.from the universities 
of Edinburgh and Glasgow. He died on 
8 May 1766, and was buried at Bunhill Fields. 
His funeral sermon was preached bv Dr. 
Amory, whom he had expressly forbidclen to 
describe his character. Chandler's congrega- 
tion offered 400/. a year to Archdeacon Black- 
bume [(^. v.] to fill the post (Blackburne's 
WorliB^ 1. Ixxv). 

Il A full list of his works is given by Flex- 
man in the ' Protestant Dissenters* Magazine/ 
The following chiefly relate to the deist con- 
troversy : 1 . * Vindication of the Christian 
Religion,' &c. (1725, 1728), in answer to Col- 
lins. 2. ' Reflections on the Conduct of Mo- 
dem Deists,' 1727. 3. * Vindication of . . . 
Daniel's Prophecies,' 1728 (these are also 
against Collins). 4. * Plain Reasons for being 
a Christian,' 1730. 6. ' Vindication of the 
History of the Old Testament,' 1740 (against 
Thomas Morgan, the * Moral Philosopher '). 
6. 'Defence of the Prime Ministry and Cha- 
racter of Joseph ' (against the late Thomas 
Morgan), 1743. 7. 'A Catechism,' 1742. 
8. * Witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus 
Re-examined,' 1744 (a reply to Annet's attack 
upon Sherlock's * Witnesses, &c.') 9. *• Review 
of the History of the Man after Gt^d's own 
Heart, wherein the Falsehoods of . . . the 
Historian (J. N.) are exposed and corrected/ 
1762. Chandler having published a sermon, 
preached on 9 Nov. 1760, on the death of 
George II, comparing him to David, a sati- 
rical *• history of the man after God's own 
heart' had appeared, variously ascribed to 
Peter Annet [q* v.], John Northhook, and 
Alexander Campbell [a. v.], to which this is 
a rejoinder. It was followed by: 10. 'A 
Critical History of the Life of David,' &c. 
2 vols. 8vo, saici to be one of Chandler a best 
works, which was being printed at his death. 
Among attacks upon Catholicism may be 
reckoned: 11. 'Translation of Limborch's 
History of the Inquisition,' 1732, with an 
introduction upon persecution; and three 
other pamphlets in reply to criticisms from 
Dr. Berriman, the substance of wliich he 
published in a 'History of Persecution,' 
in four parts, 1 vol. 8vo, 1736. 12. 'Ac- 
count of the Conferences held in Nicholas 
Lane 13 Feb. 1734, between two Romish 
Priests and some Protestant Divines,' 1735. 
13. ' Great Britain's Memorial against the 
Pret ender and Popery, &c.,' 1745, ten editions 
of which were sold at the time of the rebel- 
lion. He also wrote two pamphlets in a con- 
troversy with the Rev. John Guyse (1729- 
1730), who accused him of latitudinarianism ; 
pamphlets on the Test and Corporation Acts 
(1732, 1738), and the case of subscription to 
explanatory' articles of faith (1748). Flex- 
man gives a list of twenty-two separate ser- 
mons, including one on 'doing good,' with 
an answer to Mandeville (1728), and two on 
*The Notes of the Church' (1734-^). In 
1722 he published an edition of Cassiodorus 
on the Acts and Epistles, and in 1735 a para- 
phrase of Joel. He wrote t he life of his sister 
Mary Chandler [q. v.] in Gibber's ' Lives of 
the Poets,' and is said to have contributed 

Chandos 43 Chandos 

about fifty papers to the ' Old Whig or Con- = of Gascony. Chandos tried to dissuade his 
sistent Protestant' (1735-38), collected in friend from joining in the enterprise; but 
2 vols., 1739. his advice was of no avail, and Chandos was 

After his death appeared four volumes of at length induced to accompany Prince Ed- 
sermons (1768), witn a preface by Amory, ward's troops across the Pyrenees. Chandos 
and an engraving of a portrait by Chamber- | negotiated the passage of the army with the 
lin, belongmg to the Royal Society (Nichols, king of Navarre. On 3 April 1367 the Eng- 
Anec, ix. 609) ; and in 1777 a paraphrase of lish army met and defeated the enemy at 
the Galatians and Ephesians, with a preface Navarette, when Chandos's bravery was spe- 

by Nathaniel White. 

[Preface to sermons by Amory ; Prot. Diss. 
Mag. i. 217, 257 ; Kippis's Biog. Brit. ; Wilson's 
Dissenting Churches, ii. 360; Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes, v. 304-309; Gent. Mag. for 1769, 
p. 36.] L. S. 

CHANDOS, Barons. [See Brtdgbs.] 

cially conspicuous, and Bertrand du Guesclin 
became his prisoner for the second time. With 
John of Gaunt he was in command of the 
advance guard of the English army. On his 
return to Guienne Chandos strongly urged 
Edward to remit the hearth-tax, which was 
causing the inhabitants of the province great 

chandos', Dpkb of/ [See Bbtdok, j™t«tion- His counsel was rejected and 

v/**x^ ji-' ;> L f Chandos retired to his estate m the Cou- 

JAMES, 1073-1/44. J ^^^j^^ ^j^^^ j^^ arrived in May 1368. In 

CHANDOS, Sir JOHN {d. 1370\ soldier, December of the same year, after the rupture 

was descended from Robert de Cnandos, a of the peace of Bretigni, Chandos returned 

companion of William the Conqueror. In the to Guienne at the earnest entreaty of the 

thirteenth century two families claimed de- Black Prince, and took command of Montau- 

scent from this Robert — one settled in Here- ban. Soon after March 1369 he became se- 

fordshire, and the other in Derbyshire. To neschal of Poitiers. The Earl of Pembroke 

the latter branch Sir John Chandos belonged, declined to serve under him, and the invasion 

His father, Sir Edward Chandos, received a of the neighbourhood of Poitiers by the French 

pension of 40/. for military service rendered rendered Chandos's position a hazardous one. 

in 1327. His mother was Isabel, daughter At the end of the year the French had occu- 

of Sir Robert Twyford. Chandos's earliest pied St. Savin's Abbey, near Poitiers, which 

military achievements known to us are asso- Chandos, aided by Thomas Percy, seneschal of 

ciated with the siege of Cambrai (1337), and Rochelle, attempted and failed to recapture 

the battles of Crecy (1346) and of Poitiers (30 Dec). The French pursued Chandos, de- 

(1356\ In the last engagement he saved sorted by all but a few soldiers, to the Vienne, 

the me of the Black Prince, who was hisde- and an engagement took place (31 Dec.) by 

voted friend, and was rewarded with a grant the bridge at Lussac. There Chandos was 

of the manor of Kirkton, Lincolnshire (Rt- wounded, and he died the next day at Morte- 

MEB, Fcedera (1708), iii. 343). Edward IH mer (1 Jan. 1369-70), where he was buried, 

presented him at the peace of Bretigni (1360) The following epitaph was long extant above 

with the lands of Viscoimt Saint Sauveur in his tomb : 

theC<)utantin. Aboutthesa,metimeChandos j^ j^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ 

was appomted * regent and lieutenant of the ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ p^j^^^ eeneschal, 

king of England in France, and vice-chamber- ^ , ^ ^^^j^ ^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ lointaine 

lain of the royal household. In 13^ he re- ^^ ^qJ franijois tant k pied qu'a cheval 

ceived the Black Prince on a visit to Poitiers, j.^^. p^jg Bertrand de Guesquin en un val, 

and was made constable of Guienne. Two xies Poictevins prfes Lussttc me defirent : 

years later he went to the assistance of the a Mortemor mon corps enterrer firent. 
English ally, John de Montfort, in Brittany; 

prevented the conclusion of a peace between The king of France expressed great grief at 

Montfort and his rival Charles de Blois, and the news of Chandos's death, and declared 

was in command of Montfort's and theEnglish that Chandos alone could have made the peace 

forces at the battle of Auray (6 Oct. 1364), permanentbetweenEngland and France. His 

when De Blois was killed and Bertrand du chivalrous temper was recopised by both 

Guesclin became Chandos's prisoner. Du friend and foe, and Bertrand du Guesclin v as 

Guesclin was ransomed during the following one of his many admirers. Sir John was one 

year for one hundred thousand francs. In 
1367 the Black Prince resolved to cross the 
Pyrenees to re-establish Pedro the Cruel on the 
throne of (3astile, whence he had been driven 
by his natural brother, Henry de Trastamare, 
aided by Du Guesclin and the free companies 

of the founders of the order of the Garter 
(about 1349), and one of the original knights. 
His plate is still visible above the eleventh 
stall on the south side in St. George's Chapel, 
Chandos was unmarried. His estate was 




divided between his sisters, Elizabeth, un- 
married, and Eleanor, wife of one Roger 
Colyng, and a niece Isabella, wife of Sir Jonn 
Annesley, and daughter of a deceased sister 
Margaret. Elizabeth Chandos was at one 
time maid of honour to Queen Philippa, and 
received, 3 May 1370, a pension of 20/. for 
life (Devon, Brantingham Roll, 68359). Sir 
John Annesley and his wife inherited the 
castle of Saint Sauveur, which was after- 
wards recaptured by the French, on account 
of which ' the said Sir John prosecuted a cer- 
tain quarrel by duel . . . against Thomas de 
Catherton * before Richard II at Westminster, 
and ultimately received 40/. a year (Devon, j 
Exchequer Issues , p. 233). 

Care must be taken to distinguish between 
the great warrior and another Sir John 
Chanbos {d. 1428), of the Herefordshire 
branch of the Chandos family. He was 
grandson of Roger de Chandos, who was 
summoned to parliament from 1333 and 1353 
as Baron Chandos and son of Sir Thomas 
Chandos. He died on 16 Dec. 1428 without 
issue. Alice, the daughter of this Sir John's 
sister, Elizabeth Berkeley, married Giles 
Brugges or Brydges, the ancestor of the 
Brydges family, successively lords and dukes 
of Chandos [see Brydges, Grey ; Brydges, 
James ; Brydges, Sir John.] 

[Dugdale's Baronage, i. 603 ; Froissart's 
Chronicles, transbited by Colonel Johnes ; Luce's 
Commentaire Critique sur les Chroniques de J. 
Proissart ; Beltz's Memorials of the Order of the 
Garter, 69-75; Longman's Hist, of Edward UI ; 
Walsingham's Historia Anglicana, i. 304, 312, 
431 ; Walsingham's Neustriae Ypodigma, pp. 312, 
317, 322; Chronicon Angliae, 1328-88, pp. 59. 
68; Wright's Political Songs, i. 95, 106, 108; 
The Black Prince, bv the Chandos Herald, ed. by 
H. 0. Coxe (Roxb. Club), 1842], S. L. L. 


(1804-1873), judge, was bora 31 Aug. 1804. 
lie was of a Devonshire family, and his father 
and grandfather had been naval officers. His 
father. Pike Channell, ser\-ed with Nelson at 
Copenhagen, and then leaving the navy be- 
came a merchant and lived at Peckham. 
His mother was Mary, stepdaughter of Wil- 
liam Fry. Channell's only education was at 
a private school at Peckham, and he often 
lamented that he had been so ill taught. 
Hard private reading, however, repaired this 
defect ; his memory was remarkable, and he 
was imusually familiar with the English 
classics. For a short time Baron Bramwell 
was at the same school. At an early age he 
was articled to a Mr. Tustin, a solicitor, but 
soon giving up his articles he entered at the 
Inner Temple, read with the well-known 
special pleaaer Cobner, and was called in Lent 

term 1827. He at once stepped into consider- 
able practice, both at the Surrey sessions and 
on the home circuit. In his chambers both 
Chief-justice Bovill and Sir Montagu Smith 
were pupils, and on the bench he continued 
to attach great weight to forms of pleading. 
In 1840, when the court of common pleas was 
again declared a close court, the royal war- 
rant which threw it open being null and void, 
Channell, with four others, received the rank 
of seijeant, and he and Serjeant Talfourd led 
the court till it was thrown open in 1846. 
In 1844, when Sir F. Thesiger became so- 
licitor-general, Channell received a patent of 
precedence, and after Baron Piatt was raised 
to the bench he led the home circuit for some 
time. He was a very careful advocate, but 
after a time lost his nisi prius practice, and 
was heard chiefly in banco. In 1866, Baron 
Piatt being taken ill, he acted as commis- 
sioner of assize on the spring and summer cir- 
cuits and winter gaol delivery, and on 12 Feb. 
1857 he was appointed by Lord-chancellor 
Cranworth to succeed Baron Alderson in the 
court of exchequer, and was knighted. Though 
a conservative, he had never been forward in 
politics or sat in parliament ; in 1862 he 
issued an address at Beverley, but withdrew 
on finding how corrupt the borough was. He 
remained on the bench till January 1873, 
when, being afflicted with asthma and too 
feeble for the task of going circuit, he carried 
out a long-formed intention of resigning. He 
was nommated a member of the privy coun- 
cil, but never was sworn in, and died 26 Feb. 
at his residence, Clarendon Place, Hyde Park 
Gardens, and was succeeded by Mr. Charles 
Pollock. As a judge he was conscientious, 
careful, and learned, and very severe to crimi- 
nals, especially garotters. His iudgments in 
banco are very valuable. In 1834 he married 
Martha, daughter of Richard Moseley of 
Champion Hill, Camberwell, Surrey, by 
whom he had one son, Mr. A. M. Channell, 
Q.C., of the Inner Temple. 

[Law Magazine, N. S. ii. 351; Law Journal, 
viii. 2; Law Times, liv. 163, 335; Solicitors* 
Journal, xvii. 179, 351.] J. A. H. 

(1781-1842), sculptor, was bom near Nor- 
ton, Derbyshire, on 7 April 1781. His father, 
who died in 1793, was a carpenter and small 
farmer residing at Jordanthorpe, near Shef- 
field. Chantrey was educated at the villa^ 
school, and first employed by a grocer in 
Sheffield. In 1797 he was attracted by the 
shop-window of a carver named Ramsay in 
Sheffield, and was apprenticed to him for 
seven years. Ramsay was also a dealer in 
prints and plaster models, and Chantrey soon 




showed artistic tastes, which were encou- 
raged by J. Raphael Smith, the mezzotint 
engrayer, whom he met at Ramsay's. He 
began by drawing portraits and landscapes 
in pencil, and was taught carving in stone 
by a statuary. It is said that Ramsay dis- 
couraged for selfish reasons Chantrey's enorts, 
but Chantrey persevered, and hired a room 
near Ramsay's lor a few pence a week, where 
he spent his leisure in studying alone. In oil- 
painting he received his first instruction from 
Samuel James [q. v.], son of Samuel Arnold, 
the musician [q. v.] Among his earliest pa- 
trons at Sheffield were Messrs. Rhodes, Bram- 
mall, and Jackson, filemakers, and his talent 
seems to have soon attracted a good deal of 
local attention, for in 1 802 he was able to make 
a composition with Ramsay for the remaining 
period of his articles, and to set up as a por- 
trait painter. He resided then at 24 Para- 
dise Square, as appears from an advertisement 
in the Sheffield *Trio' of 22 April 1802, in 
which he offered to execute 'portraits in 
crayons and miniatures ' at from two to three 
guineas each. From a letter written in 1807 
it is clear that he obtained five guineas for 
jwrtraits before he left Sheffield. Of the Shef- 
field portraits seventy-two have been cata- 
logued, and among his sitters were Thomas 
Fox, the village schoolmaster of Norton, and 
his son (in crayons), Ebenezer Rhodes, Miss 
Brammall, ana her sister Mrs. Hall (in oils). 
He is said to have tried his fortune in Dublin 
and Edinburgh before he came to London, 
but these experiments must have been short 
if, as reported, he commenced studying at 
the Royal Academy in 1802. He was not 
admitted as a student, but was allowed to 
study for a limited time. It has been as- 
serted that after he came to London he did 
not make 6/. for eight years ; but this is 
scarcely accurate, as he writes to his friend 
Ward m 1807 of eight portraits in his room 
nearly finished at twenty guineas each, and 
he did not leave off his professional visits to 
Sheffield till 1808. He also appears in 
1803^0 have been employed in carving in 
wood at five shillings a day for Bogaart, a 
German carver. Samuel Rogers, the banker 
and poet, had a table which Chantrey in 
after years, when dining with him, recog- 
nised as his work, and other early wood- 
carvings of his are on record. According to 
one of his biographers (Holland), he lived 
when in London in Curzon Street, Mayfair, 
at the house of a Mr. D'Oyley, in whose ser- 
vice were his uncle and aunt Wale, but the 
address 24 Curzon Street, Mayfair, does not 
occur in the Royal Academy catalogues till 
1809. Before this it is (in*'l804) 7 Chapel 
Stjeet W:est, Mayfair, (in 1806) 78 Strand, 

and (in 1806) 12 Charles Street, St. James's 
Square. In 1804 the painter of the picture 
numbered 837 is called T. Chantrey, but this 
is probably a misprint, as there can be little 
doubt that the ' Portrait of D. Wale, Esq.,' 
was the portrait of Chantrey's uncle, and was 
painted by the subject of this article — his 
first work exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
Although in 1807 he writes oi two pictures 
* from the 3rd and 4th chapters of St. Luke,' 
he advertised in 1804 to take models from 
the life, and after this seems to have devoted 
himself almost exclusively to sculpture, his 
first commissions for busts coming from his 
Sheffield friends. That of the Rev. J. Wil- 
kinson (1806-6), for the parish church at 
Sheffield, was the first he chiselled in marble. 
But he soon got commissions (at 10/. apiece) 
for colossal busts of admirals for Greenwich 
Hospital, and three of these, Howe, Duncan, 
and St. Vincent, were exhibited in 1809. In 
1807 he vsrrote * orders increase and marble 
costs money,' but now his struggles, how- 
ever severe they may have been, were over, 
for in this year he married his cousin Miss 
Wale, who brought him property which has 
been valued at 10,000/. He then moved to 
a house of his own in Eccleston Street 
(No. 13), Pimlico, built two more houses, 
and a studio, and laid in a stock of marble. 
Next year he received one hundred guineas 
for a bust of Dr. John Brown, and competed 
successfully for the statue of George III for 
Guildhall. The year after he had six busts 
in the Royal Academy. He was then an 
ardent politician, and among these busts 
were those of Home Tooke and Sir Francis 
Burdett, for both of whom he had a great 
admiration. Another was of his old hdper, 
J. Raphael Smith, which was perhaps that in 
which he is said to have rendered the listen- 
ing expression of the deaf artist. Another 
was of Benjamin West, the president of the 
Royal Academy. NoUekens placed the bust 
of "Home Tooke between two of his own, 
and the prominence thus given to it is said 
to have had a marked influence on Chantrey's 
career. He received commissions at once 
amounting to 12,000/., and began to rise 
steadily to the head of his profession. About 
this time Allan Cunningham entered his em- 
ployment as a hewer of statuarj'. In 1813 
he raised his price for a bust to a hundred 
and fifty guineas, and in 1822 to two hun- 
dred, lliis sum wus exceeded by George IV, 
who in this year (1822) insisted on paying 
Chantrey three hundred guineas for his bust. 
It was to portrait sculpture that he owed 
his fortune and his fame, but the latter was 
augmented greatly by the grace and tender 
sentiment which he showed in his treatment 




of children. The most celebrated of all his 
works is probably the group of sleeping chil- 
dren in Lichfield Cathedral, the daughters of 
Mrs. Robinson, whose reminiscences of them 
as they lay in bed locked in one another's 
arms suggested to Chantrey the idea of the 
monument. The actual design has been at- 
tributed erroneously to Stothard. To this 
artist have also been ascribed the designs for 
Chantrey's monument to Miss Johnes of 
Hafod (1812), and for the small statue of 
young Lady Louisa Russell (on tiptoe and 
caressing a dove) at Wobum (1818), but the 
indebtedness of Chantrey to Stothard pro- 
bably did not exceed that which must al- 
ways happen when two such good artists are 
such good friends. Another very beautiful 
work 18 * Lady Frederica Stanhope with her 
infant child in Chevening Ohurcn * (1824). 

To give a list of Chantrey's busts would 
be to catalogue the names of most of the 
distinguished men of his time, but among 
the most celebrated were those of Sir Walter 
Scott, Wordsworth, James Watt, and Por- 
son. Of Scott he executed two, one in 1820, 
and the other in 1828. The former was 
moulded and pirated, thousands being dis- 
persed at home and abroad. A copy of it is 
m the National Gallery. He made a present 
of the original to Scott ; and the words of 
Lockhart with regard to it probably contain 
much of the secret of Chantrey*8 success in 
his art. He calls it * that bust which alone 
preserves for posterity the cast of expression 
most fondly remembered by aU wno ever 
mingled in his domestic circle.' The bust of 
1828 was bought by Sir Robert Peel. He also 
executed many important statues. Among 
these were three which were equestrian — Sir 
Thomas Munro (at Madras), Wellington 
(Royal Exchange), George IV (Trafalgar 
Square). These are characteristic of an artist 
who, though the friend of Canova, preferred 
the art of Thorwaldsen. They are all grace- 
ful and unafTected, not without dignity, but 
a little tame. Of his other statues, that of 
W^illiam Pitt was thrice repeated in bronze ; 
one of the copies is in Hanover Square. At 
the British Museum is Sir Joseph Banks ; at 
Liverpool Town Hall, Roscoe and Cunning ; 
in W^estminster Abbey, Sir John Malcolm 
and Francis Horner; at Glasgow, James 
Watt ; at Manchester, John Dalton ; in Christ 
Church, Oxford, Uean Cyril Jackson ; in the 
Old Parliament House, Edinburgh, Viscount 
Melville ; in Northampton Church, Spencer 
Perceval ; and at Windsor, George I V . 

Among his rare works of an ideal kind 
were a head of Satan, a stone mezzo-relievo 
of Plenty, executed about 1816 for the en- 
trance of Sheaf House (Mr. Daniel Bram- 

malFs), ShefEeld, and afterwards removed to 
the library of Mr. F. Young of Eardcliffe, and 
* Penelope looking for the bow of Ulysses,' 
at Wobum. 

In 1806 Chantrey made a tour through 
Yorkshire with somefriends, making sketches 
by the way of landscape and comic incident. 
In 1814 with Mr. Dennis, and in the follow- 
ing year with his wife and Stothard, he went 
to Paris and saw the great collection in the 
Louvre before it« dispersion. Here he met 
Canova, and made an acquaint-ance which 
was afterwards renewed in London. On this 
occasion he procured good casts of the Lao- 
coon, the Antinous, and other celebrated 
pieces of sculpture, which he afterwards al- 
lowed young artists to study at his house. 
He also went to Holland, ft was his habit 
to preserve graphic records of his journey in 
his sketch-books, and it was probably the 
slight contents of one of these books which 
furnished the contributions by Chantrey to 
Rhodes's * Peak Scenery,' published in 1818, 
with engravings by W. B. and G. Cook, and 
lately (1885) republished by Murray of 
Derby. The drawings were in pencil and not 
of sufficient importance to make it necessary 
to enter here into the question how much ar- 
tistic merit was added to them by the en- 
gravers or others. 

In 1819 he went to Italy and devoted his 
time to study in the galleries. Here he met 
Thomas Moore and visited with him Canova's 
gallery. He also purchased marble at Carrara. 

In 1815 Chantrey was elected an associate 
and in 1818 a full member of the Royal 
Academy, to whose interests he was alw^s 
devoted. He was knighted by William iV 
in 1835, and was honorary D.U.L. of Oxford 
and an honorary M.A. of Cambridge, F.R.S. 
and F.S.A. His fame and popularity were 
uninterrupted when he died suddenly of 
spasm of the heart on 25 Nov. 1842. He was 
buried in his native village in a tomb pre- 
viously prepared by himself. At his death 
he was worth 150,000/. 

He was childless and left the reversionary 
interest of the bulk of his property, after the 
death of his widow, to the Royal Academy, 
to make some provision for the president and 
to found the iiind known as the Chantrey 
bequest, with the view of establishing a na- 
tional collection by the purchase of the most 
valuable works in sculpture and painting by 
artists of any nation residing in Great Britain 
at the time of execution. Although only a 
few years have elapsed since the first pur- 
chases were made by the Royal Academy out 
of the Chantrey fund, the collection already 
contains some fine works. It is at present 
housed at the South Kensington Muaeuin. 

Chantrey 47 Chapman 

The National Portrait GaUery contains I CHAPMAN, EDMUND {fi, 1733), sur- 
busts of Benjamin West and George Can- geon, a country practitioner, commenced 
ning, and a medallion of Kirke Whit-e, by I midwifery practice about 1708. In 1733 he 
Chantrey, and a portrait of the sculptor by was in practice in Drake Street, Red Lion 

Thomas Phillips, K.A. 

In face Chantrey resembled Shakespeare 
and had a beautiful mouth. In early life he 

Square, London, and published * An Essay on 
the Improvement of Midwifery, chiefly with 
regard to the Operation, to which are added 

lost his hair through a fever in Ireland and Fiftv Cases, selected from upwards of Twenty- 

never recovered it. He possessed great na- five Years' Practice.* He was one of the ear- 

tural intelligence and sagacity. Though not liest systematic writers on this subject in this 

well educated, he had a large store of accu- country, and published as much as he could 

rate information, and took great interest in discover of Ilu^h Chamberlen's (conceded) 

geology and other sciences. He built a foun- methods of delivery with the forceps. A 

dry to cast his own works in bronze. His second edition appeared in 1735, entitled * A 

manners were somewhat rough and his Ian- Treatise,* &c., with large additions. In 1737 

guage strong, but his notions with respect to Chapman replied in a pamphlet to some criti- 

character and conduct were refined, and he cisms made by Douglas in his ' Short Account 

was considerate for the feelings of others. An of the State of Midwifery in London and 

excellent mimic, of a cordial merry humour, Westminster.' The dates of his birth «md 

he was a capital companion and host. He death are not known. 

^ve good dinners, and was devoted to fish- [Georgian Era, 1832, ii. 555 ; Chapman's 

ing and shooting. A brace of woodcocks works cited.] O. T. B. 
which he killed at Holkham with one shot 

have become historical. He carved them CHAPMAN, GEORGE (1659P-1034), 

beautifully (1834) and presented the work poet, was bom in the neighbourhood of 

to Mr. T. W. Coke, afterwards Lord Leices- Hitchin about the year 1569. Wood gives 

ter, of Holkham. The epigrams made on the ^^^7 as the date of his birth, but the portrait 

occasion by Lord Jeffrey, Dean Milman, prefixed to * The Whole Works of Homer * 

Marquis Wellesley, and others, have been ^ inscribed * Georgius Chapmannus Homeri 

collected and published in a volume called Metaphrastes. Aeta ; LVIl. MDCXVL* In 

' Winged Words on Chantrey's Woodcocks * * Euthymias lUiptus, or the Teares of Peace,* 

(1857). This is Lord Jeflfre/s : 16^> Chapman alludes to the fact that he 

had been brought up in the neighbourhood of 
Their good and ill from the same source they Hitchin. William Browne, in the second 
drew, , , ^ , , book of * Britannia's Pastorals,* styles Chap- 
Here shrmed in marble by the hand that slew. j^an ' The learned Shepheard of faire Hitch- 

At Lord Egremont*8, at Petworth, he was ^„^-' '^^^P® Passages effectuaUy dispose 
a favoured guest. Here he used to meet of Wood s conjecture that the poet belonged 
Turner, the landscape painter, with whom he ^^ Jj® ^*°^V7r ^^^ 9^^?°^?^ o^ btone^astle, 
was always on pleasant terms. With artiste "^ K:ent. Wood is confident that Chapman 
generally he was popular, and was generous ^.^ educated at Oxford, but he gives no pre- 
and liberal to the younger members of the f^® information. It is usually assumed that 
profession. He was not ashamed of his lie spent some time at Oxford and afterwards 
humble origin, and preserved to the last an Proceeded to Cambridge. * In 1574, or there- 
affection for SheffielcL He rebuUt the cottage abouts, writes Wood,* he being weU grounded 
of his mother (who had married again shorUy Y^ ^^^^^ learning was sent to the university, 
after his father*s death), and presented to the ^^ whether first to this of Oxon, or that of 
Cutlers* Hall caste ofhisbuste of West, Scott, Cambridge, is to me unknown; sure lam 
Canning, and Playfair. When his old friend ^^^^ \^ ^P®^^ ^J^^ ^"^® in Oxon, where he 
Rhodes feU into distress, he sent him regu- wa^observed to bemostexceUentmtheLatm 
larly the interest of 1,000/. ^^ ^^^^ tongues, but not in logic or philo- 
rxT II 1. ".r 1 i. o- -r. . -r.1 sophy, aud therefore I prcsume that that was 
[Hollands Memorials of Sir Francis Chan- ^j.^ reason why he took no degree there.* 
trey; Jones s KecoUections of Life, &c., of Sir Warton in his *Historv of English IWtrv' 
F. Chantrey; Rhodes's Peak Scenery; Muir- ^arton, m nis iiistory ot l!.nglisn 1 oetry, 
head's Wmg'ed Words on Chantre/8Wic;dcock8; Jjf^^^ (without giving any authority) that 
Redgrave 8 Diet, of Artists; Thornbur/s Life of Chapman passed two years at Irmity Col- 

Tumer; NoUekens and his Times ; Mrs. Bray's A®&?» ^'r?. ;>,, , ,. , , r . . 

Life of Stothard; Encyclopjedia Britannica J-^ 1594 Chapman published *2«m \_8ic] 

(1876) ; Lockhart's Life of Scott; Catalogues of wicroi. The Shadow of Night; Containing 

the Royal Academy, National GaUery, and Na- Two Poeticall Hvmnes. Deuised by G. C. 

tional Portrait Gallery.] C. M. Gent./ 4to, with a dedicatory epistle to 

Chapman 48 Chapman 

Matthew Roydon. In the second liymn Chap- ■ the poem ; but the meaning of the passage is 

man describt'S with much minuteness of de- far from clear. In Chapman's continuation, 

tail an incident in Sir Francis Vere's cam- notably in the * Tale of Teras * (fifth sestiad), 

paign in the Netherlands ; and it has been there is much fine poetry ; but the reader 

suggest^Ki that the poet may have 8er\'ed in is wearied by tedious conceits and useless 

the Netherlands as a volunteer. There is digressions. 

much obscurity of conception and harshness It is not known in what year Chapman 

of expression in these hymns, nor do the up- began to write for the stage. In 1698 he is 

pended * Glosses ' lighten the difficulties. In mentioned in Meres' * Wit s Treasury ' as one 

ir)95 appeared * Quid's Banquet of Sence. of the best writers of comedies and tragedies. 

A Coronet for his Mistresw Philosophie, and The earliest entry concerning him in Hens- 

his amorous Zodiacke. With a translation lowers 'Diary' (ed. J. P. Collier, p. 64) is 

of a Latine coppie, written by a Fryer, Anno dated 1'2 Feb. 1595-6, on which day was 

Dom. 1400,' with a dedicatory epistle to first produced ' The Blind Beggar of Alexan- 

Matthew Roydon. Prefixed are commenda- dria (printed in 1598), the crudest of Chap- 

tory verses by Kichard Stapleton, Thomas man's plays, but very profitable to Henslowe, 

Williams, anil *J[ohn-'] D[avies?l of the as it never failed to draw large audiences. In 

Inner Temple.' Another edition, without the May 1598 Chapman ret^eiv^ an advance of 

dedication and commendatory verses, was forty shillings for a play of which the name 

issued in 1639. The first poem, 'Quid's Ban- is not given; in June of the same year he 


Parnassus,' 1600, it is quoted no less than (lost) play called *The Fount of New 
twenty-five times. \ A Coronet for his Mis- Fashions.' On 23 Oct. 1598 Chapman re- 
tresse Philosoi)hie ' consists of a series of ten ceived three pounds * one [on] his playe 
obscure sonnets; and the 'Amorous Zodi- i boocke and ij ectes of a tragedie of bengemens 
acke ' is a singularly unattractive poem in plotte.* The latter part of the entry seems 

graceful pastoral pcwm. Chapman states that | in 1598-9 Chapman was paid for an unnamed 
the Latin original was written by a friar in tragedy (probably the * jjlaye boocke ' just 
1400, but llitson showed that the poem is of mentioned), and later in the month he re- 
older date and was probably written by ceived an advance for a play called *the 
Walter de Mapes. Acertain*'R.S. Esquire' | world rones on whelles' (ie, * The World 
republished Cnapman's translation in 1598 runs on Wheels '). Under date 2 July 1599 
as a work of his own. Possibly ' R. S.' was is the curious entry : — * Lent unto thomas 
Chapman's friend, Kichard Stapleton, to Dowton to pay Mr. Chapman, in full pay- 

' ■ ' ' ' mente for his boocke called the world rones 
a whelles, and now allJboUes, but the foolle, 

this entiT it may 
runs on Wheels,' 
1 * All Fools but 

I-Awrence Key mis,' Gent.' a poem of nearly the Fool,' is to be identified with the admi- 
two hundred lines entitled * ue Guiana, car- rable comedy printed in 1605 under the title 
men ,epicum,' a glowing tribute to English of * All Fools.* Only one other play of Chap- 
enterprise and valour. In 1598 appeared the man*s is mentioned in the diary; it is an un- 
first edition of Marlowe's fragment of * Hero ' published piece entitled * Apastrall tragedie,' 

whom, perhaps, the verses may legitimately 
belontr. To William Jones's * Nennio,' 1 595, 

copies (preserved at Lamport 

To (.'hiipman*s continuation is prefixed in date Chapman seems to have temporarily 

the edition of 1508 a dedicatory epistle (not withdrawn his attention from the stage in 

found in later editions) to I^idy Walsinghuni, order to devote Idmself to his translation of 

whose patronage ( 'hapnian gratefully ac- i Homer. 

knowledges. A passage in the third sestiad The first instalment towards the complete 

would lead us to suppose that Marlowe en- 
joined upon Chapman the task of completing 

translation of Homer was published in 1698, 
with the title 'Seaven Bookes of theUiadesof 

Chapman 49 Chapman 

" ^^^— ^ ■ — - - ■ ■ I ■ . II ■ - ^ ' — - 1 ■- 

Homere, Prince of Poets. Translated accord- 1 less than fifteen weeks. Some malicious 
ingtotheGreekeiniudgementofhisbestCom- critics had asserted that Chapman made his 
mentaries.' It is dedicated to the Earl of Essex, I translation not from the origmal Greek, hut 
and comprises the first, second, and seventh from Latin or French versions; and to these 
to eleventh books inclusive. In the dedicatory assertions Chapman gives an indignant denial, 
epistle, an address of stately dignity. Chap- ' referring readers to his commentary as a 
man speaks of his straitened circumstances proof of his sufficiency in the Greek tongue, 
and deplores the frivolity of an age in which It must be confessed that the commentary 
poetry was accounted but * idleness and ! does not bear any marks of deep or accurate 
vanity.' The metre adopted in this prelimi- scholarship. In this edition Chapman with- 
nary essay was the rhymed verse of fourteen drew three of the sonnets (addressed to Lady 
syllables, which Chapman afterwards em- \ Arabella Stuart, Lord Wotton, and Lord 
ployed in his complete translation of the Arundel) that he had appeniied to the trans- 

* Iliad.' Later in 1598 Chapman published lation oi books i-xii., and added five others. 
'Achilles Shield. Translated as the other • After completing the translation of the* Iliad' 
seven Bookes of Homer, out of his eighteenth he set himself to translate the * Odyssey.' On 
booke of Iliades,' 4to. The dedicatory epistle 2 Nov. 1614 there is an entry in the Stationers' 
to the Earl of Essex contains a fervid vindi- register to Nathaniel Butter of * Twenty-four 
cation of Homer against the aspersions of Bookes of Homer's Odisses by George Chap- 
Scaliger, for whom Chapman had a profound ; man.' The first twelve books had been pre- 
contempt. Following the dedicatory epistle viously published, but few copies of this 
is an address to the * Understander,' from separate impression are found. When the 
which we learn that the dedicatory epistle I translation was completed the last twelve 
prefixed to the ' Seaven Bookes ' had been books were united with the previous impres- 

* accounted too dark and too much laboured,' sion of the first twelve ; a blank leaf w^as 
an objection which Chapman combats with ; inserted after book xii., and the pagination 
much earnestness and scorn. In the trans- ' was made continuous. Some copies of the 
lation of * Achilles Shield ' Chapman uses i * Odyssey ' have a printed title ; in others the 
rhymed lines of ten syllables, the metre in title is engraved. The book was dedicated 
which the 'Odyssey ' is translated. Some years , to Robert Carr, earl of Somerset, in an epistle 
elapsed before the publication of * Homer, I written partly in verse and partly in prose. 
Pnnce of Poets : translated according to the Finally the translations of tlie * Iliad ' and 
Greeke in twelve Bookes of his Biads,' fol., * Odyssey' were united in one folio volume, 
which bears no date on the title-page, but j and issued under the title of * The Whole 
was certainly not issued before 1609. This Works of Homer, Prince of Poets, in his 
edition has the engraved title by William i Iliads and Odysses.' On the verso of the 
Hole, which was afterwards used for the | engraved title is a portrait of Chapman, with 
complete translation of the ' Iliad ' and for an inscription dated 1616; and on the next 

the * Whole Works of Homer.' The book is 
dedicated in a poetical epistle of remarkable 
dignity to Prince Henry ; and there are also 
prefixed a complimentary sonnet to Queen 
Anne and a * Poem to the Reader.' At the 

f>age is an engraving of two Corinthian co- 
umns surmounted by the Prince of Wales' 
plume and motto ; beneath are some verses 
to the memory- of Prince Henry. At length, 
circ. 1624, Chapman concluded his Homeric 

end of the volume are fourteen sonnets to , labours by issuing* The Crowne of all Homer's 
noble patrons ; and one of these sonnets is \ Workes, Batrachomyomachia or the Battaile 
addressed to the Earl of Salisbury, who is of Frogs and Mise. His Hymn's and Epi- 
styled lord treasurer, an office conferred upon grams, translated in ten-syllabled rhymed 
him on 4 May 1609. The translation of books i verse (the metre used in the translation of 
i-ii, vii-xi, is the same as in the edition of i the * Odyssey '). The engraved title by Wil- 
1698. On 8 April 1611 the complete trans- | liam Pass contains a fine portrait of the 
lation of the ' Iliad ' was entered on the Sta- venerable translator, 
tioners' register. The book was published Chapman's Homer is one of the great 

(doubtless in the same year) under the title 

achievements of the Elizabethan age, a 

'TheBiadsof Homer, Prince of Poets. Never monument of skill and devotion. The mis- 
before in any language truely translated. | translations are many and grievous, and it 
With a Comment upon some of his chiefe i is clear that Chapman's knowledge of Greek 

places,' n. d., fol. In this edition Chapman 
gave a fresh translation of books i. and ii. 
(down to the catalogue of the ships). From 
the ' Preface to the Reader ' we learn that 
the last twelve books had been translated in 
VOL. X. 

was not profound ; but through the whole 
work there breathes a spirit of sleepless energy 
that amply atones for all crudities and con- 
ceits. Among Chapman's contemporaries the 
translation was received with applause. 


Chapman 50 Chapman 

Daniel in *A Defence of Ryme (1602-3), 
written when only a portion of the * Iliad' 
had been published, showed hap])y discrimi- 
nation in stylinj( Cha])man ' our IIomer-Lu- 
can/ Drayton in his * Epistle to Henry Rey- 
nolds' (])iiblislied in 1627) names ('hapman 

George Chapman, a learned and honest man.' 
Probably Jonson is here referring to the im- 
prisonment which followed the production of 
* Eastward Hoe,' but Gilford is of opinion 
that Jonson and Chapman suffered a second 
time for some injudicious satire introduced 

first in the list of translators. Ben Jonson, , into another play, now unknown. * East- 
though he told Drummond that * the trans- ward Hoe' was revived at Drury Lane in 1751 

lations of Homer and Virgil in long Alex- 
andrines were but prose,' in some coniplimen- 

under the title of ' The Prentices,' and again 
in 1 775 under the title of * Old City Manners.' 

tary verses ])refixed to Chapman's * Ilesiod ' It is supposed that Hogarth took from 'Elast- 
warmly ])raise.s his friend's Homeric trans- ward Hoe ' the plan of his set of prints of the 
lutions, with .sjw^cial reference, it would seem, Idleand Industrious Apprentices. In this year 
to the * Odyssey ' and * Hymns.' Chapmnii's of troubles (1005) was published the comedy 
Homer has never been without admirers. Dry- of * All Fools,* produced in 1598, a well-con- 
<len, in tlie dedication t^) the third volume of structed and well-written play, the most 
his * Miscellanies,' \^Tit es : — * The Earl of Mul- artistic of Chapman's dramatic compositions. 
grave and Mr. Waller, two of the best judges The author seems to have attached little 
of our age, have assured me they could never value to this work ; for in the dedicatory son- 
read over the translation of Chapman without net to Sir Thomas Walsingham (which w^as 
incredible transport.' Pope acknowledges the almost immediately withdrawn, and is found 
mi^rits of his predecessor's la}>ours ; and Dr. in very few copies) he describes it as 'the least 
Johnson affirms that Pope never translated allow d birth of my shaken brain.' In 1600 
any passage of Homer without consulting appeared * The Gentleman Usher,* which con- 
ChapmanV version. Coleridge said that Chap- tains some love scenes of great beauty and 
man s Homer was as truly an original poem refinement. Another of Chapman's come- 
as the * Faerie Queene ; ' Lamb was a fervid dies, * Monsieur d'Olive,* was published in the 
admirer of the rough old translation ; and same year. It opens very promisingly, but 
Keats has a noble sonnet 'On first looking the interest is not skilfully sustained. In 1607 
into Chapman's Homer.' Among more recent appeared the first edition of 'Bussy d'Am- 
panegyrists are Emerson and Mr. Swinburne, bois : a Tragedie.' This was the most popular 
There is some break in Chapman s dra- of Chapman*s tragedies. It was republished 
matic career after 1598. An anonymous in 1608, 1610, KUl (with a text 'corrected 
comedy, ' Sir Gyles Goosecappe,' produced by ; and amended by the author before his death '), 
the Children of the Chappel about the au- and 1657. Nathaniel Field acted the part of 
tumn of 1601 (and printed in 1606) is so Bussy with great applause; and at a later 
strongly marked with Chapman's peculiar date the performances of Hart of Mountford 
mannerisms that we must either grant that were much admired. In 1091 Durfey 'writ 
lie was the autlior or suppose that it was the plot new,' and published his alteration 
written in close imitation of his style (Bcrii- under the title of * J^ussy d'Ambois ; or the 
LKX, Old EnffUsh Plays, iii. 1-2, 95-6). In Husband's Revenge.' Dryden, in the dedi- 
1605 appeared the admirable comedy, * East- catory epistle prefixed to * The Spanish Fryar ' 
ward Ho«.',' which Chapman wrote in con- (1681), criticises Chapman's play with the 
junction with Ben Jonson and Marston. greatest severity. He found in it ' a dwarfish 
For introducing some satirical reflections on thought dressed up in gigantic words, repe- 
the Scots the authors were thrown into prison, tition in abundance, looseness of expression, 
and the report went that their ears were to and gross hyperboles ; the sense of one line 
be cut and their noses slit ; but happily they expanded prodigiously into ten ; and, to sum 
were released without being put to this in- up all, incorrect English, and a hideous 
■convenience. In a few of the extant copies mingle of false poetry and true nonsense.' 
there is found a satirical allusion to the ra- Much of the wnting is mere fustian; but 
pacity of James's Scotch followers ; but the there is also an abundance of noble poetry, 
passage is suppressed in many copies. There The character of Bussy, a magnificent brag- 
is preserved at Hatfield an autograph letter gart of matchless self-confidence, is power- 
i discovered by Birch) of Ben Jonson to the fully conceived ; but the other characters are 
^arl of Salisbury, dated in the same vear colourless. *The Revenge of Bussy d'Am- 
(1(50.*)), in which the writ/>r states :— * 1 am bois,' published in 1613, has even less dra- 
here, my most honoured lord, unexamined matic power than the 'Tragedy of Bussy 
and unheard, committed to a vile prison, and d'Ambois;' but it displays great richness of 
with me a gentleman (whose name may per- moral reflection. In 1608 appeared (in one 
haps have come to your lordship), one Mr. volume) the two historical plays, « The Con- 




spiracie and Tragedie of Charles, Duke of 
Byron/ These plays had been produced as 
early as 1605, and in their original form con- 
tained some matter that gave offence to the 
French ambassador, at whose petition the 
players were forbidden to continue the per- 
lormances. When the court removed from 
London, the players, in defiance of the order 
that had been issued, persisted in performing 
the plays ; whereupon three members of the 
company were arrested, but 'the principal 
person, the author, escaped.' The objection- 
able passages must have been cancelled when 
the plays were put to press, for the extant 
printed copies contain nothing that could have 
given ofience. In these plays there is no dra- 
matic movement, nothing worthy to be called a 
plot, no attempt at deveK)pment of character. 
The figure of JByron, as of Bussy d*Ambois, 
is drawn with epic grandeur. In describing 
the ' wild enormities ' of boundless vainglory, 
Chapman, however undramatic he may be, is 
assuredly impressive. Webster, in the address 
to the reader prefixed to 'Vittoria Corom- 
bona,' commended * the full and heightened 
style of Master Chapman.' * The Conspiracie 
and Tragedie 'are thickly strewn with striking 
aphorisms, expressed with fitting eloquence 
of language. Charles Lamb was of opinion 
that of all the English dramatists * Chapman 
approaches nearest to Shakespeare in the de- 
scriptive and didactic in passages which are 
less purely dramatic' Chapman's next play 
was * May Day, 'published in 1611, a broadly 
humorous comedy full of diverting situations. 
It was followed in 1612 hy another comedy 
of intrigue, vigorously written but exceed- 
ingly coarse in tone, ' The Widow's Tears,' 
partly founded on the story of the Ephesian 
widow in Petronius. Many years elapsed 
before Chapman published another play. At 
length, in 1631, appeared ' Csesar and Pom- 
pey, a Roman Trageay declaring their Warres,' 
with a dedicatory epistle to the Earl of 
Middlesex, from which we learn that the play 
had been written long before the date of pub- 
lication. Possessing little dramatic power, 
^Cffisar and Pompey' exhibits strikingly 
Chapman's depth of ethical reflection. No 
other plays of Chapman were published dur- 
ing his lifetime; but in 1654 Humphrey 
Moseley, a well-known publisher, issued the 

* Tragedy of Alphonsus, Emperor of Ger- 
many, ... by Oeor^e Chapman, Gent.,' and in 
the same vear Richard Marriot published 

* Revenge for Honour, a Tragedie, by George 
Chapman.' It is not easy to recognise Chap- 
man s hand in * Alphonsus,' an ul-digested, 
brutal piece of work, singularly barren of all 
poetic ornament, and remarkable only for the 
close knowledge that the author displays of 

German manners and German language. * Re- 
venge for Honour,' a very sanguinary drama, 
shows occasional traces of Chapman's man- 
nerisms, but the authorship cannot be as- 
signed to him with any confidence. The plot 
is conducted with more skill than we find in 
Chapman's undoubted tragedies. There is 
nothing of the turgid bombast and nothing 
of the exalted eloquence that deform and en- 
noble * Bussy d'Ambois' and * Byron.' A 
comedy entitled ' The Ball,' licensed on 1 6 Nov. 
1632, was published in 1639, as the Joint 
production of Chapman and Shirley. Gifford 
supposed that Chapman wrote tne largest 
portion of it ; but this view has not found 
favour with later critics, and indeed it may 
be doubted whether Chapman had any share 
at all in the composition. In Sir Henry Her- 
bert's * Ottice-book ' the play is described as 
'written by Sherley.' It is an agreeable 
comedy of manners, written in Shirley's easy 
fluent style, but not worthy to be placed in 
the front rank of his works. Another play, 
the * Tragedy of Chabot, Admirall of France,' 
licensed on 29 April 1636, was published in 
the same year as the ^Ball,' and with the 
names of the same authors on the title-page. 
This play is more evenly written than 
Chapman s earlier tragedies; and we may 
suppose that, having been lefb imperfect by 
Chapman, it was revised and completed by 
Shirley, losing much of its original roughness 
in the process of revision. An anonymous 
tragedy of considerable power, the 'Second 
Maiden's Tragedy,' licensed on 31 Oct. 1611, 
and first printed (from a manuscript in the 
Lansdowne collection) in 1824, has been at- 
tributed, on very slight authority, to Chap- 
man. At the back of the manuscript is 
written the name of * William ' (afterwards 
altered to * Thomas ') * Goughe.' This name 
has been nearly obliterated, and the name of 
* George Chapman' substituted. Finally, 
Chapman's name is scored through in favour 
of 'Will. Shakespear.' The authorship, in 
spite of many conjectures that have been put 
forward, is still a mystery. Winstanley and 
Langbaine ascribe to Chapman * Two Wise 
Men and all the rest Fooles, or a Comicall 
Morall, censuring the follies of this age, as it 
hath beene diverse times acted, anno 1619; ' 
but Langbaine is careful to add : ' I am led 
only by tradition to believe this play to be 
his.' There is not the slightest ground for 
fathering this absurd production on Chapman. 
The error probablv arose from a confusion of 
the title * Two W ise Men and all the rest 
Fooles,' with the title of Chapman's comic 
masterpiece, * All Fools.' Two plays of Chap- 
man, the * Yorkshire Gentlewoman and her 
Son/ and 'Fatal Love, a French tragedy/ 

£ 2 




were entered in the Stationers' register on 
29 June 1660, but were not published. These 
plays were among the manuscripts destroyed 
by Warburton's cook. 

The list of Chapman's non-dramatic works, 
excluding the Homeric translations and the 
poems already mentioned, was considerable. 
Among the * Divers Poeticall Essaies on the 
Turtle and Phoenix ' printed at the end of 
Robert Chester's * Love's Martyr,' 1601 , is a 
short poem by Chapman entitled * Peristeros, 
or the Male Turtle.' In 1609 he published 

* Euthymia) Raptus ; or the Tears of Pe.ace, 
with Interlocutions,' dedicated to Prince 
Henry. The allegory is confused and the 
writing harsh ; but the vision of Homer in 
the ' Inductio ' is singularly impressive, and 
the * Conclusio ' contains one passage of ex- 
quisite harmony and striking imagery. In 
1612 appealed * Petrarch's Seven Penitentiall 
Psalms, paraphrastically translated, with 
other Philosopnicall Poems, and a Hymne to 
riirist upon the Crosse.' Some of the shorter 

* philosophical poems ' appended to the ' peni- 
tential psalms are tersely and vigorously 
written. On 6 Nov. 1612 died Chapman^s 
patron, Henry, prince of Wales, and his 
death was sincerely lamented by the poet 
in ' An Epicede, or Funerall Song.' Chap- 
man's next work proved very unfortunate. 
The marriage of Robert Carr, earl of Somer- 
set, to the divorced Countess of Essex was 
celebrated on 26 Dec. 1613, and in honour of 
the marriage Chapman wrote an allegoric 
poem, entitled, ' Andromeda Liberata ; or the 
Nuptials of Perseus and Andromeda,' 1614. 
The allegory was most in felicitously chosen, 
and could hardly fail to give offence ; but the 
])oet seems to have had no suspicion that he 
was treading on dangerous ground. In *A 
Free and Offenceles lustification of a Lately 
pvblisht and most maliciously misinterpreted 
Poeme entitvled Andromeda liberata ' he pro- 
tests that he had not imagined it possible that 
the allegory could be regarded as ' intended 
to the dishonour of any person now living.' 
There had been a rumour, to which he gives 
an indignant denial, that he was subjected to 
personal chastisement for his indiscretion. 
It is curious to notice, in connection with 
the publication of the poem, the following 
entry in the Stationers* register, under date 
16 March 1613-14: * Laurence Lyle. En- 
tred for his coppie vnder the han^es of the 
Duke of Lennox, the Earle of Suffolke, the 
Earle of Marr, Sir Julius Cfcsar, Master 
"Warden Feild, and Master Adames, a booke 
called Perseus and Andromede, by George 
( 'hapman ' (Arber's Transcript, iii. 249). If 
Chapman had no suspicion that his poem was 
likely to give offence, it is hard to suppose 

that his guilelessness was shared by the per* 
sons at whose instance the poem was licensed. 
Jonson said that, ' next himself, only Fletcher 
and Chapman could make a masque.' The 
sole extant specimen of Chapman's talents as 
a masque writer is the * Memorable Maske of 
the two Honorable Houses or Inns of Court, 
the Middle Temple and Lyncoln's Inne,' 1614, 
written for the Princess Elizabeth's nup- 
tials, and performed at Whitehall on 15 Feo. 
1613-14. In an anon3naious unpublished 
masque {Egerton MS. 1994, ff. 212-23) there 
is a long passage which is also found in ' By- 
ron's Tragedie.' Possibly this unpublished 
masque — ^which is dated 1643, but may have 
been written much earlier — is to be attributed 
to Chapman. In the same year (1614) Chap- 
man published * Evgenia, or Trve Nobilities 
Trance : for the most memorable death of the 
Thrice Noble and Religious William Lord 
Rvssel, &c.* with an epistle dedicatory to 
Francis, lord Russell. It is tedious and ob- 
scure, but contains some poetic touches. In 
1616 appeared the * Divine Poem of Musaeus, 
first of all bookes, translated according tx> 
the Originall,' with a dedication to Inigo 
Jones. This book, of which only one copy 
(preserved in the Bodleian) is known, mea- 
sures two inches in length, and scarcely an 
inch in breadth. The translation of the 
pseudo 'Musaeus' was succeeded in 1618 by 
the * Georgicks of Hesiod, . . . translated ela- 
borately out of the Greek, . . . with a per- 
Setuall Calendar of Good and Bad Daies,' 
edicated *to the Most Noble Combiner of 
Learning and Honour, Sir lYancis Bacon, 
Knight. Prefixed to this vigorous transla- 
tion are copies of commendatory verses by 
Michael Drayton and Ben Jonson. In 1622, 
when Sir Horace Vere was shut up in Mann- 
heim with a handful of troops. Chapman 
pu})lished a spirited copy of verses entitled 
' Pro Vere Autumni Lachrymoe,' in which he 
urged that aid should be sent to the relief of 
the distressed garrison. The poem is dedicated 
to the Earl of Somerset, who had been dis- 
missed from court, and was now living in ob- 
scurity. It is to Chapman's credit that he 
remained firmly attached to the fortunes of 
his fallen ])atron. In 1629 appeared the last 
of Chapman's miscellaneous writings, *A 
Justification of a Strange Action of Nero, in 
burying with a Solemne Funerall one of the 
cast Hayres of his Mistresi^e Poppa?a. Also 
a Just Reproofe of a Romane Smell-feast, 
being the Fifth Satyre of Juvenall.' The 
translation of Juvenal's fifth Satire is very 

Chapman contributed commendatory verses 
to Ben Jonson's ' Sejanus ' (1605) anol * Vol- 
.pone' (1006). Jonson told Drummond of 




Hawtbomden that ' Fletcher and Cbnproan 
-were loved of him ; ' but. tlie friendship be- 
tween Chapman and Jonstin wdb intt^rrupted 
»t a lat«r date, for in a commonploee hook 
preserred among' tht; Ashmole MSS. is a 
lengthy fragment of a violent ' Invi'Ctive 
written by alt. George Chapman ajnunat Mr. 
Ben Jonson.' Prefixed to l'letche?H ' Faith- 
ful Shepherdess ' (1610?) is a, copy of versos 
by Chapman, who alfiO contributed aomtt pre- 
fatory Terees to ' Porthenia' (litU), and 'A 
Woman is a Wyathercoek ' (1612), a comedy 
«f ' his loTod son,' Nat. Field. Some verses 
signed ' O. C.,' prefixed to ' The True History 
oftbeTragicke loves of Hipolito and Isabella' 
(1628), are probably to be aseigned to Chaji- 
num. There are versea liy Chapman buueatli 
the portrait of Prince Henry in HoUand'a 
' Herooloeia,' 16^. 

Wood deacribes Chapman as ' a person of 
iii<»tn!VcrendaBpect,religiaUB and temperate, 
qualities rarely meeting in a poet.' From 
many references scattered throughout hia 
works it may be gathered that the poet 
auSered from poverty and neglect. John 
Davios of Hereford, in the ' Scourge of Joy' 
(1611), alludes to Chapman's straitened cir- 
cumstances in a quaint copyof verses addres- 
sed ' To my highly vallued Mr. George Chap- 
man, Father of our English Poets.' Oldya 
States that in later life Chapman was ' much 
resorted to by young persons of parts as 
a poetical chronicle ; but was very choice 
who he admitted to him, and preserved in his 
©wn person the dignity of Poetry, which he 
compared lo a flower of the sun, that disdains 
to open its leaves to the eye of a smoking 

Chapman died in the parish of St. Oiles-in- 
the-Fietds on i2 May 1634, and was buried 
«n the south side of St. Qilex's churchyard. 
The monument erected to bis memory by 
Inigo Jones isstill standing; but the inscrip- 
tion, which has been reciil, does not tally 
withthe inscription given by Wood. Habing- 
ton in his 'Castara (ed. 1635) alludes to 
Chapman's grave beLngoutsidethechurch,and 
expresses a hope that some person might be 
found 'ao seriously devote to poesie' as to 
remove hia relics and ' in the warme church 
to build him up a tombe.' 

Chapman's Homer was excellently edited 
in 1857 by the Itev. lUchard Hooper (' Iliad,' 
2 vols.; 'Odyssey,' 2 vols.; 'Hymns,' &c., 
Ivol,) Inl873appearedareprint,withtheold 

XUing retained, of the dramatic works, in 
ee volumes. A complete collection of 
Chapman's works, in three volumes, was seen 
through the press by Mr. K. H. Shepherd in 
1873-«; thedramatic works fill one volume, 
the ' Iliad ' and ' Odyssey ' another, and the 

third volume is devoted to the ' Miscellaneoua 
Poems and Translatioos.' To the volume of 
miscellaneous works is prefixed an elaborate, 
just, and eloquent essay (afterwards issued in 
a separate form) by Mr. A. C. Swinburne, 

bj OlJys ; Uensloire's Diary (ud. J. P. Collier) ; 
Hooper's latroductioas to Chupman's Homer; 
Siriubarne's Essay on Chapman; Coleridge's Li- 
terary Ueinains. i. 2aD-63 ; Lamb's fipecimens 
of Draraatio PobU.] A. H. B. 

CHAPMAN, GEORGE (172.3-1806), 
schoolmaster and writer on education, was 
born at the farm of Little Bluektowu in the 

Earish of Aivah, Tlunffshire, in August 1723. 
le was educated at the grammar school of 
Banff, and at King's College, Aberdeen, gra- 
duating M.A. in 1741, After acting for some 
time as ma.ster in the jtarish school of Alvahj 
he in 1747 became assistant master in an aca- 
demy at Dalkeith. In 1751 he removed to 
Dumfries, to become joint master of the gram- 
mar school ; shortly afterwards he became 
sole headmaster, and he held this office till 
1774. On account of infirm health he relin- 

auished it to take up a small private aca- 
emy, but, finding that this was regarded as 
injurious to the grammar school, he removed 
to Ban^hire, where he kept an academy at 
his native farmhouse. Some time afterwards, 
at the request of the magistrates, he under- 
took the superintendence of the ItantT aca- 
demy. Latterly he removed to Edinburgh, 
where he carried on business as a printer. 
He died at Rose Street, Edinburgh, 22 Feb. 
1800. In 1773 he published 'A Treatise on 
Education, with a Sketch of the Author's 
Method of Instruction while he taught the 
school of Dumfries, and a view of other Books 
on Education,' which n:ached a fifth edition 
in 1792. In 1S04 ha obtained the prijie of- 
fi>red by Dr. Ducliansn for a poem and essay 
on the civilisation of India, and they were 
published at Edinburgh in 160.~i under the 
title, ' East India Tracts, viz. Collegium Ben- 
gBlense,a Latin Poem with an Euyliah Trans- 
lation and a Dissertation,' &c. He was also 
the author of ' Hints on the Eduuation of the 
Lower lianks of the People, and the Appoint- 
ment of Parochial Schoolmasters; 'Ad- 
vantages of a Classical Education;' and an 
'Abridgement of Mr. Ruddiman's Rudiments 
and Latin Grammar.' He received the de- 
gree of LL.D. from the university of Aber- 

[Memoirsof his Life, 1806; Scots Mag. Ixviii. 
!3S, 404 -5 ; Oeut. Mftg. li:ivi. pt. i. 285 ; Chal- 
uera's Biog. Diet. ii. liS-O.] T. F, H, 




1881), colonial judge, waa bom at Kenning- 
ton, Surrey, in July 1803, and emigrated to 
Canada in 1823. He founded at Montreal, 
in 1833, the * Daily Advertiser,* the first daily 
paper published in Canada ; connected with 
it were the * Courier,' a bi-weekly, and the 
* Weekly Abstract.' As editor of these jour- 
nals he displayed great vigour and ability, but 
they ceased on his leaving the colony in 1834. 
His first connection with public life in Eng- 
land was in acting as an assistant commis- 
sioner to inquire into the condition of the 
handloom weavers in 1838. He was called 
to the bar at the Middle Temple on 12 June 
1840, when he joined the northern circuit, 
and was appointed advocate to the New Zea- 
land Company. In June 1843 he again left 
his native country, and became jud^e of the 
supreme court of New Zealand, which office 
he continued to hold until March 18o2, when 
he was named colonial secretary of Van Die- 
men's Land (now Tasmania), but vacated the 
secretarj^ship in November of the same year. 
Removing to the neighbouring colony, he 
commenced practising the Jaw in Melbourne 
in October 1854, and in February 1855 was 
elected a member of the old legislative assem- 
bly. Under the new constitution of Victoria 
he was named attorney-general 11 March 

1857, but the O'Shanassy cabinet, of which 
he "was a member, only held office until 
29 April in the same year, (^n 10 March 

1858, being then a member of the assembly 
for St. Hilda, he was called on by Sir Henry 
Barkly, the governor of the colony, to form 
u ministry, which he succeeded in ioing, and 
AVilliam Clark Haines taking the chief secre- 
taryship, he himself resumed his former place 
of attorney-general, and retained it until 
27 Oct. 1859, when hia party suftered a de- 
feat. In the elect ion of 186 1 lie was returned 
for Momington, and during 1862-3 served 
the office of equity judge in the supreme court 
of Victoria whilst Sir Redmond Barry was 
absent on leave. For several years and in 
the intervals of office he filled the chair of law 
at the Melbourne University. He returned 
to Now Zealand in 1865, and again acted as 
judge of the supreme court ; was afterwards 
puisne judge at Otago, with a salary of 1,500/. 
a year, and in 1877 retired on a pension. He 
was an occasional contributor to the * West- 
minster Keview,' the * Law Magazine,' and 
other periodicals, and was the author of ar- 
ticles m the * Rncyclopa'dia Britannica.' As 
a writer in the English press he was the means 
of rendering important services to Canada and 
British North America. He died at Dune- 
din, New Zealand, on 27 Dec. 1881, in his 
79th year. 

The following works bear his name: 
1 . * Thoughts on the Money and Exchanges 
of Lower Canada,' 1 832. 2. * A Petition from 
Lower Canada, with Explanatory Remarks,^ 
1834. 3. ' The Act for the Regulation of Mu- 
nicipal Corporations in England and Wales, 
with index and notes,' 1836. 4. * The Safety 
Principle of Joint Stock Banks and other 
Companies, exhibited in a Modification of the 
Law of Partnership,' 1837. 5. * The New 
Zealand Portfolio,* 1843. 6. ' Parliamentary 
Government, or Responsible Ministries of the 
Australian Colonies,' 1854. 

[Morgan's Bibliotheca Canadensis (1867), p. 
71; Colonial Office List, 1876; Law Times, 
25 Feb. 1882, p. 304 ; Beaton's Australian Dic- 
tionary (1879), p. 37.] G. C. B. 

CHAPMAN, JOHN (1704-1784), divine, 
son of the Rev. William Chapman, curate of 
Wareham, Dorsetahire, then rector of Strath- 
fieldsay, Hampshire, was bom in 1704, pro- 
bably at the latter place. He was educated 
at Eton, and elected to King's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he became A.B. 1727, and A.M. 
1731. While tutor of his college, Pratt (first 
Lord Camden), Jacob Bryant, and, for a short 
time, Horace Walpole were amongst his pu- 
pils. He became chaplain to Archbishop Pot- 
ter, and was made, in 1739, rector of Alder- 
ton, with the chapel of Smeeth, also rector of 
Salt wood in 1741, but resigned Saltwood in 
1744 to become rector of Mersham, Kent. 
He was afterwards created archdeacon of 
Sudbury and treasurer of Chichester, and 
honoured by a D.D. degree at Oxford. In 
1742-3 he was a candidate for the provost- 
ship of King's College, Cambridge, but Dr. 
William George won the office by a small 

His first work was * The Objection of a late 
anonymous writer [see Collins, Anthony] 
against the Book of Daniel considered,' Camb. 
1728. This was followed by ' Remarks on Dr. 
Middleton's celebrated Letter to Dr. Water- 
land,' Lond. 1738, 8vo, of which several later 
editions appeared . He next published * Euse- 
bius,or the True Christian's Defence,' directed 
I agfainst Morgan's * Moral Philosopher,' and 
Tindal's * Christianity as old as the Creation,*^ 
I in 2 vols. Lond. Svo (1739 and 1741). War- 
burton, in his letter to Doddridge, criticises 
i its amusing mistakes, and says * it was written 
' by order of the A. B. C (Arch-Bishop of Can- 
I t-erbury). In his essay ' De ^'Etate Ciceronis 
' Libr. de I-*egibus,' Camb. 1741, 8vo, written 
I in elegant Latin, and addressed to Mr. (after- 
wards Dr.) TunstAll, then public orator of 
I the university, and publishea with his Latin 
; epistle to Middleton, Chapman proved for the 
j first time that Cicero had published twoedi- 




tions of his ' Academical In 1744 his letter 
'On the ancient numeral characters of the 
Roman Legions/ was added to Tunstall's 
* Observations on Epistles of Cicero and Bru- 
tufl,' Lond. 8vo, in confutation of Middleton's 
notion that there were lef^ons of the same 
number in different parts of the empire. In 
1742 he published * Miscellaneous Tracts re- 
lating to Antiquity,* in five parts, Lond. 8vo. 
In 1745 he assisted Zachary Pearce in his 
edition of Cicero de Officiis.* In 1747 he pre- 
fixed anonymously in Latin to Mr. Mounte- 
ney*8 edition of Demosthenes ' Observationes 
in Commentarios vul^ Ulpianeos/ and a map 
of ancient Greece to illustrate Demosthenes. 
Other editions of this appeared in 1791, 1811, 
and 1820. 

As executor and surviving trustee of Arch- 
bishop Potter, Chapman presented himself to 
the precentorship of Lincoln (an option, or 
archbishop's gift). A suit was thereupon 
brought in chancery by Dr. Wm. Richardson. 
In 1/60 Lord-keeper Henley made a decree 
in his favour, but tne House of Lords reversed 
the decision. Bum states the case in * Eccle- 
siastical Law,' vol. i., but promised Chapman 
to modify the statement m a lat^r edition. 
Hurd censures Chapman in his correspond- 
ence with Warburton; and Chapman pub- 
blished his own statement, * His Case against 
Dr. Richardson,' &c., Lond. 1760, fol., which 
was not answered. His other works are 
' PhleTOU examined,' and * Phlegon re-exam- 
ined,' both Lond. 1739, 8vo,two tracts relat- 
ing to the testimonies of Phlegon in answer 
to Dr. Sykes on the darkness at the cruci- 
fixion ; 'Forty-five Sermons of J. C. and W. 
Berriman,' Lond. 1746, 8vo ; * Charge to the 
Clergy of the Archdeaconry .... Popi^ry the 
true Bane of Letters,' Lond. 174($, 4to, which 
was violently attacked by Middleton ; ' The 
Jesuit Cabal further opened,' Lond. 1747, 
4to ; * Discovery of the Miraculous Powers 
of the Christian Church,' Lond. 1747, 4to ; 
'ConcioadSvnodum .... Prov. Cant.,' Lond. 
1748, 8vo ; * finds and Uses of Charity Schools,' 
I^ond. 1762, 4to; and * Miraculous Powers of 
Primitive Christians,' lx)nd. 1762, 4to; also 
single sermons in 1739, 1743, 1748, and 

Chapman died at Mersham, 14 Oct. 1784, 
and was buried in the chancel. His library 
was sold by Leigh & Sotheby, 4-14 April 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 467, ii. 168. 171, 192, 
V. 158, viii. 681 ; Nichols's lUust. of Lit. ii. 814. 
vi. 477, iii. 140; Leland's Deistical Writers, 1757; 
Letters from a Inte eminent Prelate, ed. 1809 ; 
Harwood's Alnmni Etonenses, p. 312; Hutchin- 
son's Dorsetshire. 2nd ed. 1. 65 ; Bibl. Top. Brit. 
199; Hasted's Kent, iii. 290; Brown^s Cases 

of Appeals to Parliament, v. 400 ; Burn's flccle- 
siastical Law, under * Bishops ' and * Options/ 
vol. i. ; Chapman's Works.] J. W.-G. 

CHAPMAN, JOHN (1801-1864), poli- 
tical wTiter, was born at Loughborough, 
Leicestershire, on 20 Jan. 1801, and was the 
eldest of the three surviving sons of John 
Chapman, clockmaker of that town. He re- 
ceived his education first at a school kept by 
Mr. Mowbray, and then under the Rev. T. 
Stevenson; but he taught himself Greek, and 
paid a French workman of his father's to 
teach him French. His passion for books and 
the agitation set up by liim and some of his 
young companions led to the establishment 
of the Loughborough Permanent Library; 
and by 1817 he was devoting his Sundavs to 
teaching in the Sunday school, and hai be- 
come secretary of a peace society, and of the 
Hampden Club, of which his father was pre- 
sident. At this time he was helping his father 
in his business ; but about 1822, which was 
the date of his public admission into the 
general baptist church, his attention was di- 
rected to the machiner}' recjuired for the 
bobbin-net trade, technically called * insides.' 
lie joined his next brother, William, in set- 
ting up a factory for the production of this 
machinery-, and in a few years was able to 
build a large factory, and erect a steam-engine 
for it. In December 1824 he married Mary, 
daughter of John Wallis, a Loujirhborough 
lace manufacturer. He soon became a pro- 
minent adherent in the town of the philoso- 
phical radicals, and a riot breaking out in 
Jjoughborough on the occasion of the Reform 
Bill, he courageously diverted an attack upon 
the rectory, though tlie n^ctor wa8 his strong 
opponent. In 18i^2 he visited France to in- 
vestigate the condition of the lace-machine 
trade tliere, his own finn doing a large busi- 
ness, then contraband, with foreign liouses. 
Chapman and others petitioned parliament to 
repeal the machine exi)ortation laws ; but ])ro- 
tection for the time triumphed, and the firm 
of J. & W. Chapman was in 1884 completely 
ruined. Stripped of all but his books, whicli 
a neighbouring manufacturer, Mr. AValker, 
bought and presented to him, Chapman set 
off from LonghlM>rough to London, leaving 
his wife and children behind. He first per- 
formed manual work for mathematieal instru- 
ment makers, then obtained imiployment as 
mathematical tutor, and wrote tor the * Me- 
chanic's Magazine,* of which for a short time 
he was editor. He became sccretarv to the 
Safety Cabriolet and Twcvwheel Carriage 
Company in 1830 ; in the same year his wife 
and children joined him in London. He re- 
cognised defects in the vehicle which Han- 
som was then building (Paddington Mercury ^ 




29 July 1882), and invented all the valuable 
improvements which have made the modem 
* Hansom cab.' A patent for it was granted to 
him and a capitalist, Mr. Gillett, on 31 Dec. 
1836, and it was enrolled 21 June 1837. In 
1838 he became deacon and superintendent of 
the Sunday schools of a baptist chapel then in 
Edward Street, and removed in 1840 to Praed 
Street ; and about the same time he was help- 
ing in the management of the ' Mechanic's 
Aunanac,' the * Baptist Examiner,' the * Share- 
holder's Advocate,' and the * Railway Times,' 
whilst (at a later period) he contributed to 
the 'Times,' * Mommg Advertiser,' ' Econo- 
mist,' ' Daily News,' ' Leader,' &c. In 1842 
he was employed by George Thompson, then 
M.P., especially to consider the position of 
India and its trade and rights (his own Cotton 
and Commerccy preface, p. x), and in 1844 he 
laid before the railway department of the 
board of trade a project for constructing the 
Great Indian Peninsular Railway (his own 
manuscripts). He was laughed at at first as 
a visionary (t'A.), but after nearly three years' 
assiduous endeavour the Great Indian Pen- 
insular Railway Company was started, with 
offices at 3 New Broad Street, and Chapman 
landed at Bombay in September 1845 to make 
preliminary investigations. He was received 
by the provisional committee of his company 
at Bombay with the greatest cordiality {ib. 
p. xii), and he returned home in 1846 with 
his plans matured and his report completed. 
His projected route was submitted to Robert 
Stephenson, wlio approved of it, but dissen- 
sions among the directors caused an abrupt 
severance between Chapman and his company. 
His claim for payment for his services was 
submitted for arbitration to the East India 
Company, and he was awarded the one final 
payment of 2,500/. 

Chapman's sympathies with India never 
cooled. He issued a pamphlet in October 
1847 on the cotton and salt question, entitled 

* Remarks on Mr. Aylwin's Letter,' &c., and 
presented to parliament on behalf of native 
merchants in the Bombay presidency a pe- 
tition in four oriental languages respecting 
the reform of civil government In India (6re/i. 
Bapt. Mag, 1856, p. 215). lie prosecuted his 
inquiries about Indian cotton from 1848 to 
1850 in Manchester and other places in pre- 
paration for his book, * The Cotton and Com- 
merce of India,' which he issued on 1 Jan. 
1851. This he followed by two papers in the 

* Westminster Review,' one on ' The Govern- 
ment of India' (April 1852), and another on 

* Our Colonial Empire ' (October, same year). 
In March 1853 he issued * Principles of Indian 
Reform . . . concerning . . . the Promotion of 
India Public Works,' which went through a 

second edition at once, and wrote ' Baroda 
and Bombay,' a protest against the removal 
of Colonel Outram from his post as resident 
at the Guikwar's court at Baroda; a copy 
was sent to every member of parliament, with 
the result that Outram was quickly reinstated. 
Two months later, in May, he wrote an intro- 
ductory preface, at the request of the Bombay 
Association, to Nowrozjee and Furdoonjee s 

* Civil Administration of the Bombay Presi- 
dency ; ' his paper, ' India and its Finance,' 
appeared in tlie ' Westminster Review ' for 
July that year; his 'Constitutional Reform,' 
in the same pages, in January 1854; and his 

* Civil Service ' in the number for Julj. A 
great scheme for the irrigation of India was 
also being prepared b^ him, and he was in 
constant communication concerning it with 
the board of control. His unwearied activity 
had obtained for him the support of Cobden, 
Bright, Macaulay, Sir Charles Napier, Her- 
bert Spencer, and others. He visited Lough- 
borough in August 1854. After his return to 
town, he was suddenly seized with cholera 
on Sunday, 10 Sept. 1854, and died on the 
following day, aged 53. On his desk was 
an unfinished paper, a review of Humboldt's 

* Sphere and Duties of Government;' and 
almost immediately after his death the go- 
vernment sanction for his irrigation scheme 
was delivered in full form at his door. His 
unfinished paper appeared in its incomplete 
state in the * Westminster Review ' of the 
next month, October ; and the editor paid his 
talents the rare compliment of reprinting his 

* Government of India 'paper in a subsequent 
number. He was buried in Kensal Green 
cemetery. His wife and three out of ten chil- 
dren survived him. 

[General Baptist Magazine, 1856, pp. 172-0, 
209-17, 293, 296, 330-1 ; Nottingham Review, 
1833, scattered from 11 Sept. to 3 Dec.; PjuI- 
dington Mercury, 29 July 1882; Repertory of 
Patent Inventions, November 1837, No. xlvii. 
new series, pp. 272-80 ; Chapman's Baroda and 
Bombay, p. 148 ; Chapman's Cotton and Com- 
merce of India, preface, pp. x, xiii, and text, 
pp. 240, 242, 369; Chapman's manuscripts in 
possession of his son, J. W. Chapman, architect ; 
private information.] J. H. 

1884), novelist, was bom on 28 Nov. 1838, at 
Dublin, where her father held a situation in 
the custom house. Mr. Chapman being soon 
afterwards transferred to tne London cus- 
toms, his family came with him to England, 
and his daughter was placed at a school at 
Staplehurst in Kent. She early displayed 
an aptitude for story-writing, and part of her 
first novel, * Mary Bertrand, she composed at 


57 Chapman 

the age of fifteen. It was published in 1856, 
when the author was only eighteen. It was 
followed by * Lord Bridgnorth's Niece/ which 
appeared in 1862. In 1869 she contributed 
to the ' Churchman's Family Magazine ' an 
historical tale, called ' Bellasis ; or, the For- 
tunes of a Cavalier ; ' it was the joint pro- 
duction of herself and her father. A visit to 
Scotland, where her elder brother had settled 
as a clergyman of the Scotch episcopal church, 
led to her writinff, in 1876, * A Scotch Woo- 
ing,' the first of ner books that attracted at- 
tention. In 1876 appeared her best novel, 
* Gerald Marlowe's wife.' Her last work, 
published in 1879, was * The Gift of the Gods.' 
This appeared under her own name ; in her 

Srevious publications she had used the pseu- 
onym of * J. C. Ayrton.' Miss Chapman 
died, after a long illness, at Old Charlton, on 
18 Feb. 1884. Her novels are, with the excep- 
tion of * Bellasis,' tales of domestic life, with 
comparatively little incident, but marked by 
good feeling and refined taste. Her chief gift 
was an unusual power of writing easy and 
natural dialogue. 

[Private information.] N. McC. 

NANT (1776-18r,l), officer in the royal en- 
gineers, and governor of Bermuda, eldest son 
of Richard Chapman of Tainfield House, near 
Taunton, by Mary, daughter of Stephen Rem- 
nant, was born at Tainfield House in 1776. He 
received his professional education at Wool- 
wich, and entered the royal engineers as second 
lieutenant on 18 Sept. 1793, and was promoted 
lieutenant on 20 Nov. 1796. He first saw 
service in the unfortunate expedition to the 
Helder in 1799, and was promoted captain- 
lieutenant on 18 April 1801, and captain on 
a March 180o. He served in the expedition to 
Copenhagen in 1807, and was ordered to join 
the army in Portugal at the same time as Sir 
Arthur Wellesley, in March 1801 >. He soon 
rose high in the estimation of Wellesley and 
of the commanding royal engineer, Colonel 
Fletcher. He was employed in the neigh- 
bourhood of Lisbon in preparing for its de- 
fence during the campaign of Talavera, and 
if he did not actually suggest the formation 
of the famous lines of Torres Vedras, he 
was certainly the chief assistant of Colonel 
Fletcher in the fortification of them ; his ■ 
thorough knowledge of the ground macle his ! 
co-operation invaluable, and in a dospatch to 
Lora Wellington, Colonel Fletcher speaks of 
his services in the very highest terms ( WW- 
lington Supplementary Despatches^ vi. 537). 
In 1810 he went to the front, and was com- 
manding royal engineer present at the battle 
of Busaco, when his services were specially 

mentioned in despatches. Towards the close 
of 1810 he was appointed, by Lord Mulgrave, 
the master-general of the Ordnance, to the 
important office of secretary to the master- 
general ( Wellington Despatches^ iv. 470). 
Wellington did yet more for him, for after 
repeated solicitation he secured his promo- 
tion to the rank of major, antedated to the 
day of the battle of Busaco, and on 2Q April 
1812 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel in 
the armjr, ana on 21 July 1813 lieutenant- 
colonel m the royal engineers. He continued 
to fill the office of secretary to the master- 
general of the Ordnance until his promotion 
to the rank of colonel on 29 July 1825. 
From 1825 to 1831 he filled the office of 
civil secretary at Gibraltar, and in the latter 
year he was Imighted and appointed governor 
of the Bermuda or Somers Islands. In Ber- 
muda he remained until 1839, and the most 
important duty which he had to perform 
during his term of office was to carry into 
effect the emancipation of the slaves there 
in 1834. He did not again leave England ; 
in 1837 he was promoted major-general, and 
in 1846 lieutenant-general; and he died at 
Tainfield House on 6 March 1851. 

[Royal Military Calendar ; Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, April 1861 ; Williams's Account, Historical 
and Statistical, of the Bermudas, 1846.] 

H. M. S. 

CHAPMAN, THOMAS (1717-1760), 
prebendary of Durham, was bom at Belling- 
ham, Northumberland, in 1717. He was edu- 
cated at Richmond grammar school, York- 
shire, and Christ's College, Cambridge, where 
he obtained a fellowship. In 1746 he was ap- 
pointed master of Magdalene College. He re- 
ceived the degree of LL.D. in 1748, when he 
served the office of vice-chancellor, and was 
appointed one of the king's chaplains. In 
1749 he received the degree of D.D., and 
was appointed rector of Kirkby-over-Blow, 
Yorkshire. The following year he was ap- 
pointed to the prebendal stall at Durham, 
and in 1758 official to the dean and chapter. 
He died in 1760. He was the author of an 
* Essay on tlio Homan Senate,* 1750, trans- 
lated into French in 1765. Ilurd refers to 
him as * in nature a vain and busy man.' 

[Gent. Mag. xxx. 298 ; Hutohiii.son's Durham, 
ii. 182 ; Letters from a late eminent Prelate, 306, 
307, 3rd ed. ; Nichols's Anecdotes, 1. 562, 562, ii. 
615-16, iii. 622.] T. F. H. 



CHAPMAN, WILLIAM (1749-1832), 
engineer, was the son of William Chapman, 
an engineer at Whitby, who invented a 




machine for converting salt-water into fresh 
(described in the Philosophical Tratwactions 
for 1758?), and discovered a saurian, called 
after him Teleosaunu Chapmanni, William 
Chapman the 3'Ounger,bom in 1749, became 
an eminent engineer. He was a friend of 
Watt and Matthew Boulton [q. v.l He was 
engineer of the Kildare canal, and consult- 
ing engineer to the grand canal of Ireland. 
In conjunction with Kennie, he was engineer 
of the London Docks and of the south dock 
and basin at Hull. He was also engineer 
to Leith, Scarborough, and Seaham har- 
bours, the last of which he constructed. In 
1812 he patented a new locomotive to work 
on the lleaton railway, in w^hich chains 
were so arranged that the wheels could never 
leave the rails, but it was found so clumsy 
in action that the plan was soon abandoned 
(Smiles, George Stephenson, p. 73). Chap- 
man patented several other inventions and 
was the author of many essays and reports 
upon engineering subjects. He died on 19 May 

His chief works are : 1 . * Obser\'ations on 
the various Systems of Canal Navigation, 
with inferences practical and mathematical, 
in which Mr. Fulton's system of wheelboats 
and the utility of subterraneous and of small 
canals are particularly investigated,' 1797. 
2. * Facts andKemarks relative to theWitham 
and the Welland,' &c., 1800. 3. * On the Im- 
provement of Boston Haven,' 1800. 4. * Ob- 
servations on the Prevention of a future 
Scarcity of Grain,' &c., 180^1 5. * Treatise 
on the i»rogre8sive Endeavours to improve 
the Manufacturing of Cordage,' 1805, 1808. 
6. *0bser\'ati(m8 on the proposed Com Laws,' 
1815. 7. * Treatise on the Preservation of 
Timber from premature Decay,' 1817. Chap- 
man contributed papers on the formation of 
mineral coal to Thomson's * Annals of Philo- 
sophy' (1816), vii. 400, and on improvements 
in the old Rotterdam steam engine to the 
Rotterdam * Niewe Verhandl.' (1800), i. 154- 

[Infonimtion from Mr. J. H. Chapman, F.S.A. ; 
Cat. Scientific Papers ; Pantheon of the Ago 
(1826), i. 329.] 

CHAPONE, HESTER (1727-1801), es- 
sayist, was born on 27 Oct. 1727, at Twywell, 
Northamptonshire, her birthplace being a fine 
Elizabethan mansion, then standing on the 
north side of the cliurch there (Cole, Memoirs 
of Mrs, Chapone., pp. 6, 8). Her lather was 
Thomas Mulso; her mother, a remarkably 
beautiful woman, was a daughter of Colonel 
Thomas, himself known as *■ Handsome 
Thomas ' (Mrs, Chapon^s Works and Idfe, 
1807y i. 2). The two families of Mulso and 

Thomas were doubly connected by a marriage 
between Mr. Mulso s sister and ]if rs. Mulso^s 
brother, the Rev. Dr. Thomas, bishop succes- 
sively of Peterborough, Salisbury, and Win- 
chester. Hester had several brothers, but was 
the only daughter to survive childhood. She 
wrote a short romance, 'The Ijoves of Amoret 
and Melissa/ at nine years of age, and exhi- 
bited so much promise that her mother became 
jealous, and suppressed her child's literar\' ef- 
forts. When the mother died, Hester managed 
her father's house, and used the time she could 
spare from domestic duties to study French, 
Italian, Latin, music, drawing. She quickly 
attracted notice. Johnson admitted four bil- 
lets of hers in the * Rambler' on 21 April 
1750 (Hambler, No. 10). Visiting an aunt, a 
widowed Mrs. Donne, at Canterbury, she came 
to know Duncombe and Elizabeth Carter 
[q. v.] ; and througli * Clarissa worship ' she 
made acquaintance with Richardson and 
Thomas Edwards, to whom she wrote an ode 
(Nichols, Lit. Anecd, ii. 201, note). Miss 
Talbot wrote to Elizabeth Carter 17 Dec. 1750, 

* Pray, who and what is Miss Mulso ? ' and 
declared that she honoured her, and wanted 
to know more of her (Mrs. Cabter, Letters, i. 
370-.S). In her correspondence with Richard- 
son she sigrned herseli his * ever obliged 'and 
affectionate child;' and in Miss Highmore*s 
drawing of Richardson reading * Sir Charles 
Grandison ' to his friends in his grotto at North 
End, Hammersmith, she occupies the central 
place. Richardson, who called her ' a little 
spitfire,' delighted in her sprightly conversa- 
tion ; she called * Rasselas' on its first appear- 
ance ' an ill-contrived, unfinished, unnatural, 
and uninstructive tale.' After an illness 
caught during a visit to her uncle, Dr. Thomas, 
bishop of Peterborough, Hester Mulso sent 
an * Ode to Health ' to Miss Carter from Lou- 
don on 12 Nov. 1751. Another *Ode' sent 
to Miss Carter was printed with that lady*s 

* Epictetus.' Miss Mulso paid a visit to Miss 
Carter at Dt»al in the August of 1752. In 
July and August of 1753 she contributed the 

* Story of Fidelia ' to Hawkesworth*s ' Ad- 
venturer* (Nos. 77-9), and was frequently 
Richanlson's guest at North End the same 
year. She was present at a large party there 
when Dr. Johnson brought Anna Williams 
with him, and she states tliat he looked after 
the poor alHicted lady * with all the loving 
care of a fond father to his daughter ' ( JVorks 
and Life, i. 72-4). 

Miss Mulso met an attorney named Clia- 
pone, to whom Richardson had shown many 
attentions, and she fell in love with him. 
Mr. Mulso would not at first hear of the mar- 
riage, but he yielded in 1760. Before obtain- 
ing her father*8 consent Miss Mulso wrote 

Chapone 59 Chappell 

her ' Matrimonial Creed,' in seven articles of was married to the Rev. Benjamin Jeffreys, 
helief, and addressed it to Richardson. Her belonging to Winchester College ; but John 
wedding took place on »S0 Dec. 1760 {Gent, died in 1/91, a few months after the death of 
Mag, xxxi. 43), her brother Thomas being his wife in 1790. She lost Captain William 
married to 'Pressy,' daughter of General Mulso, her nephew, bvshipwrecK, in 1797, and 
Prescott, at the same time. She went first to Thomas, her last ani most intimate brother, 
lodgings in Carey Street, and then to a house in 1799 ; the final blow came to her by the 
in Arundel Street ( Works and Life, i. 123). untimely death of Mrs. Jeffreys, her niece, in 
Mrs. Barbauld has said that the Chapones* childbirth in 1800. Wishing for a quiet re- 
married life, short as it was, was not happy ; treat she hired a house at Hadley, to be near 
Mrs. Chapone*s relatives call this a complete Miss Amy Burrows, and took her youngest 
error (ib, pp. 126-9), and they say Mrs. Cha- niece as her companion ; but here her health 
pone's love for her husband remained so in- failed rapidly, and she died on Christmas day 
tense, that years after she was a widow she 1801, aged 74. 

could never look upon a miniature she had of Mrs. Chapone could sing exquisitely, and 

him without being convulsed with grief. In was skilful enough at drawing to sketch 

September 1761 Chapone was seized with Miss Carter for Richardson. She was a 

fever, and died on the 19th, when Mrs. Cha- contributor to the * Gentleman's Magazine ' 

pone was taken to Thomas Mulso's house in {Index, vol. iii. Preface, Ixxiv) ; and her 

Kathbone Place, and for twenty-three days works passed through many editions, retain- 

her life was despaired of. She was then re- ing their high repute for a lengthened period, 

moved by her friends the Burrows family to The * Improvement' reappeared at Edinburgh 

their lodgings in Southampton Street ; she about 1780, where the author's name stands 

paid other visits, and finding herself mistress Champone. London editions of it were issued 

of a small income, to which there was some in 1810, 1815, 1829 (illustrated by Westall ), 

addition when her father died in 1763 (t<6.), and in 1844, exclusive of other issues in 1812 

she made no change in her circumstances and and 1821, when Dr. Gregory's * Advice to a 

condition from that time to the end. For the Daughter ' was bound with it. A new edition 

daughter of her brother, John Mulso, a bene- of the * Miscellanies ' was published in 1787 ; 

ficed clergyman at Thomhill, near Wakefield, the * Works,' with a * Life drawn up by her 

Yorkshire, Mrs. Chapone wrote in 1772 her own Family,' 4 vols., appeared in 1807 ; an 

best known essays, tne * Letters on the Im- edition of * Posthumous Works,' 2 vols., the 

to Mrs. Montagu. It brought Mrs. Chapone group already mentioned. Mrs. Chapone's 

many entreaties from persons of consideration works were also included by Chalmers in his 

to undertake the education of their daugh- edition of the * British Essayist^,' vol. xxiii. 

iers, and reached a third edition in 1774, [Works of Mrs. Chapone, with Life drawn up 

though by the author's friendliness to her by her own Family, 1807, i 2, 188. ii. 2-24; 

bookseller her 'pockets were none the heavier.' Cole's Memoirs of Mrs. Chapone, 4, 6, 39,41; 

In 1775 her 'Miscellanies' came out, com- Mrs BarUiuld's Correspondence of Samuel 

prising 'Fidelia ' and other fugitive matter, Richardson, i. (Life) excviii. ii. Frontispiece and 

with a fewpoems,the earliest written in 1749. p.258,iii. 170-1, 197, 207, iv. 6,20,24,vi. 121 ; 

In 1777 she published a pamphlet, a * Letter G©nt. Mag. xxxi. 43, 430, vol. Ixxi. pt. ii. pp. 

to a New Married Ladv.^ In 1778 she was 1216-17 ; Mrs. Carter's Letters^ i. 370 373, ii. 89, 

staying at Famham Castle with her uncle, ^8. 114 163 176, 238 388; Boswells Johnson, 

then bishop of Winchester, when the bishop ^J.^^^"^ V ^L'i '-' V^\ oL^T'o^^ oll^^ 

• -x lu 4.1. 1 • V ., *-! »«^« Diarv, ed. 1854, n. 183, 206-14, 235, 244-o, 

was visited by the king and queen ; thequeen -^ ^ ^ ^^ ^j, ^ j „ 

mtroducedtheprmcessrovalto her, saving she » » j 

hopedherdaughterhadadequntelyprofitedby CHAPPELL, WILLIAM (1582-1649), 

Miss Chapone's 'Letters on the Improvement bishop of Cork, was the son of Robert Chnp- 

of the Mind.' The death of the bishop's wife, pell, and bom at Laxton, Nottinghamshire, 

Mrs. Thomas, took place the same year as this on 10 Dec. 1682. lie was educated 'in 

visit, 1778; in 1781 the bishop himself died ; in grammaticals ' at Mansfield grammar school, 

1782, Edward Mulso, Mrs.Chapone's youngest and when seventeen years old was sent to 

brother, died ; and these and other deaths Christ's College, Cambridge, where he was 

among her intimates touched Mrs. Chapone elected a scholar. His career at the uni- 

deeplv. She hoped to have made a happy home versity was distinguished above that of most 

at Winchester, where her brother John had of his fellows. Want of means threatened 

become prebendary, and where his daughter at one time to sever his connection with 

Chappell 60 Chappell 

Cambridge, but the hope of a fellowship was 
held out to him, and iu 1607 this hope was 
fulfilled. As a college tutor his fame spread 
far and wide. Milton was at first placed 
under his charge, and Mr. Masson extracted 
from the college records and published in 
his life of Milton the names 01 many other 

1638, he held the post of treasurer of St. 
Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, but in the latter 
year he was elevated, through the partiality 
of Laud and Strafibrd, to the see of Cork 
and Koss, and was consecrated bishop at St. 
Patrick's, Dublin, on 11 Nov. 1638. His 
love of retirement led him to decline the 

youths entered under Chappell and his fel- | honour of being raised to the episcopal bench, 
low-tutors. John Shaw, tne well-known , but his wishes were again overruled, and 
vicar of Rotherham, styled him 'a very acute through the royal pressure he was compelled 
learned man, and a most painfull and vi^- I to retain the provostship of Trinity College 
lant tutor.' Hieron, a well-known puritan oi- ; until 20 July 1640. Ilis eyes were ever 
vine, gives him the highest character as ' a * turned towards the shores of England, and 

learned, painfull, careful tutor.' He was 
called * a rich magazine of rational learning,' 
and was praised by Fuller as ' a most subtle 

he applied to be transferred to a smaller 
bishopric in his native country, but his wishes 
were not gratified. When Laud and Strafibrd 

disputant.' An instance of Chappell's excel- fell under the condemnation of parliament, 
lence in disputation occurred in 1615. He I their friends were involved in their ruin, 
was an opponent in a disputation held before Chappell was attacked in the House of Com- 

James I on certain points of controversy be- 
tween protestantism and the papacy, and is 
said, so runs the general story, to have 

mons with great fury, and was for some time 
placed under restraint in Dublin. It was 
nis misfortune to be regarded while at Cam- 

pushed his case so hard, that the respondent, I bridge as a puritan through the strictness of 
William Roberts of Trinity, afterwards j his life, ana to be considered in Ireland as a 
bishop of Banffor, fell away in a swoon. The j papist through his love of ceremonies. He was 
kin^ himself tben entered the lists, but fared j at last liberated from his confinement, and on 
little better in the discussion, and thereupon 26 Dec. 1641 he sailed away towards England, 
gracefully retired from the contest with ' The terrors of the voyage, which he himself 
compliments on Chappell's excellence. This 1 described, did not diminish the pleasure with 
is the accepted version of antiquity, but it ' which, after being tossed on the deep for 
has been discovered that it was Cecil, the | twenty-four hours, he landed at Milford. He 
moderator, who fainted, and that he had soon moved toPembroke, and thence to Tenby, 
been in bad health for some time. The strict- | pithily designated the worst of all towns, 
ness of Chappell's conversation while at 1 where he was again thrown into prison by the 
Christ's was proverbial in the university, i authority of the mayor (26 Jan. 1642). He lan- 
but his days were not absolutely happy, for ffuishedin confinement until 16 March, when 
there were a few theologians at Camoridge he secured his freedom through the interces- 
who accused him of Arminianism, a charge | sion of Sir Hugh Owen, baronet and member 
which was also brought against him in later ' for the borough of Pembroke ; but Chappell's 
life, while by most of his contemporaries he liberation was not effected until he haa given 
was deemed a puritan. Whether he was un- ! his own bond for 1,000/. to hold the mayor 
duly severe towards the young men under harmless. Even then further troubles awaited 
his care is erjiually doubtful, but he was the ' him. On his arrival at Bristol he found that 
tutor who has been accused of having whipped the ship bearing the books which he loved 
Milton, and it is certain tliat the young un- ■ had been wrecked ofi^ Minehead, and that his 
dergraduate was transferred to another's ' treasures were beneath the seas. Worn out 
charge. After he had spent many years in ; with misfortunes, he retired to his native 
college life at Cambridge, he obtained the soil. During the rebellion he spent some 
patronage of l^aud. Through Laud's influ- \ time in Bilsthorpe in Nottinghamahire, in 
ence he was appointed to the deanery of the company of Gilbert Benet, the rector of 
Cashel, being installed on 20 Aug. 1633; and j the parish, and when he died at Derby on 
through the same means he was nominated Whit Sunday, 14 May 1649, his body was 
provost of Trinity College, Dublin. Chappell carried to Bilsthorpe and buried near that of 
preferred, or professed to prefer, a more re- his mother on 16 May. His younger brother, 
tired life, and he spent some months in Eng- | John Chappell, a good preacher and theolo- 
land (May to August 16*U) in vain endea- gian, predeceased him,_and was buried in the 

vours to escape this distinction. His election 
as provost took place on 21 Aug. 1634, but, 
through the delay c^iused by a cnang^ in the 
college statutes, he was not sworn in until 

church of Mansfield Woodhouse. A monu- 
ment to the memory of both brothers was 
placed in Bilsthorpe Church by Richard 
teme, archbishop of York. Chappell lefb 

5 June 1637. For two years, from 1636 to I his property equally between his own kin- 




dred and those in distress, the sum of 6/. 
being given to the poor of Bilsthorpe. Fuller 
describes ' his chant j ' as ' not impairing his 
duty, and his duty ' as * not prejudicing his 

ChappeU's life, written by himself in Latin 
iambics, is printed by Heame in vol. v. of 
Leland's 'Collectanea,* pp. 261-8, in the 
1770 edition, and hy Peck in his * Deside- 
rata,' pp. 414-22. He was the author of an 
anonymous Latin treatise entitled * Methodus 
Concionandi,' London, 1648. An English 
translation by some uuJmown hand was pub- 
lished in 1656 with the bishop's name on the 
title-page, and to this was prefixed the title 
of * The Preacher, or the Art. and Method of 
Preaching.' He was also the author of a 
discourse called the * Use of the Holy Scrip- 
ture, gravely and methodically discoursea,' 
and Beaupr^ Bell suggested his name as a 
likely author of the * Whole Duty of Man,' 
but the suggestion never received any sup- 

[Fuller's Worthies, sub ' Nottioghamshire ' 
(1840 ed.), ii. 671 ; Masson's Milton, i. 104-6, 
135-6; Thoroton*8 Nottinghamshire, ii. 811, 316, 
iii. 193-4; Nichols's Literary Anecd. ii. 600-4; 
Yorkshire Diaries (Snrtees See), 1877, pp. 123, 
416-17; Robt. Porter's Life of Hieron, pp. 3-4; 
Thoresby's Correspondence, ii. 270; Cooper's 
Annals of Camb. ii. 85-6 ; Cotton's Fasti Eccl. 
Hibem. i. 108, 184-5, ii. 124.] W. P. C. 

1768), orientalist, bom in 1683, of a York- 
shire family, was educated at St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge; proceeded B.A. in 1712, 
M.A. in 1716 ; became fellow of St. John's 
in Jan. 1716-7, in the room of an ejected 
nonjuring fellow named Tomkinson, and in 
1720 was appointed professor of Arabic in 
succession to Ockley. He resigned his fel- 
lowship in 1731, and was an unsuccessfid 
candidate for the mastership of St. John's 
College in 1784. He published an anno- 
tated edition of the well-known Dr. Spencei^s 
* De legibus Hebrseorum ritualibus ' (1727, 2 
vols, folio) ; * Elementa Linguae ArabicsB ' 
(after Erpenius), 1730 ; * Commentary on the 
Book of Job,' 1752, 2 vols, folio (where the 
view is advanced that the Book of Job was ori- 
ginally an Arabic poem, subsequently trans- 
lated into Hebrew); a free translation of 
' The Traveller,' or the ' Lamiyat al-'Ajam ' 
(1758, 4to), from the Arabic of Toghrai, in- 
tended to represent the metre of the original ; 
and * Six Assemblies ' of El Hariri (1767, 8vo), 
with useful notes. He also edited Bishop 
Bull's * Two Sermons ' on the state of the 
soul after death, with a preface ^1765). He 
lectured on oriental tongues dunng one term 
of each academic year, and held the livings 

of Great and Little Hormead, Hertfordshire. 
He died 13 Jan. 1768. 

[Cole's Athenae, MS. Brit. Mus.; Biog. Brit., 
art. ' Spencer; ' Chalmers's Biog. Diet.; Baker's 
St. John's Coll. (ed. Mayor).] S. L.-P. 

JOHN (d, 1606), organ-builder, was bom at 
South Molton, Devonshire. He seems to have 
built an organ for Westminster Abbey about 
1596, when an entry in the churchwardens' 
accounts of St. Margaret's, Westminster, re- 
cords that he was paid 13/. 13*. 4d. for the 
organs of the college church. In 1597 Chap- 
pinffton built an organ for Ma^gdalen College, 
Oxford, for which he was paid 33/. 13*. Sd., 
and in the following year he received 2/. for 
repairing the instrument, which remained in 
the college chapel until 1085, when it was 
sold for forty guineas. Chappington died at 
Winchester, between 27 June and 4 July 
1606. His will bears the former date anS 
was proved on the latter. In it he directed 
that he should be buried in Wells Cathedral. 

[Bloxam, Registers of Magdalen Coll. ii. 
xcix. cxxyii. 278, 279 ; Hopkins's The Organ 
(1865), p. 50; Chappington's Will, Probate 
Registry, 62, Stafford, communicated by Mr. 
ChaUoner Smith.] W. B. S. 

CH APPLE, SAMUEL (1775-1833), 
organist and composer, was bom at Crediton, 
Devonshire, of humble parentage, in 1775. 
Before he was ten years old he lost his sight 
through an attack of small-pox. This mis- 
fortune aroused much sympathy, and in 1790 
it was proposed at a vestry meeting that 
young Chappie, who had already displayed 
considerable musical capability, should be 
educated as a musician at the cost of the rate- 
payers. After some opposition this resolution 
was carried, and Chappie was articled to a 
blind professor of music named Eames, who 
lived at Exeter. Here he made great pro- 
gress, and in 1795, before his articles were 
expired, he was elected organist of Ashburton 
parish church, a post he retained for the rest 
of his life. 

Besides playing the organ, Chappie was a 
good violinist and pianist, and was successful 
as a teacher in Ashburton and its neighbour- 
hood, about which he used to ride with a 
boy as guide behind him. He died at Ash- 
burton in 1833, leaving a numerous family. 
He was succeeded as organist by his second 
son, who was then aged only thirteen. Chap- 
pie published several collections of anthems, 
which are written in a style now happily 
extinct, besides several songs, glees, and 
pianoforte pieces. 

[Proceedings of the Devonshire Association, 
xiv. 325 ; Brit. Mus. Music Cat.] W. B. S. 




CHAPPLE, WILLIAM (1677-1746), 
judge, was of the Chappies of Way bay House, 
Dorsetshire, and was bom in 1677. He was 
an industrious student of law, and became 
a Serjeant in 1724. In 1722 he was elected 
M.P. for Dorchester, and sat for the borough 
till 1737. About 1728 he was appointed a 
judge on the North Wales circuit, and in 1729 
was knighted and made king's Serjeant. On 
the promotion of Sir William Lee he was in 
1737 (16 June) raised to a puisne judgreship of 
the kind's bench, and held his office with high 
reputation till his death, 16 March 1746. He 
was buried in a tomb of black and white mar- 
ble in Wonersh church. He married Trehane 
Clifton, daughter and heiress to Susan Clifton 
of Green Place, Wonersh, Surrey, 23 Jan. 
1710, and had by her four sons, William, 
Richard, John, and Joseph, and two daugh- 
ters, Grace and Jane, one of whom married Sir 
Fletcher Norton, afterwards Lord Grantly. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Hutcbins's Dorset, 
i. 373, 696, ii. 6; Manning and Bray's Surrey, 
ii. 116; Brayley's Surrey, v. 124; Q-ent. Mag. 
XV. 164.] ^ J. A H. 

CHAPPLE, WILLIAM (1718-1781), 
topographer, was bom at Witheridge in 
Devonshire in January 1717-18. His father, 
originally a farmer, had fallen through the 
pressure of misfortune into poverty, and the 
Doy*s education was consequently limited to 
the plainest rudiments of knowledge. He 
had the good fortune to be engaged, by the 
clergyman of his native parish as an ama- 
nuensis, and this furnished him with some 
opportunities for increasing his scanty store 
of learning. When eighteen years old he 
was sent to Exeter on some business, and 
when he returned he was laden with a Latin 
grammar and dictionary on which he had 
spent his small stock of money. Chappie, 
like many other studious youths in the 
country, contributed enigmas and charades 
to the * Lady's Diary,* and his communica- 
tions attracted the notice of the Rev. Mr. 
Bligh of Silverton, who was engaged in the 
same pursuit. Through the recommendation 
of his new friend the youth became ac- 
quainted with a well-known surveyor of 
Exeter called Richards, the uncle of Mrs. 
Bligh, and he was engaged as his clerk in ! 
1738, and ultimately married his master^s 
niece. It was proposed in 1741 to erect at 
Exeter a new Devon and Exeter hospital, 
and to Chappie was entrusted the task of 
superintending the works. On the comple- 
tion of the institution he was appointed its 
secretary, an office which he continued to 
hold for nearly forty years. For twenty 
years he acted as steward to the Devonshire 

estates of the Courtenay family, and when 
he was obliged through ill-health to resign 
this position an annuity was settled on him 
with remainder to his wife and daughter. 
During the latter years of his life Chappie 
devoted great attention to his studies in the 
Hebrew, Latin, and other languages, and 
prosecuted with keen interest the antiquarian 
researches which he had always loved. Sick- 
ness often interrupted his labours, and after 
a long and painful illness he died on 1 Sept. 

From 1769 to 1762 Chappie was involved 
in a dispute about the sale of an estate by a 
Mr. William Pitfield to Dr. Andrew, and he 
was drawn into the controversy in conse- 
quence of a valuation of the property in 
which he had relied upon the accuracy of 
the doctor's statement as to its annual rent^. 
A volume of pamphlets about this petty 
quarrel is in the British Museum Library, 
and their titles are given in the ' Bibl. 
Comubiensis,' iii. 1029, and in the ' Bibl. 
Devoniensis,' pp. 185-6. Chappie himself 
wrote, in 1761, one of these productions, 
with the title of * Calumny refuted,' and in 
the following year contributed * Some Fur^ 
ther Observations ' on the subject as an ap- 
pendix to one of Pitfield's pamphlets. In 
1772 Chappie issued proposals for publishing 
by subscription * A Correct Edition of Risdon^ 
Survey 01 Devon,' but he (quickly realised 
that such a work would be inadequate, and 
he determined on undertaking 'A Review 
of Risdon's Survey freed from the Defects 
and Dislocations of CurlFs Edition, with 
additions and notes.' The press was stopped 
when some sheets of the first work had been 
struck off, and the second undertaking was 
suspended for a time as Chappie turned 
asiae to compose a description of the re- 
markable cromlech at Drew's Teignton. In 
consequence of his illness the account of the 
cromlech was never published, but the sheets 
as far as they were printed are in the Palk 
Library at Haldon House, near Torouay. 
At the time of his death 112 pages of 'A 
Review of part of Risdon's Survey of Devon ' 
had been printed, and these were published 
with some slight additional matter at Exeter 
in 1786 as 'by the late William Chappie.' 
He contributed to the * Gentleman's Maga- 
zine,' and among his communications was a 
valuable vocabulary of Exmoor dialect, which 
appeared in 1746 under the signature of * De- 
voniensis.' It has been suggested that the 
edition of the ' Exmoor Scolding, published 
at Exeter in 1771, was supervised by Chappie. 
His manuscripts, which were purchased by 
Sir Robert Palk and subsequently arranged 
by Samuel Badcock, are preserved at Haldon 

Chard 63 Chardin 

House. Several letters about them, mainly to July 1672. A quarrel between the grand 
from Badcock, are in R. Polwhele's * Remi- vizier and the French ambassador made the 
niscences/ i. 44-62. position of French subjects dangerous, and 

[PolwheVs Cornwall, v. 97 ; Life prefixed to Chardin escaped in a small vessel across the 
Review of Risdon ; Gomme's Gent. Mag. Lib. Black Sea and made a most adventurous 
(Dialect), p. 330 ; Davidson's Bibl. Devon, pp. journey by Oaffa, and through Colchis, Iberia, 
6, 20, 186; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. and Armenia to Ispahan, which he reached 
i.'67, iii. 1029.] W. P. C. in 1073. At Sapias he was robbed by the 

Mingrelians of all he possessed except two 
GHABD, GEORGE WILLIAM (1765?- small bundles, worth 6,000/. He stayed at 
1H49), organist, was bom in 1764 or 1765. Ispahan four years, foUow^ing the court in all 
He was educated in the choir of St. Paul's its removals, and making particular joumevs 
under Hudson, and in 1787 was appointed a throughout the land, from the Caspian to the 
lay clerk of Winchester Cathedral, where he Persian Gulf and the river Indus, and visit- 
also acted as assistant organist to Peter Fus- ing several Indian cities. By these two 
sel. On the death of the latter Chard was journeys he realised a considerable fortune, 
(August 1802) appointed organist of the ca- and, deciding to return home, reached Europe 
tbedral. In 1812 he took the degree of Mus. in 1677 by a voyage round the Cai)e of Good 
Doc. at Cambridge, his name being entered Hope. Of four volumes originally projected 
at St. Catherine's. In 1832 he became organ- the first volume was published in 1686, 
ist of Winchester College, which post he < Journal du Voyage . . . de Chardin en 
continued to fill, in addition to that at the Perse et aux Indes Orientales,' London, fol. 
cathedral, until his death, which took place An English translation was issued concur- 
on 23 May 1849, at the age of 84. His wife rently. This volume contains the author's 
Amelia and one child survived him, but the journey from Paris to Ispahan, and has the 
former died 16 March 1850, and is buried with author's half-length portrait by Loegan, with 
her husband in the cloisters of Winchester eighteen copper plates, mostly folding. His 
College. Chard wrote a little unimportant former work is reprinted there with a ful- 
music. One of his earliest compositions was some * Epistle Dedicatory- to James II.' 
a setting of a song from * Pizarro,' which the ' Chardm in his preface announced three 
title-page states was originally designed for other volumes to follow. The last, which 
Mrs. Jordan. It is dedicated to Mrs. Sheridan, was to contain a short history of Persia and 
[Chapter Records of Winchester Cathedral; ' ^is dia^^ for 1675-7, never appeared. The 
Romilly 8 Graduati Cantabrigienses ; Groves other three volumes (with many additions 

Dictionary of Music, i. ; sepulchral brass.] 

W. B. S. 

CHARDIN, SiB JOHN (1645-1713), 

to the first) were published at Amsterdam, 
1711, 4to, * Voyages de Mons. le Chevalier 
Chardin,' as the complete work. In 1711 
another edition, with his translation of * La 

traveller, bom in Paris 16 Nov. 1643, was Relation des Mingreliens,' by J. M. Zampi, 
son of a wealthy merchant, jeweller of the appeared in ten vols., Amsteraam,12mo; and 
Place Dauphine, and followed his father's in 1735 another edition was published in four 

business. In 1664 he started for the East 
Indies with M. Raisin, a Lyons merchant. 
They journeyed by Constantinople and the 

vols. 4to, containing a great number of pas- 
sages added from his manuscripts, but with 
many omissions of violent Calvinistic pas- 

Black Sea, reaching Persia early in 1666. sages. The most complete reprint is that of 
The same year the shah, Solyman III, made M. L. Langles, in ten vols. 8vo, Paris, 1811. 

Chardin's style of writing is simple and gra- 
phic, and he gives a faithful account of what 
he saw and heard. Montesquieu, Rousseau, 

Chardin his agent for the purchase of jewels. 

In the middle of 1667 he visited India and 

returned to Persia in 1669. The next year 

he arrived in Paris. He issued an account of Gibbon, and Helvetius acknowledge the value 

some events of which he was an eye-witness of his writings; and Sir William Jones says 

in Persia, entitled * Le Couronnement de ' he gave the best account of Mahometan 

Soleiman Troisieme,' Paris, 1671, 12mo. A ' nations ever published. p]xtracts from his 

learned nobleman, Mirza Sefi, a prisoner in works appear in all the chief collections of 

his own palace at Ispahan, had entertained , travels, but there is no complete English 

him, instructed him in the Persian language, ' translation. 

and assisted him in this work. Peter de la In 1681 Chardin determined to settle in 

Croix and Ta vernier severely criticised, while 
Ange de la Brosse as strongly defended it. 

Chanlin again started for the East, August 
1671. He was at Constantinople from March 

England because of the persecution of pro- 
testants in France. He was well received at 
court, and was soon after appointed court 
jeweller. He was knighted by Charles II at 

Chardon 64 Chardon 

Whitehall, 17 Nov. 1681 . The same day he havine been sent thither as soon as he was old 
married a protestant lady, Esther, daughter enough to enter the university. He was elected 
of M. de Lardiniere Peign§, councillor in the probationer on 3 March 1664-6. Young and in- 

Sarliament of llouen, then a refugee in I-K)n- experienced, he very nearly marred his future 
on. He carried on a considerable trade in career by allowing himself to be led astray 
jewels, and in the correspondence of his time by a frivolous Frenchman. On 23 Oct. 1666, 
IS called * the flower of merchants.' In 1682, when his probationary year was over, he was 
when he lived in Holland House, Kensing- accused before the rector and scholars assem- 
ton, he was chosen fellow of the Royal So- bled in chapel of many serious oflfences. He 
ciety. In 1684 the king sent him as envoy acknowledged his faults with many tears, and 
to Holland, where he stayed some years, and begged for pardon, saying that others, and 
is styled agent to the East India Company. ' especially tne turbulent Frenchman, had 
On his return to London he devoted most of , tempted him both by persuasions and threats, 
his time to oriental studies. In the prefaces He entreated the society to have pity on his 
to his works, 1686 and 1711, besides his youth. His case was deferred to the next 
travels he speaks of what he calls * my day, when the rector and scholars, trusting 
favourite desipi,' or * Notes upon Passages of to his promises of amendment, more especi- 
the Holy Scriptures, illustrated by Eastern ally as the Frenchman had been already ex- 
Customs and Manners,' as having occupied pelled, admitted him full and perpetual scholar 
his time for many years. He did not live after he had publicly sworn obedience to the 
to publish it, and after his death the manu- statutes (Boasb). Chardon proceeded B.A. 
script was supposed to be lost. In 1770 on 18 April 1667, and receivea priest's orders 
some of his descendants advertised a reward the same month. He resigned nis fellowship 
of twenty guineas for it. Wlien Thomas on 6 April 1668, and tlien, according to 
Harmer published a second edition of his , Wood and other authorities, was benenced 
* Observations on divers pissages of Scrip- in or near Exeter. An examination of his 
ture,* 2 vols., London, 1/76, 8vo, it was 'Casketof Jewels,' however, makes it certain 
found that by the help of Sir Philip Mus- . that in 1671 he was a schoolmaster at Work- 
grave, a descendant of Chardin, he had re- 8op,Nottinghamshire, holding possibly at the 
covered the lost manuscript in six small vo- same time the post of chaplain to Sir uervase 
lumes, and had incorporated almost the whole ^ Clifton. On 9 Aug. of that year he was in- 
of them in his work, under the author's stituted to the living of Ileavitree, near Exe- 
name, or signed * MS. C.,' i.e. manuscript of ter, and on 27 May 1672 he proceeded M.A. 
Chardin. I He was a noted preacher, upholding the re- 

in his latter years Chardin lived at Turn- formed doctrine, and at the same time vigo- 

in the south aisle of AVestminster Abbey ceeded D.D. on 14 April 1586. In 1596 he 

there is a plain tablet with this inscription, was appointed bishop of Down and C-onnor 

* Sir John Chardin — nomen sibi fecit eundo.' by patent, and was consecrated on 4 May in 

He had two sons and two daughters. The St. Patrick's, Dublin, receiving from the 

eldest son, John, was created a baronet in crown on the 26th of the same month the 

1720, died unmarried, and left his Kempton vicarage of Cahir in the diocese of Lismore ; 

Park estate to his nephew Sir Philip, son, by he was moreover appointed to the warden- 

his sister Julia, of Sir Christopher Musgrave, ship of St. Mar\''s College, Youghal, on the 

bart. The remains of Chardin's library were resignation of js athaniel Baxter [q. v.] in 

sold by James Ijevy at Tom's coflee-house, 1698. He died in 1601. Six of his sermons, 

St. Martin's Lane, 1712-13. published at different dates between 1680 

[Chardin's Works ; Lysons's Environs of Lon- and 1696, are recorded by Wood. They were 

don. ii. 210, iii. 213; Leigh Hunt's Old Court preached in Exeter Cathedral, in London, and 

Suburb, ]). 143 ; Chester's Reg. Westm. Abbey, before the university of Oxford, one of them 

p. 388 ; Nicliols 8 Lit. Anectl. iii. 616 ; Harmer's being the funeral sermon of the worthy De- 

OLservntions, 1776, in preface ; Burke's p:xtinct vonshire knight Sir Gawen Carew, buried in 

Baronetiige; Musgmve's Manuscript Notes on Exeter Cathedral on 22 April 1684. In ad- 

Ominger's History, ii. 646; Carpentaria I ans, ^j^j^^ ^^ ^j^^^^ j^l'^^ mentions ' Fulfordo et 

1724, p. 370.] J. ^^.-t^. pulforda?, a Sermon preached at Exeter in 

CHARDON, CHARLDON, or CELARL- the Cathedrall Church, the sixth day of Au- 

TON, JOHN (d. 1(>01), bishop of Down and gust, commonly called Jesus Day, 1694, in 

Connor, a native of Devonshire, became a so- memoriall of the cities deliuerance in the 

loumer of Exeter College, Oxford, in 1562, dales of King Edward the Sixt ... by 




lolm Charldon, Doctor of Diuinitie/ London, | 
1594y 12mo. This sermon, wliich is in the 
library of the British Museum, is dedicated 
^ To the worshipfull Master Thomas Fulford, 
Esquire.' It is prefaced by three sets of Latin 
verses addressed to Fulford, and three to his 
wife, ' Ad Ursulam Thomse Fulfordi conju- 
ffem orthodoxam.' It contains a lively de- 
fence of the endowments of the cler^; 
prayers are printed both at the beginnmg 
and the end!^ of the discourse. The deli- 
verance it commemorates was the relief of 
Exeter by Grey and Russell on G Aug. 1549, 
when the city was besieged by the rebels. 
Besides these sermons, we have ' The Gasket 
of Jewels, contaynynge a playne descripcion 
of Morall Philosopide . . . bv Cornelius Va- 
lerius. Lately turned out of Latin into Eng- 
lishe by I. C. . . . Imprinted at London by 
William How for Richarde lohnes,' 1571, 
also in the British Museum. At the end of 
the volume it is stated that the translation 
is the work of John Charlton, late fellow of 

* Exetre College, Scholemaster of Worksop.' 
This name does not occur among the fellows 
of Exeter, nor, indeed, among the graduates 
of Oxford at this period ; it must therefore 
be taken to be a form of Chardon, and so the 
' Casket' supplies a hitherto unknown link in 
the history of the bishop's life. The dedicatory 
epistle is addressed to * Sir Gervis Olyfton, 
Knt.,' and is signed * Your Dayly Oratour.* 
This knight was the * Gentle Sir Gervase * of 
Clifton Hall, Nottinghamshire, who died on 
20 Jan. 1681. An acrostic on his name is 
added under the heading ' Holsome counsell 
for a christian man.' £l the preface to the 
reader the translator commends his work as 
more profitable than 'brutish works of Venus 

[Wood's Athense (Bliss), iii. 715, Fasti (Bliss), 
ii. 178; Ware's Irish Bishops, 206; Prince's Wor- 
thies of Devon, 188 (ed. 1701); Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit. 165 ; Boase's Register of Exeter College, 
Oxford, 44; Chardon's Fulfordo et Fulfordse; 

* Charlton's ' Casket of Jewels ; Fronde's History 
of England, iv. 428-33 ; Thoroton's History of 
Nottinghamshire, i. 107.] W. H. | 

CELAJIITE, WILLIAM (1 422-1502 ?), | 
monkish writer, compiled a register of St. ; 
Mary's Abbey, Leicester, of which he was 
prior, a collection of charters and other muni- 
ments belonging to the abbey, and a catalogue 
of the library. The register (* Rentale Novum 
Generale Mon. B. M. de Pratis Leycestrie ') 
contains the rent-roll of the abbey, affording 
the means of estimating the depreciation of 
landed property caused by the plague of 
1436, detailed information as to the various 
customary tenures on which the lands were 
let, a list of the incumbents of the benefices 


in the gift of the hous^, and the like. A 
considerable portion of it was printed from 
a manuscript in the Bodleian Library (Laud 
MS. 623) by Nichols in the a{>pendix to vol. i. 
of his * History of Leicestershire ' (vol. i. pt. ii. 
app. 63-l(X)). The collection of charters 
[^ Jttepertorium Chart>arum Abbatie de Ley- 
cestna') is preserved in a damaged condition 
in the Cottonian Library (Vitellius, F xvii.) 
The catalogue of the library, also printed by 
Nichols from Laud MS. 623 {Leicestershire, 
i. pt. ii. app. 101), contains few works of im- 
portance, but mentions in all twenty-three 
rolls as written by Charite with ms own 
hand, of which all but the foregoing have 

[Nichols's Leicestershire, i. pt. ii. 591.] 

J. M. R. 

actress and writer, was the youngest daughter 
of CoUey Cibber [q. v.] An autobiography, 
published five years before her death, and 
since reprinted, has supplied the materials 
for many subsequent lives of its author. 
This work is without dates, and in many 
respects untrustworthy. According to it 
Charlotte Cibber was bom when her mother 
was forty-five years of age, and came * not 
only as an unexpected but an unwelcome 
guest into the family.' Her education at * a 
famous school in Park Street, Westminster,* 
kept by a Mrs. Draper, included Italian and 
Latin in addition to music and dancing. 
After her mother's retirement to Hillingdon, 
near Uxbridge, Charlotte showed the addic- 
tion to manly pursuits characteristic of her 
future life, and, oesides becoming a good shot, 
took to dressing horses and digging in the 
garden. While very young she was married 
(assumably in February 1729) to Richard 
Charke, variously described as a violinist 
and a singer, who was at this period a mem- 
ber of the Drury Lane company. The mar- 
riage proved unhappy, and shortly after the 
birth of a child Mrs. Charke (juitted a hus- 
band whom she charges with excessive 
irregularity. She now took to the stage. 
According to her own statement her first 
appearance was on the last night of Mrs. Old- 
field's performance, when (28 April 1730) 
she played Mademoiselle in the * Provoked 
Wife.' This was, in fact, Mrs. Charke's 
second appearance, her first having taken 
place on 8 April in the same part for the 
benefit of Mrs. Thurmond. Her success was 
fairly rapid. The following season, 1730-1, 
she replaced for a while Mrs. Porter as Alicia 
in ' Jane Shore,' and was assigned Arabella 
in the ' Fair Quaker.' She was (22 June 
1731) the original Lucy in the ' Merchant, 




or the True History of George Barnwell,' 
subsequently known as ' Gborge Barnwell.' 
Thalia in Cooke's * Triumph of Love and 
Honour' was also created by her on 18 Aug. 
1731. In the following year she played Miss 
Hoyden in the ' Relapse/ and Damon in a 
two-act pastoral called 'Damon and Daphne.' 
In 1733, with some other actors, she seceded 
to the Haymarket, where she took many cha- 
racters of importance, principally in comedy, 
and on 12 March 1734 she reappeared at 
Drury Jjane, of which Fleetwooa became 
manager. Among the characters in which 
she now appeared was Roderigo in * Othello.' 
Her assumption of masculine characters is 
unmentioned in her autobiography, in which, 
however, she records her performance, chiefly 
as a substitute for other actresses, of such 
part4 as Andromache, Cleopatra, and Queen 
Elizabeth. In 1736, having quarrelled with 
Fleetwood, her manager, she appeared at the 
Haymarket, and in 1787 was one of Giflkrd's 
company at Lincoln's Inn Fields. From this 
date her name disappears from theatrical bills. 
The 'Biographia Dramatica' says that among 
the causes of her father's bitter quarrel with 
her was her gratuitous assumption at the Hay- 
market of the character of Fopling Fribble, 
intended as a satire on CoUey Uibber, in the 
* Battle of the Poets, or the Contention for the 
Laurel,' a new act introduced bvFielding in his 
*Tom Thumb,' on 1 Jan. 173L If this state- 
ment is correct, Colley Gibber on this occasion 
forgave his daughter, since after she had left 
Drury Lane in a fit of petulance and written 
against Fleetwood, her former manager, a 
splenetic piece entitled * The Art of Manage- 
ment,' 8yo, 1786, which was bought up by 
Fleetwood and is now of excessive rarity, 
Gibber wm the means of bringing about a 
reconciliation. Subsequently Gibber with- 
drew altogether from her and remained deaf 
to her numerous appeals. Her career from 
this time becomes hopelessly fantastic. She 
first commenced business as a grocer and oil 
dealer in a shop in I^ng Acre. Abandoning 
this, she set up a puppet show over the Tennis 
Court in James Street, Hajrmarket. Her 
husband, who had continually sponged upon 
her, having died in Jamaica, she contracted 
a connection, which she implies rather than 
asserts is matrimonial, with a gentleman 
whose name she refuses to divulge, who lived 
a very brief time after their union, and left 
her in poverty worse than before. After an 
experience of a sponging-house, from which she 
was relieved by a subscription on the part of 
the coffee-house keepers in CoventGkrden and 
their female frequenters, she took any occupa- 
tion that was oflfered at the lower class theatres, 
playing by preference masculine characters, 

and assuming masculine gear as her ordinary 
dress. She describes her conquest in this 
attire over numbers of her own sex who 
could not pierce her disguise, and she be- 
came, as she states, through her brother's 
recommendation, valet de chambre to a nobl(}- 
man. To support her child she sold sausages, 
was a waiter in the King's Head Tavern at 
Marylebone, opened a public-house in Drur^^ 
Lane, and took an engagement to work an 
exhibition of puppets under a Mr. Russell in 
Brewer Street. For a short time she reap- 
peared at the Haymarket, playing, 1744-6, 
Macheath. After the departure to Go vent Gar- 
den of Theophilus Gibber [q. v.], her brother 
and manager, against whom the lord cham- 
berlain had issued an interdict, Mrs. Charke 
tried to manage the company, and to produce 

* Pope Joan,' with her niece, a daughter of 
Theophilus, as Angeline. Owing to the in- 
terference of Colley Gibber, Theophilus with- 
drew his daughter, and the experiment was 
a failure. In March and April 1766 she pub- 
lished in eiffht numbers an account oi her 
life, in whicn she is at no pains to disguise 
her flightiness and extravagant proceedm^. 
This was published as a I2mo volume in 
1766, and afterwards included in the series 
of autobiographies issued by Hunt & Clarke 
in 1827, &c. In the 'Monthljr Magazine' 
Samuel Whyte, who accompanied a friend, 
a bookseller, to her lodging to hear her read 
a novel, gave a harrowing account of her ap- 
pearance and the squalor of her surroundings. 
She died, according to the ' Biographia Dra- 
matica ' and the * Gentleman's Magazine,* 
6 April 1760, but according to a supplement 
to the reprint of her biography in 1769. In 
addition to * The Art of Management,' which 
was not acted, she wrote two plays, which 
were acted and not printed. These are * The 
Carnival, or Harlequin Blunderer,' produced 
at the Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre 1736, 
doubtless during the summer season, June- 
August, and *Tit for Tat, or Comedy and 
Tw^dy at War,' acted at Punch's Theatre 
in St. James's Street, 1743. She is also 
responsible for two novels of slender merit, 

* The Lover's Treat, or unnatural Hatred,' 
London, 8vo, n. d.: * The History of Henry 
Dumont, Esq., and Miss Charlotte Evelyn, 
with some Critical Remarks on Comic Actors,' 
London, 12mo, n. d. The critical remarks 
on actors promised in the title are omitted. 
The Samuel Whyte to whom the account of 
her squalid surroundings is due was pro- 
bably the same S. Whyte by whom, as part- 
ner of H. Slater, jun., at Holborn Bars, the 

* History of Henry Dumont ' was published, 
and his companion who paid Mrs. Charke 
ten guineas tor the manuscript of a noTel 




was presumably the H. Slater, jun., in ques- 

[A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Charlotte 
Charke, written by beraelf» London, 1776 ; tho 
same, London, printed for Hunt & Clarke, 1827 ; 
Genest's Aooonnt of the Stage; works mentioned.] 

J. K. 

CHARKE, WILLLVM ( fl. 1680), puri- 
tan divine, was distinguished as the opponent 
of Edmund Campion, the Jesuit priest [q. v.], 
and as a leader of the puritan party. He was a 
fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge, from which 
society he was expelled in 1672 for declaring, 
in a sermon preached at St. Mary's, that the 
episcopal s;^stem was introduced by Satan. 
Jrom the judgment of the vice-chancellor 
and heads of houses he appealed to the chan- 
cellor, Burghley, who interceded for him, but 
'without success. On his expulsion from the 
imiversity he was appointed domestic chap- 
lain first to Lord Cheney, and aft^er wards to the 
Duchess of Somerset. In 1680 he published 

* An Ainswere to a Seditious Pamphlet lately 
cast abroade by a Jesuite [Edmund Campion], 
with a discoverie of that blasphemous sect,' 
8vo. When Campion was a prisoner in tlie 
Tower, Charke was employed with others to 
hold a discussion with him. ' A true report 
of the disputation ... set down by the re- 
verend learned men themselves that dealt 
therein,' was published in 1683. Father 
Parsons, in his * Defence of the Censure gyven 
vpon two Bookes of William Charke and Me- 
redith Hanmer,' has a very able attack on 
Charke. K we may believe Parsons's testi- 
mony, Charke, not content with having wor- ' 
ried Campion (faint from torture and con- 
finement) in the Tower, *folowed hym in 
person to the place of hys martyrdome with 
bygge lookes, steme countenace, prowde 
woordes, and merciles beha\'your ' In 1681 
Charke was elected constant preacher to the 
society of Lincoln's Inn. After holding this 
post for some years, he was suspended in ' 
1693 by Archbishop Whitgift for puritanism. 
The date of his death is unknown. 

Wood {AiheruBj ed. Bliss, i. 095) accustis 
Charke of having destroyed the manuscript 
(as prepared, in its final shape, for publica- 
tion) of the last three hooka of the * Ecclesias- ' 
tical Polity,' which he obtained from Hooker's 
widow. Wood's statement is clearly drawn 
from the appendix to Izaak Walton's * Life 
of Hooker, 1666, where the fanatics who com- ; 
mitted tliis act oif wanton destruction are said | 
to have been * one Mr. Charke, and another 
minister that dwelt near Canterbury.' This 

* Mr. Charke ' may have been William Charke, 
but from the same appendix we leani that 
Ilooker'syoungest daughter married a certain 

* Ezekiel Charkt\ Bachelor in Divinity and 
rector of St. Nicholas in Harbledown, n*;ar 
Canterbury.' The suspicion naturally sug- 
gests itself, though Walton is silent, that 
Ezekiel Charke was the culprit. 

[Strype's AVhitgift, ed. 1822, i. 88-92, 198, 
iii. 24-7 ; Strj-pe't* Aylnior, od. 1821, p. 36 ; Par- 
»ons*8 Dofrnce of the Censure, 1682 ; Fulhir's 
Church History, etl. Brewer, iv 385, v. 1C4; 
Brook's Lives of the Puribms, i. 111-17.] 

A. :h. b. 

CHARLEMONT, Bauoxs, Viscounts, 
and Eabl of. [See Caulfeild.] 

CHARLES I (1600-1049), kinp of 
Great Britain and Ireland, the second 8<»n of 
James VI of Scotland and Anne of Den- 
mark, was born at Dunfermline on 19 Nov. 
ItKX), and at his baptism on 23 Dec. was 
created Duke of Albany. He was entru«teji 
to the care of Lord and Lady Fyvie. His 
father having in 1603 succeeded to the Eng- 
lish throne, he was brought to England in 
the following year and given into the charge 
of Lady Cary, many ladies having refused the 
responsibility of bringing him up on account, 
of his physical weakne.^s. * He was so weak 
in his joints, and e«j>ecially his ankles, insi)- 
much as many feared they wert» out of joint .' 
It was long, too, before he was able to speak, 
and Lady Gary had hard work in insisting 
that the cure of tht*se defects should be left 
to nature, th»» king bt^ing anxious to place 
his son's legs in iron boots, and to have the 
string under his tongue cut. Gradually the 
child outgrew thesr defects, though he con- 
tinued to retiiin a sliglit impediment in his 
speech {Memoirs of P. Cary, Earl of Mon- 
mouth', ed. 1 759, \i 203). 

On 16 Jan. 160.") the Iwy was created Duke 
of York. On 6 Nov. 1012 the death of his 
brother, Prince Henry, made liim heir-ap- 
jmrent to his father's crowns, though he was 
not cretited Prince of Wales till 3 S'ov. 1616. 
Long before this last date negotiations had 
])een opened in France for marr}-ing him to a 
sister of Louis XIII, the Princess Christina, 
and in November 1(513 the scheme was in a 
fair wav to a eonclusion. In June 1(H4 
.lames was thrown, by his quarrel with his 
second parliament, into the arms of Spain, 
and, without allowing the French proj>osals 
entirely to drop, made an oifer to marry Lis 
son to the Inlanta Maria, the daughter of 
Philip III of Spain. It was not till 1616 
that the confidential negotiations which fol- 
lowed promis«Ml a <^utfioiently satisfactorj- r*> 
suit to induce James finallv to break with * 
France, and in 1617 a formal proposal was 
made to the king of Sjmin by the English 
amlNissador, Sir John Digbv. In 1618 the 

F 2 




negotiation was suspended, though articles 
concerning the household and T>ersonal posi- 
tion of the infanta were agreed t^, as Philip 
made demands on behalf of the English catho- 
lics which James was unwilling to accept 
[see James IJ. 

Charles himself was still too young to 
take much interest in the choice of a wife. 
His education had not been neglected, and 
he had acquired a large stock of information, 
especially of such as bore on the theological 
and ecclesiastical questions which made so 
great a part of the learning of his day. In 
1618 there was a boyish quarrel between 
him and his father s favourite, Buckingham, 
which was promptly mtide up, and from that 
time a close friendship united the two young 

When the troubles in Germany broke out, 
Charles did not hesitate t^ declare himself 
on the side of his sister, the Electress Pala- 
tine, whose husband had been elected to the 
Bohemian throne. In 1620 he rated him- 
self at 5,000/. to the Benevolence which was 
being raised for the defence of the Palatinate, 
and on the news of the defeat of his brother- 
in-law at Prague shut himself up in his room 
for two days, refusing to speak to any one. 
In the House of Lords in the session of 
1621 he took Bacon's part, and induced the 
peers to refrain from depriving the fallen 
chancellor of his titles of nobility. 

After the dissolution of James's third par- 
liament the Spanish marriage negotiations 
were again warmly taken up. Charles was 
now in his twenty-second year. He was dig- 
nified in manner and active in his habits. 
He rode well, and distinguished himself at 
tennis and in the tilting-yard. ^He had a good 
ear for music and a keen eye for the merits 
and the special peculiarities of a painter's 
work. His moral conduct was irreproach- 
able, and he used to blush whenever an im- 
modcvst word was uttered in his presence {JRe^ 
lazioni Venete^ Ingh. p. 261). 

Of his possession of powers befitting the 
future ruler of his country nothing was as 
yet known. His tendency to take refuge in 
silence when anything disagreeable to him 
occurred was indeed openly remarked on, 
and his increasing familiarity with Buck- 
ingham attracted notice; but it was hardly 
likely that any one would prognosticate so 
early the future development of a character of • 
which these were tlie principal signs. Charles 
was in truth possessed of a mind singularly 
retentive of impressions once made upon it. 
Whatever might be the plan of life which 
he had once adopted as the right one, he 
would retain it to the end. Honestly anxious 
to take the right path, he would never for 

expediency's sake pursue that which he be- 
lieved to be a wrong one ; but there was iii 
him no mental growth, no geniality of tem- 
perament, leading liim to modify his own 
opinions through intercourse with his fellow- 
men. This want of receptivity in his mind 
was closely connected with a deficiency of 
imagination. He could learn nothing from 
others, because he was never able to under- 
stand or sympathise with their standpoint. 
If they differed from him, they were wholly 
in the wrong, and were probably actuated by 
the basest motives. The same want of imagi- 
nation led to that untrustworthiness which 
is usually noted as the chief defect of his 
character. Sometimes, no doubt, he exercised, 
what earlier statesmen had claimed to exer- 
cise, the right of baffiing by a direct false- 
hood the inquiries of those who asked ques- 
tions about a policy which he wished to Keep 
secret. The greater part of the falsehoods 
with which he is charged were of another 
description. He spoke of a thing as it ap- 
peared at the time to himself, without regard 
to the effect which his words might produce 
upon the hearer. He made promises which 
would be understood to mean one thing, and 
he neglected to fulfil them, without any sense 
of shame, because when the time for fulfil- 
ment came it was the most natural thing in 
the world for him to be convinced that tiiey 
ought to be taken in a sense more convenient 
to nimself. 

The same want of imagination which made 
Charles untrustworthy made him shy and 
constrained. The words and acts of others 
came unexpectedly upon him, so that he was 
either at a loss for a fitting answer, or re- 
plied, after the manner of shy men, hastily 
and without consideration^. In early life his 
diffidence led to an entiraidsfiyfton to Buck- 
ingham, who was some years his senior, who 
impressed him by his unbounded self-posses- 
sion and his magnificent animal spirits, and 
who had no definite relif^ious or pohtical prin- 
ciples to come into collision with his own. 

The ascendency acquired by Buckingham 
over the prince was first manifested to the 
world in the journey taken by the two young 
men to Madrid. . Charles swallowed eagerly 
Buckingham's crude notion that a personal 
visit to Spain would induce Philip tX^ who 
had succeeded his father in 1620, not merely 
to give his sister's hand on conditions con- 
sidered at the English court to be reasonable, 
but actively to support the restitution of the 
Palatinate to Freaerick, the son-in-law of 
the English king.. 

The first idea of the visit seems to have 
been sugv^ted by Gondomar, who before he 
left Enghmd in May 1622 had drawn from 




Charles a promise to come to Madrid incog- 
nito, if the ambassador on his return to Spain 
thought fit to advise th« step. The arrange- 
ments for the journey were probably settled 
by Endymion Sorter when he arrived at Ma- 
drid in November on a special mission, and 
it was hastened by the rapid conquest by the 
imperialists of FredericK^s remaining for^ 
tresses in the Palatinate, and the^ evident re- 
luctance of the king of Spain to'interfere in 
his behalf. In February 1623 the plan was 
disclosed to James, and the old kin^ was half 
cajoled, half bullied into giving his permis- 

On 17 Feb. Buckingham and the prince 
«tarted. Arriving in Faris on the 2l8t, they 
there saw Henrietta Maria, Charleses future 
vrife, though at the time the young man had 
no eyes for the sprightly child, but gazed at 
the queen of Fntnce, from whose features 
he hoped to get some idea of the appearance 
of her sister, the infanta. On 7 March 
Charles reached Madrid. His arrival caused 
much consternation among the Spanish states- 
men, as Phili]^ had some time previously 
directed his chief minister, Olivares, to find 
some polite way of breaking off the marriage 
on account of his sister*s' reluctance to 1^ 
come the v^ife of a heretic. At first they 
entertained hopes that all difficulties might 
be removed by Charles's conversion, but when 
they discovered that this was not to be ob- 
tained they fell back upon the necessity of 
obtaining a dispensation from the pope, and 
instructed the Duke of Pastrana, wno was 
ostensibly sent to urge the pope to give his 
consent, to do his best to persuade him to 
refuse to permit the marriage. 

While Pastrana was on ms way to Home, 
Charles, though he was not allowed to speak 
to the in£uita except once in public, had 
^ worked himself up into a feeling of admira- 
tion, which was perhaps chiefly based on re- 
luctance to be baffled in his quest. 

At last an answer arrived from Rome. It 
had for some time been understood that some 
kind of religious liberty was to be granted to 
the English catholics as a condition of the 
marriage. That liberty, the Spaniards had 
always urged, must be complete ; but both 
they and the pope were afraid lest promises 
maae by James and Charles should be broken 
as soon as the bride arrived in England. The 
pope now threw the onus of preventing the 
latter catastrophe upon the king of Spain, 
ne sent the dispensation to his nuncio at 
Madrid^ but it was not to be delivered over 
till Philip had sworn that unless the pro- 
mises made by the king and prince were 
faithfully observed he would go to war with 
Jlngland to compel their maintenance. 

Charles, knowing what the law of England 
was, offered that the penal laws against the 
catholics should be suspended, and that he 
and his father would do their best to have 
them repealed, and about the same time he 
replied civilly to a letter from the pope in 
terms which, when they came to be Known, 
shocked English opinion. Upon this at once 
a junto of theologians was summoned to 
consider whether uie king of Spain could 
honestly take the oath required by the vo^» 
Charles was irritated by the delay, and still 
more by the knowled^ that it had been sug- 
gested that the marriage might take place, 
but that the infanta should be kept in Spain 
till the concessions offered by the English 
government had been actually carried out. 
On 20 July James swore to the marriage 
articles, which included an enfa^ment that 
the infanta was to have a puohc church to 
which all Englishmen might have access. He 
also formally promised that no special legis- 
lation against the catholics should be put in 
force, and that he would try to obtain the 
consent of parliament to an alteration in the 
law. Chanes not only confirmed his father's 
promise, but engaged that the existing law 
should be altered within three years, that the 
infanta's children should be left in their 
mother's hands till they were twelve years 
old, and that whenever the infanta wished 
it he would listen to divines employed by 
her ' in matters of the Roman catholic re- 
ligion.' The first of these promises was one 
which he never could perform ; the last was 
one in which he roused hopes which he was 
not in the least likely to satisfy. Charles's 
expectation that his mere word would be suf- 
ficient to enable him to carry the infanta with 
him after the marriage was, however, disap- 
pointed, and in accordance with the decision 
of the junto of theologians he was told that, 
though the wedding might take place in 
Spain, the infanta could only be allowed to 
follow her husband to England after the 
lapse of a sufficient interval to put his pro- 
mises to the test. As the death of the pope 
created a further delay, by necessitating a 
renewal of the dispensation by his successor, 
Charles, leaving a proxy with the ambassador, 
the Earl of Bristol, to enable him to conclude 
the marriage, returned to England, landing 
at Portsmouth on 6 Oct. As he passed 
through London he was received with every 
manifestation of popular joy, of which but 
little would have been heard if hehad brought 
the infanta with him. 

To his personal annoyance Charles added 
a feeling of vexation at the discovery which 
he had made at Madrid, that Philip had no 
intention of reinstating Frederick and Eliza- 

Charles 70 Charles 

belli in the i'alHtinate by force of arms. He English catholics. Knowing the strong feel- 
had therefore, while on his journey, sent in- ing of the commons on the latter point, he 
siruetiouB to Bristol not to use the proxy left made a solemn declaration in their presence 
with him without further orders, and his first , on 9 April that ' whensoever it should please 
object after rejoininc^ hLs father was to urge God to bestow on him any lady that were 
him to a breacu with Spain. ' I am ready/ popish, she should have no further liberty 
hr «aid, ' to conquer Spain if you will allow but for her own family, and no advantage to 
mti to do it.' lie succeeded in persuading the recusants at home.' Before parliament 
James to make the restitution of the Palati> was prorogued he urged on the impeachment 
ii%te a condition of the marriage, a demand | of I^Lddlesex, who was accused of corruption^ 
which practically put an end to the negotia- but whose real fault was his wish that the 
ti'>ri. kin^ was to remain at peace with Spain. 

Cndcr the influence of Buckingham, I During this affair, as during the earlier pro- 
Churles wanted not merely to break off the i ceedings of parliament, Charles appears as 
m:irriago treatj, but to embark tingland in a , the mere tool of Buckingham, bearmg down 
war with Spam. His father was reluctant his father's aversion to war, and thoughtlessly 
t'> follow him thus iar, but James's own policy i weakening the authority of the crown by the 
kn^I so thoroughly broken down that he was want of consideration with which he treated 
comjielled to follow his sons lead. Par- its possessor. He and Buckingham, as James 
liament was summoned, and met on 19 Feb. tola them, were but preparing a rod for them- 
WJ4. Both houses condenmed the treaty , selves in teaching' the commons to impeach 
with Spain, and were eager for war. Yet a minister [see Villieks, Geobge, Duke of 
already appeared a note of dissonance. The Buckinqham]. 

commons wanted a maritime war with Spain, • On 29 May parliament was prorogued. On 
while James wished for a military expedi- ! the 17th the Earl of Carlisle had been sent 
tioa to the Palatinate. Charles, who had no to Paris to join Kensington in negotiating 
policy of his own, joined Buckingham in the marriage treaty. He soon found that 
nupporting far-reaching schemes for a war by the French would only treat if the same 
land and sea. The commons, sympathising , solemn engagements on behalf of the Ed^* 
with his warlike ardour, but wishing to keep lish catholics which had been given to the 
tiie final conclusion in their own hands, voted ' king of Spain were now given to the king 
a large sum of money for preparations, and , of France. Charles as soon as he received 
placed the disposal of it m the hands of i the news was for drawing back. He had, as 
tr usurers appomted by parliament. It was the French ambassador m London reported. 

understood that a diplotnatic attempt to se- 
cure allies was to be made in the summer, 
and that in the autumn or whiter parliament 

'little inclination to satisfy France in these 
essential points.' Buckingham, however, 
whose mind was inflamed with visions of war- 

was again to meet to vote the money required like glory, was induced to advise concession, 
for the actual prosecution of war, if war was , and Charles was like wax in Buckingham's 
d'^cided on. j hands. Louis and Richelieu, who was now 

It was not improbable that the difi^erence { the chief minister of Louis, professed them- 

of opinion on the scope of the war between 
the House of Commons on the one side and 
(/harles and Buckingham on the other would 
lead to a rupture. The diflereuce was further 
accentuated by a diflerence of opuiion about 

selves ready to assist England in sending the 
German adventurer Mansfeld to recover the 
Palatinate, if the enga^ment about the Eng- 
lish catholics were given. In September 
Charles joined Buckingham in forcing upon 

Charles's marriage. Before the Spanish his father the abandonment of his own en- 
treaty was finally broken oft* overtures had gagement to the English parliament, that 
b^.'en received from France, and Lord Ken- ! nothing should be saia in the articles of mar- 
siugton, created soon afterguards Earl of Hoi- | riage about protection for the English catho- 
Irind, was sent to Paris to sound the queen j lies. James gaveway, and the marriage treaty 

mother and Louis XIII on their willingness 
to bestow the hand of the king's sister, Hen- 
rietta Maria, on the l*rince of Wales. Charles 

was signed oy the ambassadors 10 Nov. and 
ratified by James and his son at Cambridge 
12 Dec. All that was conceded to the Eng- 

readily believed, as he had believed when he ! lish government was that the engagement 
set out for Madrid, that political difficulties | about-the catholics might be given in a secret 
would give way if a friendly personal rela- article apart from the public treaty, 
tion were once established. France, he hoped, \ This defection of Charles from his promise 
would join England in a war against the | voluntarily pven was the point and origin of 
house of Austria, and would not put forward ; that alienation between himself and his par- 
any extravagant demand^^ on b^mlf of the . liament which ultimately brought him to the 




scaffold. Its immediate consequences were 
disastrous. Parliament could not be sum- 
moned in the autumn, for fear of its remon- 
BtraQoee against an engagement, tlie effects 
of whicli would be notorious, even if its 
terms were kept secret, and the war which 
Buckingham and Charles were urging James 
to enter on would be starved for want of the 
supplies which parliament alone could give. 
The French government, for which so much 
had been sacrificed, was not to be depended 
on. In October Louis had refused to spive in 
writing an ei^;agement, which he had indi- 
cated in word, that an English force under 
Mansfeld should be allowed to pass through 
France to the recovery of the Palatinate. 
When inDecember a body of twelve thousand 
raw levies assembled under Mansfeld at Dover, 
all the available money for their pay was ex- 
hausted, and for the 20,000/. needed for the 
current month the prince had to give his 
personal security. Charles and BucKingham 
were very angry at the persistent refusal of 
Louis to allow these men to land in France, 
and they had finallv to consent to send them 
through the Dutch territory, where, being 
without pay and provisions, the army soon 
dwindled away to nothing. 

This ill-managed expedition of Mansfeld 
was only one of Buckingham's brilliant but 
unreal schemes, and thoiu^h when, on 27 March 
1626, James died and Charles succeeded to 
the throne, it was not fully known how com- 
pletely the new king was a mere cipher to 
g^ve effect to Buckingham's views, suspicions 
could not but find their way abroad. * lie 
is either an extraordinary man, said a shrewd 
Frenchman of the new sovereign, * or his 
talents are very mean. If his reticence is 
affected in order not to give jealousy to his 
father, it is a sign of consummate prudence. 
If it is natural and unasaumed, the con- 
trary inference may be drawn ' (M&moires de 
Briennef i. 399). 

For a moment it seemed as if the weakness 
of Charles's position would be forgotten. 
Much that we know clearly was only sus- 

rted, and the young king gained credit 
restoring order in his father's disorderly 
household. Charles, heedless of favourable 
or unfavourable opinions, pushed on his pre- 
parations for war, prepared to send a large 
fleet to sea against Spain, entered into an 
engagement to send 30,000/. a mouth to 
the king of Denmark, who now headed the 
league against tlie catholic powers in Ger- 
many, and borrowed money to place Mans- 
feld's army once more on a military footing. 
He also summoned a new parliament, and 
was known to be anxious to meet it as soon 
as possible. 

On 1 May Charles was married by proxy 
to Henrietta Maria, and on 13 June he re- 
ceived his bride at Canterbury. On the 18th 
his first parliament met. In his speech at 
the opening of the session he expressed his 
confidence that the houses would support him 
in the war in which he had engaged at their 
instifi^tion, but neither he nor any official 
speaking in his name explained what his pro- 
jects were or how much money would be 
needed to carry them out. The commons, 
instead of attending to his wishes, sent up a 
petition on the state of religion, and voted 
two subsidies, or about 140,000/., a sum quite 
inadequate to carry on a serious war. Charles, 
taken aback, directed Sir John Coke to ex- 
plain to the commons that a far larger sum 
was needed, and, when this had no effect, ad- 
journed parliament to Oxford, as the plague 
was raging in London. In order to conciliate 
his subjects he announced his intention of 
putting the laws a^inst recusants in execu- 
tion, thus abandoning his promise to the king 
of France as he had previously abandoned his 
promise to his own parliament. He seems to 
have justified his conduct to himself on the 
ground that, Louis having broken his engage- 
ment to allow Mansfeld to land in France, 
he was himself no longer bound. 

When parliament met again it appeared 
that the prevailing motive of the commons 
was distrust of Buckingham. The final breach 
came on a demand for counsellors in which 
parliament could confide, or, in other words, 
for counsellors other than Buckingham. 
Charles refused to sacrifice his favourite, be- 
lieving that to allow ministerial responsi- 
bility to grow up would end by making the 
crown subservient to parliaments, and dis- 
solved parliament on 12 Aug. 

That the executive government of the crown 
was not subject to parliamentary control was 
a maxim wnich Charles and his father had 
received from their Tudor predecessors. Even 
if Charles had been willing to admit that this 
maxim might be set aside in case of his own 
misconduct, he would have argued that the 
I misconduct was now all on the side of the 
I commons. He did not see that his own change 
I of fipont in the matter of the catholics exposed 
I him to suspicion, or that the failure of Mans- 
I feld's expedition was in any way the fault of 
] himself or of his minister. 
I Two other circumstances concurred to make 
I the commons suspicious. Charles had lent 
some ships to the French king, which were 
to be used against the protestants of llochelle, 
I and it was not known at the time that he 
; had done his best, by means of an elaborate 
intrigue, to prevent them being used for that 
I purpose [see Penkikoton, Sib John]. The 




other cause of the estnmgement of the com- 
mons was of a more important character. A 
reaction against the prevalent Calvinism, 
which was in reality hased upon a recurrence 
to the tone of thought of those of the re- 
formers who had lived under the influence 
of the renaissance, had made itself felt at 
the universities, and conseauently among the 
clergy. The laity were slower to feel the 
impulse, which in itself was in the direction 
of freer thought, and the House of Commons 
sent for Richard Montagu, who had written 
two books which had denied the Calvinistic 
dogmas to be those of the church of England. 
Charles, who shared in Montagu's belief, was 
unwise enough to bid the commons abstain 
from meddling with Montagu, not on the 
ground that liberty was good, but on the 
ground that Montagu was a royal chaplain, 
a position which was only conferred on him 
to give Charles an excuse for protecting^ him 
[see Montagu, Richard]. The question of 
ministerial responsibility was thus raised in 
the church as well as in the state. 

In dissolving parliament Charles had no 
thought of doing without parliaments, but 
he hoped to be in a position when the next 
one met to be financially independent of 
them, and to prove by a great success that he 
and Buckingham were competent to carry on 
war. Scraping together a certain sum of 
money by means of privy seal loans, a means 
of obtaining temporary assistance which had 
been used by Elizabeth, he sent out an expe- 
dition to Cadiz under Sir Edward Cecil [see 
Cecil, Sib Edward, Viscount Wimbledon], 
and despatched Buckingham to Holland to 
raise money by pawning the crown jewels. 
The expedition proved a complete failure, and 
Buckingham returned without being able to 
obtain more than a very small sum. 

Another scheme of Charles was equally un- 
successful. When his second parliament met 
on 6 Feb. 1626, it appeared that he had made 
all the chief speakers of the opposition sheriffs 
in order to make it impossible for them to 
appear at Westminster. Sir John Eliot [see 
Eliot, Sir John], however, took the lead of 
the commons, and after a strict inquiry into 
Buckingham's conduct, the commons pro- 
ceeded to the impeachment of the favourite. 
In the course of the struggle other disputes 
cropped up. Charles sent the Earl of Arun- 
del to the Tower [see Howard, Thomas, Earl 
OF Arundel] for an offence connected with 
the marriage of his son, and was obliged to 
set him at liberty by tlie insistence of the 
peers, who claimed the attendance of each 
member of their own house on his parliamen- 
tary duties. In the same way he was com- 
pelled to allow the Earl of Bristol, whom he 

had attempted to exclude from parliament, 
to take his seat, and as Bristol brought charges 
against Buckingham, he sent his attorney- 
general to retabate by accusing him before 
the lords of misconduct as ambassador during 
Charles's visit to Madrid [see DiesT, JoiiN, 
Earl of Bristol]. He was also brought 
into collision with the commons. He was so 
indignant at language used by Eliot and 
Digges, as managers of Buckingham's im- 
peachment, that ne sent them both to the 
Tower, only to find himself necessitated to 
release them, as the commons refused to sit 
till their members were at liberty, and he was 
too anxious for subsidies to carry on the war 
to be content with a cessation of business. 

On 9 June Charles told the commons that 
if they would not grant supply he must * use 
other resolutions.' The commons replied by 
a remonstrance calling for the dismissal of 
Buckingham, and as the lords showed signs 
of sympathy with the attack on Buckingh^, 
Charles dissolved his second parliament on 
16 June. The quarrel was defined even more 
clearly than in the first parliament. The 
commons claimed to refuse supply if the exe- 
cutive government were conducted by minis- 
ters in whom they had no confidence, while 
Charles held that he was the sole judge of 
the fitness of his ministers for their work, and 
that to refuse supply when the exigencies of 
the state required it was factious conduct 
which could not be tolerated. 

As soon as the commons had disappeared 
from the scene, the king ordered that Buck- 
ingham's case should be tried in the Star- 
chamber. The parliamentary managers re- 
fusing to prosecute, the affair ended in an ac- 
quittal, which convinced no one of its justice. 
In his straits for money Charles proposed to 
ask the freeholders to give him the five sub- 
sidies which the House of Commons had 
named in a resolution, though no bill had 
been passed to give effect to that resolution. 
Upon the refusal of the freeholders he or- 
dered a levy of ship from the shires along 
the coast, and in thisway got together a fleet 
which was sent out under Lord Willoughby, 
and which was so shattered by a storm in the 
Bay of Biscay that it was unable to accom- 
plish anything [see Bertie, Robert, Earl 
OF Lindsey]. 

Charles's need of money was the greater as 
lie was drifting into a quarrel with France. 
His breach of the promise made to the king 
of France to protect the English catholics 
had led to quarrels between himself and his 
wife, and at last Charles lost patience when 
he heard, perhaps in an exaggerated form, 
a stori- that the queen had ofiered prayers in 
the neighbourhood of Tybuni to the catholics 




who had been there executed as traitors. He 
laid the blame UDon the French attendants, 
whom he accosea of perverting his wife from 
her duty to himself, and on 31 July, after a : 
violent scene with the aueen, had them all 
turned out of WhitehaU. On 8 Aug. they ■ 
were embarked for France [see IlEinaETTA 
Mabia, Queen of England]. Louis XIII j 
•complained of this proceeding as being, as 
indeed it was, an infraction of the marriage 
treaty. Another ground of quarrel was the 
^zure by English ships of war of French 
vessels cnargeS with carrying contraband 
:^oods for the use of the Spanish possessions 
in the Netherlands, which was especially re- 
sented by the French, as Charles claimed to 
intervene in the dispute between Louis and his 
revolted protestant subjects [see Cableton, 
Dttdlbt, VISCOUNT Dorchesteb]. 

While hostilities with France were im- 
pending in addition to the existing war with 
Spain, nresh calls for money arose in Qermany. 
Charles had engaged to pav 30,000/. a month 
to his uncle, Christian Iv, king of Denmark ; 
and as the payment was stopped soon after 
the promise was made, Christian, having been 
defeated at Lutter on 17 Aug., complained 
bitterly that his defeat was owing to his 
nephews failure to carry out his engagement. 
In September, accordingly, Charles ordered 
the levy of a forced loan equal to the five 
subsidies which he had failed to secure as a 
gift. At first the loan came in slowly, and 
to fortify his position Charles applied to the 
judges for an opinion in favour of the legality 
of the demand. Failing to obtain it he dis- 
missed Chief-justice Crewe. To make the 
judges dependent, Charles thus deprived 
them of that moral authority which he would 
sorely need whenever he wished to quote 
their judgments on his own side. A con- 
siderable part of the loan was ultimately 
brought in, but not till the leading statesmen 
of the popular party had been imprisoned for 
refusing to nay. In this way it became pos- 
sible to sena Sir Charles Morgan with some 
regiments of foot to assist the king of Den- 

In the meanwhile the war with France 
had broken out. Buckingham went at the 
head of a great expedition to the Isle of K6 
to relieve Kochelle, which was being besieged 
by the army of Louis XIII. A siege of 
tort St. Martin proved lon^r than was ex- 
pected, and Buckingham cried out for rein- 
lorcements. Charles urged on his ministers 
to gather men and money ; but Buckingham's 
unpopularity was so great that but little 
ooula be done. Before the reinforcements 
could reach R6, Buckingham had been de- 
feated, and had been obliged to abandon 

the island. On 11 Nov. he landed at Ply- 

Charles was resolved to go on with the 
war. The king of France, he told the Vene- 
tian ambassador, * is determined to destroy 
Rochelle, and I am to support, it ; for I will 
never allow my word to be forfeited.' After 
all kinds of devices for getting money — in- 
cluding a levy of ship-money and the enforce- 
ment of an excise— -had b^n discussed and 
abandoned, Charles's third parliament met ou 
17 March 1628. Charles had previously or- 
dered the enlargement of those who had been 
prisoners on account of their refusal to pay 
the loan, after the court of king's bench had 
declined to liberate on bail five of the num- 
ber who had applied to it for protection. 

The commons found a leader in Sir Thomas 
Wentworth, and under Wentworth's guid- 
ance a bill was brought in to secure the fiber- 
ties of the subject [see Wentworth, Thomas, 
Eabl of Strafford]. It proposed to abolish 
Charles's claim to compel householders to 
receive soldiers billeted on them, to raise 
loans or taxes without consent of parliament, 
or to commit a man to prison by his own 
order without giving an opportunity to the 
judges to bail him. Into the events of the 
past year there was to be no inquiry. On 
the points of billeting and loans Cnarles was 
ready to pve way ; but he stood firm on the 
point of miprisonment, all the more because 
lie had reason to think that the House of 
Lords was in his favour. 

The question was one on which something 
at least might be said on Charles's side. 
From time to time dangers occur which the 
operation of the law is insuflicient to meet. 
A widespread conspiracy or a foreign invasion 
threatens the nation at large, and it becomes 
of more importance to struggle against the 
enemy than to maintain the existing safe- 
guards of individual liberty. In our own 
day parliament provides for such cases by re- 
fusing, to prisoners in certain cases the right 
of sumg out a writ of habeas corpus, or by 
passing a bill of indemnity in favour of a 
minister who, when parliament was not sit- 
ting, had in some great emergency over- 
stepped the law. The crown had in the 
Tudor times been tacitly allowed frequently 
to judge when the law was to be suspended 
by imprisoning without showing cause, a 
course which made a writ of habeas corpus 
inopera^ve, as no charge could be shown in 
the gaoler's return, and consequently the court 
of king's bench was powerless to act. 

Wentworth's intervention was therefore 
thrust aside by Charles. The king was ready 
to confirm Magna Charta and other old 
statutes, and to promise to ' maintain all his 

Charles 74 Charles 

Biibjccts in the just freedom of their persons ; right existed he had abandoned it in the 
and siufety of their estates, according to the ' petition of right. To this very questionable 
laws and estates of the realm/ but he would argument Charles replied that he could not 
not bind himself absolutely by a new law. do without tonnage and poundage, and that 
The result was that Wentworth withdrew , the abandonment of those duties was * never 
from the position which he had taken up, and intended by ' the house * to ask, never meant ^ 
that, the bill proposed by him having been I am sure, by me to grant/ On 26 June he 
dropped, the petition of right was brought proro^ed parliament. The assassination of 
in. including all the demand!s of Went worth's Buckingham and the fiedlure of the new ex- 
bill, with an additional one relating to the pedition to 116 quickly followed. Charles 
execution of martial law. Its form was fur never again gave his complete confidence to 
more offensive to Charles than the bill had any one. 

been, as it declared plainly that that which ; The kin^ hoped in the next session to ob- 
had been done hj his orders had been done , tain a parliamentary settlement of the dis- 
in defiance of existing law, and required that pute about tonnage and poundage. Such a 
the law should be kept, not altered. settlement was, however, rendered more difii- 

Charles argued that cases mi^ht occur ^ cult by the irritation caused by the seixure 
above the capacity of the judges, involving, of goods for non-payment of those duties, 
in short, questions of policy rather than of | Wlien parliament met in 1629, the commons 

law, and ne offered never again to imprison 
any one for refusing to lend him money. 
His offence had been too recent to dispose 
the commons to listen to this overture, and 
all attempts to modify the petition having 
failed, it passed both houses on 28 May. 
Charles was the more anxious to find a way 
of escape, as an expedition sent to the relief 
of Kocliello had failed to effect anything; 
and he was bent on following it up by a larger 
expedition,which it was impossible to despatch 
without the subsidies wnich the commons 
would only pass on his giving assent to the 
jHitition. Tiie mode in which he attempted 
to escape was characteristic. He tried to 

were also irritated by the line which Charles 
liad taken on the church questions of the day. 
Not only had he favoured the growth of a cer- 
tain amount of ceremonialism in churches, but 
he had recently issued a declaration, which 
was i)refixed to a new edition of, the articles, 
in which he directed the clergy to keep silence 
on the disputes which had arisen betw^n 
the supporters of Calvinistic or Arminian 
doctrines. The commons wished Arminian 
teaching to be absolutely suppressed, and 
their exasperation with the king's policy in 
this matter made it more difficult for him to 
come to terms with them on the subject of 
tonnage and poundage. Under Eliot's leader- 

maintain his prerogative, while leaving the I ship they resolved to question CharWs agents, 
commons under the impression that he liad ana, on a message from the king commanding 
abandoned it. Having obtained from the them to adjourn, the speaker was violently 
judges an opinion that, even if he assented to ' held down m his chair, and resolutions were 
tho petition, he could still in somt? cases im- i passed declaring that the preachers of Ar- 
prison without showing cause, he then gave ! minian doctrines and those who levied or 
un answer to parliament so studiously va^ue i paid tonnage and poundage were enemies of 
a!4 to give no satisfaction, and then, finding ! the country. Charles dissolved parliament, 
thecommons were violently exas])erated, gave i and for eleven years ruled without one. 
his consent on 7 June in the ordinary form, L The quarrel between Charles and the House 
though doubtless with the mental reservation A)f Commons was practically a question of 
that m the terms of the opinion of the judges Sovereignty. There had been at first grave 
lie was not precluded, in times of necessity, difterences of opinion between them on the 
from doing what, according to the latest subject of Buckingham's competence and the 
meaning ofthe petition, he had acknowledged management of the war, ana subsequently 
to be illegal. ' on Charles s opposition to popular Calvinism 

Charles got his subsidies ; but the commons in the church. The instrument by means of 
proceeded with a remonstrance against his ' which each side hoped to get power into its 
government, and especially against the coun- own hands was tonnage and poundage. With- 
tenance given by him to Buckingham. A out it Charles would soon be a bankrupt. 

still more serious dispute arose out of his re- 
ject ion of a jiroposal by the commons to gprant 
liim tonnage and i>oundage for one year only. 

W'ith it he might hope to free himself from 
the necessity of submitting to the commons. 
The old idea of government resting upon 

probably in order to pet them to discuss with i harmony between the king and parliament 
iiim the whole question of his right to levy I had broken down, and the constitution niust 
cu»ftoms without a parliamentary grant. Upon I be modified either in the direction of abeolu- 
this the commons asserted that if any such tism or in the direction of popular control. 

/ Charles 7S Charles 

Many members of the house who had > a reaction in favour of a broader religious^ 
8hared in the disturbance were imprisoned, thought, combined with a certain amount of 
Charleses indignation was directed against ceremonialism ; a reaction which was in the 
Elioty who had led the attack upon Bucking- main a return to the old lines of the culture 
ham as well as opposition to the kmg. Charles of the renaissance, and which, so far from 
personally interfered to settle the mode of , being really reactionary, was in the way of 
proceeding, and when Eliot with Holies and ; progress towards the intellectual and scien- 
Valentine were imprisoned in the king's i tific achievements which marked the dose of 
bench, upon their refusal to pay the fine to the century. 

which they were sentenced, Charles practi- Mediation between the two schools of 
cally hastened Eliot^s end by leaving him in thought could only be successfully achieved 
an unhealthy cell in the Tower after he was by conciliating that part of the population 
attacked by consumption. , which is sufficiently intelligent to take interest 

For a long time Charles's main difficultv j in matters of the mind, but which is not 
was financial. In 1629 he made peace with I inclined to admit the absolute predominance 
France, and in 1630 with Spain. lie en- of thorough partisans on either side. To do 
forced the payment of tonnage and poundage, ' this it would be necessary to sympathise with 
and he raised a considerable sum by demand- the better side of the new school, with its dis- 
ing money from those who had omitted to like of dogmatism and it« intellectual reason- 
apply for knighthood being in possession of . ableness, ^hile refusing at least to lend it 
40?. a year, a proceeding which, if liable to I help in establishing a ceremonial uniformity 
many objections, was at least legal. In this by compulsion. Unhappily Charles's svmpa- 
way he nearly made both ends meet, his thies were in the wrong direction. He was 
revenue in 1635 being in round numbers \ not a man of thought to be attracted by intel- 
618,000/.,while his expenditure was 636,000/. lectual force. He was a man of cultivated 
A deficit of 18,000/. might easily be met from sesthetic perceptions, loving music and paint- 
temporary sources, but the financial position • ing and tne drama, but as a connoisseur not 
thus created by Charles would not allow him i as an artist. He could t«ll when he saw a 

picture who the painter was, he could sug- 
gest an incident to be the centre of a dramatic 
plot, but he could not paint a picture or write 
a play. In his own life he instinctively 
turned to that which was orderly and de- 
Palatinate first to his brother-in-law Fre- ' corous. He had never been unfaithful to his 
derick, and after Frederick's death to his | wife, even in the days when there had been 
nephew, Charles Louis, by offering his worth- ! no love between the married pair, and after 
less alliance sometimes to the emperor and i Buckingham's death his affection for Hen- 
the king of Spain, sometimes to the king ; rietta Maria was that of a warm and tender 
of France or to Gustavus Adolphus. From j lover. Such a man was certain to share 
none of these potentates did he ever receive ; 1-Aud's view of the true wav of dealing with 
more than verbal assurances of friendship. , church controversies — so different from that 
No one would undergo a sacrifice to help a of Bacon — and, having thought to settle theo- 
man who was unable to help himself. logical disputes by enjoining silence on both 

The discredit into which Charles fell with i parties, to endeavour to reach unity by the 
foreign powers might ultimately be injurious enforcement of uniformity in obedience to 
to him; but France and Spain were too much church law without considering the shock 
occupied with their own quarrels to make it which his action would cause in a generation 
likely that he would be exposed to immediate habituated to its disuse, 
danger in consequence of anything that they , For some time his efforts in this direction 
were likely to do. The offence which he was i were crowned only by partial success. In 
giving by his ^rleflis°itirBl poHry at home { 1033 Laud became archbishop of Canterbury, 
was much more perilous. The church problem ; and by the close of 1037, ^\'hen laud's mt— 
of his day was indeed much more complex | tropolitical visitation came to an end, the 
than either he or his opponents were aware, i ceremonial of the church had been reduced 
As a result of the struggle against the papal to the ideal which Charles had accepted from 
power, backed by the King of Spain, a Cal- Laud, with the result of driving the mass of 
vinistic creed, combined with a dislike of any moderate protestants into the arms of the 
ceremonial which bore the slightest resem- puritans [see Laud, William]. 
blance to the forms of worship prevailing in , At the same time that Charles was alienat- 
the Roman church,had obtained a strong hold ing so many religious men, he was giving 
upon religious Englishmen. Then had come , o&nce to thousands who cared for the nuunt«- 

to play an important part in foreign politics. 
Yet Charles, with that fatuous belief in his 
own importance which attended him through 
life, imaging that he would gain the object 
which he aimed at, the restoration of the 

Charles 76 Charles 

lumce of the laws and customs which guarded ! cussed before the exchequer ohfunber iu 
l^^C^ from irresponsible taxation. In ^ Hampden's case, and when judgment was 
fk V^^ alarm at the growing stren^h | given in 1638 in his favour he treated the 
' t~\^^^^c^ navy, which, in combination question as settled without regard to the 
with the Dutch, mirfit easily overwhelm any impression made on public opinion by the 
fleet which he was himself able to send out, speeches of Hampden s counsel [see Hamp- 
and, in pursuance of a suggestion of Attor- den, John]. 

uey-general Noy, he commanded the issue of In other ways Charles's government had 
^vnts to the port towns, directing them to sup- given dissatisfaction. Many monopolies had 
ply ships for service at sea. The ships, how- been granted to companies, by which subter- 
ever, were required to be larcer than any of , fuge the Monopoly Act of 1624 had been 
the port towns, except London, had at their evaded. Inquiry had been made into the 
<li?Pp8al, and Charles therefore expressed his , rights of persons possessing land which had 
willingness to commute the obli^tion for a once formed part of a royal forest, enormous 
money payment which was practically a tax. fines inflicted, and though these fines, like the 
While ne gave out that tne vessels were majority of the fines m the Star-chamber, 

w-anted for the defence of the realm against 
pirates and enemies, he was negotiating a 
secret treaty with Spain, the object of which 
was the employment of the fleet in a com- 
bined war against the Dutch. 

were usually either forgiven or much reduced 
when payment was demanded, the whole pro- 
ceeding created an amount of irritation which 
told heavily against the court. 

By this time Laud's metropolitical visita- 

In 1635 the sliip-monev writs were ex- tion had increased its growing opposition, and 
tended to the inlana counties. The negotia- ' even greater distrust of Chaneshad been cu- 
tion with Spain had broken down, and Charles ! gendered by the welcome accorded by Charles 
was now eager to use his new fleet to enforce i to Panzani, who arrived in 1634 as papal 
his claim to the sovereignty of the seas, and i a^nt at the queen's court, and who was busy 
to force even war vessels of other nations to | with a futile attempt to reconcile the church 
dip their flags on passing a ship of his navy , of England with the see of Rome. Panzani 
in the seas round Great Britain. He also ^ was present when Charles paid a formal visit 
attempted, with small success, to levy a tax to Oxford in 163($. Con, who succeeded him, 
from tlie Dutch herring boats for permission , dropped the scheme for the union of the 
to fish in the sea between Englana and their churches, and devoted himself to the conver- 
own coasts. sion of gentlemen, and more successfully of 

Gradually resistance to the payment of : ladies of quality. In 1637 even Charles took 
ship-money spread, and in December 1636 alarm, though he loved to chat with Con over 
(yharles consulted the fudges. Ten out of ■ points of literature and theology, and pro- 
the twelve replied that * when the good and posed to issue a proclamation ordering the 
safety of the kinffdom in general is concerned, ' enforcement of the law against those who 
and the whole kingdom m danger — of which ! efiected conversions. The queen, however, 
his majesty is the only judge — then the i pleaded the cause of her fellow-catholics, and 
charge of the defence ougnt to be borne by j Charles, unable to withstand his wife's en- 
all tne kingdom in general.' Charles was treaties, gaveway and issued his proclamation 
always apt to rely on the letter rather than ' in so modified a form as no longer to cause 
on the spirit of the law, and he forgot that j alarm among the catholics themselves. With 
after he had dismissed Chief-justice Crewe, | more wisdom he gave his patronage to ChU- 
&c. in 1626 for disagreeing with him about ! lingworth's great work, * The Keligion of 
t he forced loan, suspended Chief-baron Walter | Protestants.' 

in 1627 for disagreeing with him about the i Unluckily for Charles, the favour accorded 
mode of dealing with the accused members j to Panzani and Con only served to bring out 
of parliament, and Chief-justice Heath in | into stronger light the hard measure which 
1634 for disagreeing with him about the . was dealt out to puritans, to which fresh at- 
church, he could haraly expect his subjects tention had been drawn by the execution of 
to believe that the judges were altogether a cruel Star-chamber sentence on 30 June 
influenced by personal considerations when ' 1637 upon Prynne, Bastwick, and Burton, 
they decided in favour of the crown. ' Great as was the offence which Charles 

Ship-money writs continued to beissued ! was giving in England, he was giving greater 

every year, and in February 1637 Charles 
obtained a fresh and more deliberate answer 
of the judges in support of his claim. Find- 
ing that resistance continued, he gladly con- 

offence in Scotland. In 1(J33, wnen he visited 
Edinburgh in order to be crowned, he had 
created distrust among the nobles by an 
arrangement for the commutation of the 

sented to have the question of his rights dis- tithes which^ though just in itself, alarmed 

Charles 77 Charles 

them as being possibly a precursor of an at- ^ order for the use of the prayer-book. Fresh 
tempt to resume the confiscated church ])ro- riots broke out at Edinbun^n. The opponents 
perty which was in their hands. It was all of the prayer-book formed four committees, 
the more necessary for Charles to avoid irri- usually known as the * tables/ to represent 
tating the religious sentiment of the Scottish ' their case^ and the ' tables ' practically became 
|)eople, which nad abandoned any active op- the informal government of Scotland, 
position against the episcopacy introduced by Charles did his best to explain his inten- 
James, but had retained an ineradicable aver- tions, but Scotland wanted the absolute with- 
sion to anything like the ceremonial of the drawal of the obnoxious book, and at the end 
English church. Yet Charles chose to be of February 1638 the national covenant, bind- 
er© wned on 18 June by five bishops in * white ing all who adopted it to resist any attack 
rochets and sleeves, and copes of gold having on their religion to the death, was produced 
blue silk to their feet,' and to deck the com- in Edinburgh and eagerly signed. For some 
munion table ' after the manner of an altar, months copies of the covenant were scattered 
liaving behind it a rich tapestry, wherein the . over the country- and accepted with enthu- 
cruci& was curiously wrought.' siasm. 

From that moment Charles lost the hearts Charles knew that the movement was di- 
of the Scottish people. The nobles, quick to rected against himself. In May he offered not 
seize their opportunity, opposed him in the , to press the canons and the service book ex- 
parliament which followed the coronation, cept in ' a fair and legal way ; ' but at the 
and it was only by his personal intervention same time he asked for the absolute aban- 
that he secured a majonty for the bills which ' donment of the covenant. He sent the Mar- 
he was anxious to see passed into law. His j quis of Hamilton to Scotland to mediate, and 
first act after returning to England was to | by his advice he drew back step after step 
order the general use of the surplice by Scot- : till he at last agreed to let the prayer-book 
tish ministers, and though the order could drop, and to summon an assembly to meet to 
not be enforced its issue told heavily against ' settle matters of religion. 
Charles. To the nobles he gave fresh offence The assembly met at Glasgow on 21 Nov. 
by making Archbishop Spotiswood chan- and proceeded to summon the bishops before 
cellor of Scotland, and by giving seats in the , it for judgment. On 28 Nov. Hamilton dis- 
pri\-y council to other bishops. solved the assembly. In spite of the disso- 

For some time certain Scottish bishops, re- , lution it continued to sit, dejiosed the bishop, 
ferring from time to time to Laud and Wren, ' and re-established presbyterianism. Charles 
had by Charles's orders been busily preparing maintained that he had a right to dissolve 
a new prayer-book for Scotland. In 1636 its assemblies and parliaments, and to refuse his 
issue was frustrated by the issue of a * Book ' assent to their acts. The constitutional rights 
of Canons,' and in October 1G36 Charles com- of the crown thus came into collision with 
manded the use of the prayer-l)ook. It was i the determinate will of the nation, 
not till May 1637 that it reached Scotland, ' Only an army could enforce obedience in 
and it was to be first used on 23 July at St. , Scotland, and Charles had no money to pay 
Giles's in Edinburgh. The Scots had had , an English army for any length of time. Yet 
time to make up their minds that the book he hoped by caUing out trained bands, espe- 
was probably popbh and certainly English, cially in the northern counties, which were 
and the nobles, for their own reasons, stirred most hostile to the Scots, and by asking for 
the fiame of popular discontent. A riot in a voluntary contribution to support them, to 
St. Giles's, followed by an almost complete have force on his side long enough to beat 
unanimity of feeling in Scotland against the down a resistance which he underestimated, 
new book, rendered its adoption impossible. On 27 Feb. 1639 he issued a proclamation de- 
Charles did not know, as Elizaf)eth had daring the religion of Scotland to be safe in 
known, how to withdraw from an untenable his hands, and asserting that the Scots were 
position, and the position in which he had aiming at the destruction of monarchical 
now arrived was one from which even Eliza- government, 

beth could hardly have withdrawn with dig^ On 30 March Charles arrived at Y'ork to 
nity. If Charles were to give way in Scotland, appeal to arms, believing that he had to deal 
he could hardly avoid giving way in England. ^ with the nobility alone, and that if he could 
His government in both countries was sup- reach the Scottish people he would find them 
ported by the prestige of ancient rights m , loyally responsive. He issued a proclama- 
defiance of popular feeling, and if popular tion offering a reductionof 50percent. to all 
feeling was to have its way in one country it tenants who took his side against rebels. He 
would soon have its way in the other. On | could not even get his proclamation read in 
10 Sept. he directed the enforcement of his ; Scotland, except at Dunse, where he sent. 

Charles 78 Charles 

the Earl of Arundel with an armed force to 
read it. On 28 May he arrived at Jferwick, 

London to obtain a loan to support the armv 
during the propn^ess of the treaty. Charles 

imd on 5 June the Scottish array occupied \ had now agreed to summon another parlia- 
Dunse Law. His own troops were undisci- | ment, and the negotiations opened at Kipon 
plined, and money began to run short. On . were adjourned to London. 
18 June he signed the treaty of Berwick, ' On 8 Nov. the Long parliament met, full 
knowing that if he persisted in war his army of a strong belief that both the ecclesiastical 
would break up for want of pay. A general and the political system of Charles needed to 
assembly was to meet to settle ecclesiastical be entirely changed. They began by inquir- 
aflfairs, and a parliament to settle political ing into Straffoni's conduct in Ireland, and 
affairs. Charles, listening to Strafford, thought of 

Before long the king and the Scots were anticipating the blow by accusing theparlia- 
as much estranged as eyer ; differences of ^ mcntary leaders of treasonable relations with 
opinion arose as to the intent ion of the treaty, the Scots. The secret was betrayed, and 
'rne assembly abolished episcopacy, and when Strafford impeached and thrown into the 
the parliament wished to confirm this reso- Tower. Laud quickly followed, and other 
lution, as well as to revolutionise its own in- officials only saved themselves by flight. De- 
tcmal constitution, Charles fell back on his prived of his ablest advisers, Charles was 
right to refuse consent to bills. He was now i left to his own vacillating counsels, except 
under the influence of Wentworth, whom he so far as he was from time to time spurred 
created Earl of Strafford, and he resolved to on to action by the unwise impetuosity of 
iUiW an English parliament, and to ask for i his wife. She had already in November ap- 
means to enable him to make war effectually plied to Rome for money to bribe the par- 
\ipon Scotland. The discovery of an attempt ' liamentary leaders. Later on a further ap- 
made by the Scottish leaders to open nego- . plication was made for money to enable 
tiations with the king of France led him to Charles to recover his authority. Charles was 
hope that the national P^nglish feeling would probably informed of these schemes. He saw 
be touched. In the meanwhile the English chaos before him in the impending dissolu- 
privy councillors offered him a loan which tion of the only system whicn he understood, 
would enable him at least to gather an army and he was at least willing to open his ears 
without parliamentary aid. i to any chance of escape, however hazardous. 

On 13 April 1640 the Short parliament, as As he never understood that it was destruo- 
it has been called, was opened. Under Pym*s tive to seek for the support of mutually ir- 
leadcrship it showed itself dis})osed to ask reconcilable forces, he began, while playing 
for redress of grievances as a condition of a with the idea of accepting aid from the pope, 
grant of supply, and it subsequently refused to play with the ideA of accepting aid from 
t o give money unless peace were made with the Prince of Orange, to be bought by a 
1 he Scots [see PYif,JoHNl. On 5 May Charles marriage between his own eldest daughter 
■<lissolved parliament, and, getting money by Mary and the prince's eldest son. 
irregular means, proceeded to push on the , On 23 Jan. 1641 Charles offered to the par- 
w^ar. That Strafford had obtained a gfrant : liamenthis concurrence in removing innova- 
from the Irish parliament, and had levied an , tions in the church, but he refused to de- 
Irish army, terrified and exasperated Eng- prive the bishops of their seat« in the House of 
lislimen, who believed that this army would Lords, or to assent to a triennial bill making 
be used in England to crush their liberties, the meeting of parliament every three years 
The army gathered in England was mutinous compulsory. On 15 Feb. he gave his assent 
and unwarlike. The Scots knew that the , to the Triennial Bill, and on the 19th he ad- 
opinion in England was in their favour, and mitted a number of the opposition lords to the 
they had already entered into coramunica- , council, hoping thereby to win votes in St raf- 
tion with the x)arliamentary leaders. On ford's trial. At that trial, which began on 
1*0 Aug. they crossed the Tweed, defeated ' '22 March, Charles was presimt. His best 
part of the royal army at Newbuni on the i policy was to seek the support, of the peers, 
28th, and soon afterwanls occupied Newcastle ^ who were naturally disinclined to enlarge 
and Durham. Charleses money was by this , the doctrines of treason, and to win general 
time almost exhausted, and he was obliged favour by a scrupulous abandonment of the 
to summon the English peers to meet him in merest suggestion of an appeal to forct*. 
a great council at York, as there was no time Charles weakly listened to all kinds of 
to c*^t together a full parliament. schemes, probably without absolutely adopt- 

The great council met on 24 Sept. It at ing any, especially to a scheme for obtaining 
once insisted on opining negotiations with , a petition from the army in the north in fa- 
iho Scots, and sent some of its members to your of his policy, and to another scheme for 




bringing that army to London. Of some of 
theseprojects Pym received intelligence, and 
Stn^rd 8 impeachment, ultimately carried 
on under the lorm of a bill of attainder, was 
pushed on more vigorously than ever. The 
most telling charge against Strafford was that 
he had intended to bring an Irish army to 
England, and that army, which was still on 
foot, Charles refused to disband. On 1 May 
he pleaded with the lords to spare Strafford^s 
life, while rendering him incapable of hold- 
ing office. On the following day, the day of 
his daughter's marriage to Prince William of 
Orange, he made an attempt to get military 
possession of the Tower. An appeal to con- 
stitutional propriety and an appeal to force 
at the same time were irreconcilable with 
one another. Wilder rumours were abroad, 
and Pym dh the 6th revealed his knowledge 
of the army plot. All hesitation among the ! 
peers ceased, and the Attainder Bill was 
passed. On 10 May, under the stress of fear 
lest the mob which was raffing round White- 
hall should imperil the ufe of the queen, 
Charles signed a commission for giving his 
assent to the bill. 

On the same day Charles ap^reed to a bill 
taking from him his right to dissolve the ac- 
tual parliament without its own consent. Par- 
liament at once proceeded to abolish those 
courts which had formed a special defence of j 
the Tudor monarchy, and completed the Scot- 
tish treaty by which the two armies were to 
be disbanded. As another act made the pay- 
ment of customs and duties illegal without 
consent of parliament, Charles was now re- 
duced to rule in accordance with the deci- 
sions of the law courts and the will of i>ar- 
liament, unless he had recourse to force. 
Unhappily for him, lie could not take up the 
position tnus offered him, or contentedly be- 
come a cipher where he had once rule<l au- 
thoritatively. On 10 Aug. he set out for 
Scotland, hoping by conceding everything on 
which the Scottish nation had set its heart 
to win its armed support in England. 

Charles perliaj)8 felt the more justified in 
the course which he was taking as new ques- 
tions were rising above the parliamentary' 
horizon. The House of Commons was more 
piiritan than the nation, and as early as in 
February 1641 two parties had developed 
themselves, one of them striving for the 
abolition of episcopacy, and for a thorough 
<;hange in the prayer-book, if not for its en- 
tire abandonment; the other for church re- 
form which should render a renewal of the 
Laudian system impossible for the future. 
The latter was headed by Bishop Williams, 
and was strongly supported by tne House of 
Lords. Charles's one chance of regaining 

authority was in placing himself in harmony 
with this reforming movement. Charles was 
an intriguer, but he was not a hypocrite, and 
as he had no sympathy with any plan such 
as Williams was likely to sketch out, he did 
not feign to have it. ^he want of the king*s 
support was fatal to the project, and many 
who might have ranged themselves withWil- 
liams came to the conduaion that, unless the 
days of Laud were to return, the government 
of the church must be taken out of the hands 
of Charles. Hence a bill for the abolition of 
episcopacy was bein^ pushed on in the House 
of Commons, the bishops having been, and 
being likely to be, the nominees of the crown. 
Any one but Charles would have recog- 
nised the uselessness of attempting to save 
the English bishops by an appeal to the 
presbyterian Scots. Charles was indeed wel- 
comed at Edinburgh, where he listened to 
presbyterian sermons, but he soon discovere<l 
that the Scots would neither abate a jot of 
their own pretensions nor lend him aid to 
recover his lost ground in England. Hfs 
dissatisfaction encouraged persons about him, 
more unscrupulous than nimself, to form a 
plot for seizing, and even, in case of resistance, 
for murdering, Argyll, Hamilton, and Lanark, 
the leaders of the opposition ; and when this 

Slot, usually known as ' The Incident,' was 
iscovered, Charles found himself suspected 
of contriving a murder. 

Shortly after the discovery of the Incident 
the Ulster massacre took place, and Charles, 
who appears to have intrigued with the Irish 
catholic lords for military assistance in re- 
turn for concessions made to them, was sus- 
pected of comiivance with the rebellion in 
the north. 

Such suspicions, based as they were on a 
! succession of intrigues, made it: difficult for 
Charles to obtain acceptance foA4mv definite* 
policy. Yet, while he was still mScotland, 
he adopted a line of action which gave him 
I a considerable party in England, ancWhich, 
, if he could have inspired trust in his capa- 
city to treat the question of the day in a con- 
ciliatory spirit, might have enabled him to 
rally the nation round him. He announced 
his resolution to maintain the discipline and 
doctrine of the church as established by 
Elizabeth and James, and if he could have 
added to this, as he sf>on afterwards added, 
an expression of a desire to find a mode of 
satisfying those who wished for some? amount 
j of latitude within its pale, he would be in a 
i good position to command a large following. 
Unhappily for him, the Incident and the 
Irish rebellion made it unlikely that he would 
be trusted, and the answer of the parliamen- 
tary leaders was the * Grand Remonstrance,' 

Charles 80 Charles 

in which he was asked to concede the ap- the right before the nation. On 22 Aug. 

E ointment of ministers acceptable to both ; Charles raised his standard at Nottingham^ 
ouses of parliament, and the gathering of , and the civil war began. After an attempt 
an assembly of divines to be named by par- , at negotiation the king removed to Shrews- 
liament that it might recommend a measure j bury, and on 12 Oct. marched upon London,, 
of church reform. The former demand was and, after fighting on the 23ra the indeci- 
rendered necessary by the fact that an army sive battle or Edgehill, occupied Oxford and 
would soon have to be sent to Ireland, and pushed on as far as Brentford. On 13 Nov. 
that the parliamentary majority would not \ he drew back without combating a parlia- 
trust the kin^ with its control, lest it should mentary force drawn up on Tumham Green, 
be used against themselves when the w^ar He thought that the work of suppressing the 
was over. The second might easily lead to enemy should be left to the following summer, 
a system of ecclesiastical repression as severe ' In the campaign of 1643 an attempt wa& 
as that of Laud, and when Charles, in a de- | made by Charles, perhaps at the suggestion 
claration published by him soon afterwards of his general, the Earl of Forth, to carry out 
(Husband, Collection of JRemonstrances, &c., a strategic conception which, if it had been 
p. 24), announced himself ready, if exception success&l, would have put an end to the 
was taken to certain ceremonies, ' to comply war. He was himself with his main army 
with the advice of ' his ' parliament, that some to hold Oxford, and if possible Reading,, 
law may be made for the exemption of tender while the Earl of Newcastle was to advance 
consciences from punishment or prosecution from the north and Hopton frx>m the west, 
for such ceremonies,' he might, if he had been to seize respectively the north and south 
other than he was, have anticipated the legis^ banks of the Thames below London, so as to 
lation of William an4 Mary. To the end of destroy the commerce of the great city which 
his life, however, though he constantly reite- formea the main strength of his adversaries, 
rated this offer, he never took the initiative In the summer of 1643, after the victories 
in carrying the proposal into effect. ' of Adwalton Moor (30 June) and Round way 

There can be Lttle doubt that, emboldened | Down (13 July), the plan seemed in a fair 
by his reception in the city on 26 Nov., i way to succeed, but tne Yorkshiremen who 
when he returned from Scotland, Charles | followed Newcastle and the Comishmen who 
was already contemplating an appeal to law followed Hopton were drawn back by their 
which was hardly distinguishaole from an I desire of checking the governors of Hull and 
appeal to force. When, at the end of De- i Plymouth, and when Charles was left with 
cember, a mob appeared at Westminster to | an insufficient force to march unsupported 
terrorise the peers, he seems to have wavered ^ upon London, he had perhaps no choice but 
between this plan and an attempt to rest { to undertake the siege of Gloucester. After 
upon the constitutional support of a minority ; the relief of Gloucester by Essex, he fought 
of the commons and a majority of the lords, i the first battle of Newbury, in which he failed 
It was a step in the latter direction that on | to hinder the return of Essex to London. A 
2 Jan. 1642 he named to office Culpepper , later attempt ^to push Hopton with a fresh 
and Falkland, leading members of the epi- | army through Sussex and Kent to the south 
scopalian-royaUst party which had for some bank of the Thames was frustrated by the 
time been formed in the commons ; but on ' defeat of that army at Cheriton on 29 March 
the following day the attorney-general by his 1644, while Newcastle was baffied by the 
orders impeached '^\e members of the lower | arrival of a Scottish army in the north as 
house and one member of the upper. On the ; the allies of the English parliament, in con- 
4th he came in person with a rout of armed sequence of the acceptance by the latter body 
followers to the Ilouse of Commons to arrest of the solemn league and covenant, 
the five who sat in that house. He did not , During this campaign Charles had divided 
succeed in securing them, but his attempt ' his attention between military affairs and 
sharpened all the suspicions abroad and ren- j political intrigue. On 1 Feb. propositions 
dered an agreement on the larger questions , for peace were carried to the king at Oxford, 
practically impossible. The city took up the , and a negotiation was opened which came to 
cause of the members, and Charles, finding ' nothing, because neither party would admit 
that force was against him, left Whitehall | of anything but complete surrender on the 
on 10 Jan. never to return till he came back part of the other. Charles followed up the 

to die. 

The next seven months were occupied by 
manueuvres between kin^ and parliament to 
gain possession of the military forces of the 
kingdom and to place themselVes legally in 

failure of negotiation by an attempt to pro- 
voke an insurrection in London in his favour ; 
but his most cherished scheme was one for 
procuring the assistance of the English army 
m Ireland by bringing about a cessation of 

Charles Si Charles 

the war there, and eventually of securing the | Irish and of Scottish highlanders under Mont- 
aid of a body of ten thousand Irish Celts. ; rose, which won astonishing victories in the- 
The cessation was agreed to on 16 Sept. 1643, ; north of Scotland. In the meanwhile the 
and several English regiments were shipped parliamentary army had been remodelled, and 
from Ireland for ser\*ice in Englaiid. The against the new model, filled with relig^ou& 
native Irish were not to be had as yet% enthusiasm and submitting to the strictest dis- 
The campaign of 1644 was conducted upon cipline, Charles dashed himself at Naseby on 
a different plan from that of 1(W3. This 14 June, to meet only with a disastrous over- 
time, instead of converging upon London, the throw. 

royalist armies were to make full use of their The defeat at Naseby was decisive. For 
central position at Oxford. Sending Rupert some months parliamentary victories were 
to assist Newcastle to defeat the Scots and won over royalist detachments, and royalist 
their English allies, Charles was to remain fortresses stormed or reduced by famine, 
on the defensive, unless he was able to throw Charles never was in a position to fight a 
himself alternatively on the armies of Essex pitehed battle again. All sober men on his 
and Waller, which were for the moment com- own side longed for peace. Charles fancied 
bined against him, but which might at any that to submit would be to betray God's cause 
time sewrate, as their commanders were as well as his own. * I confess,* he wrote to 
known Sot to be on good terms with one RupertonS Aug., 'that, speaking either as to 
another. If Rupert had been a good tac- mere soldier or statesman, I must say there 
tici^i, the plan might have succeeded, but he is no probability but of my ruin ; but as a 
suffered himself to be overwhelmed— princi- christian, I must tell you tliat God will not 
pally by the conduct of Cromwell — atlSiarston suffer rebels to prosper, or his cause to be 
Moor, on 2 July ; and though Charles inflicted overthrown, and whatsoever personal punish- 
a check on Waller at Cropredy Bridge on ment it shall please them to inflict upon me 
29 June, and subsequently compelled %be sur- ; must not make me repine, much less to give 
render of Essex's infantry at Lostwithiel on over this quarrel, which, by the grace of God, 
2 Sept., his wish to avoid unnecessary blood- . I am resolved against, whatsoever it cost me ; 
shed prevented him from insisting, as he might for I know my obligations to be both in con- 
easily have done, upon more than the delivery science and honour neither to abandon God's 
of the arms and stores of the force which he cause, injure my successors, nor forsake my 
had overpowered. He had consequently to friends.' 

meet the armyof Essex again in combination | There would have been something approach- 
with that of Waller and Manchester, at the ing to the sublime in Charles's refusal to re- 
second battle of Newbury, on 27 Oct. Night j cognise a settlement which he honestly be- 
came on as he was getting the worst, but he lieved to be abhorrent to God, if only he had 
slipped away under cover of the darkness, been content to possess his soul in patience, 
and succeeded in revictualling Donnington During that winter and the following summer 
Castle and Basing House, so that when he he plunged from one intrigue into another, 
entered Oxford on 23 Nov. he had baffled all No help from whatever quarter came amiss to 

the efforts of his adversaries, so far as his own 
part of the campaign was concerned. 

The negotiations at Uxbridge, which were 
carried on in January and February 1645, 
failed from the same causes as those which 
had produced the failure of the negotiations 
at Oxford in 1643. Charles's real efforts were 
thrown into an attempt to check the advance 
of the Scots by procuring money and arms, 
and if possible an army from the Duke of 
Lorraine, and by inducing the Irish to lend 
him the ten thousand men of whom mention 

him, and while the queen was pleading for a 
foreign army to be levied, with the help of 
the queen regent of France he was himself 
negotiating through Ormonde for ten thousand 
Irish Celts. "Whether he actually authorised 
the notorious Glamorgan treaty or not [see 
Hebbert, Edward, Marquis of Worces- 
ter], the authenticated negotiation carried on 
by t^e lord-lieutenant of Ireland was quite 
sufficient to ruin Charles ( Carte AfSS. Bod- 
leian Library). Letters, bringing to light 
his secret negotiations with foreign courts, 
has already been made, ^^fi J^'*}t would, | had come into the possession of the parlia- 
however, only grant the soldiers on condition ; mentary army at Naseby, and now a copy of 

of the concession of the independence of the 

Irish parliament, and of the jtloman catholic 

church in Ireland, and though Lnurles was 

)repared to go a very long way to meet them. 

the Glamorgan treaty fell into the hands of 
his enemies, with the result of shocking the 
public opinion of the day even more than it 
had been shocked before. Then, too, he pro- 

preparea to go a very long way ro meex. rnem, naa oeen suocnea oeiore. men, too, ne pro- 
he refused to comply with the whole of their . posed to treat with the parliament at "West^ 
demands. All the external aid which he was | minster, not because he expected them to 
able to command was that of a small body of grant his demands, but because he expected 
VOL. z. ' e 

Charles 82 Charles 

presbyterians and independents to fall out, | tish parliament resolved that as he had not 
and 80 to help him to his own. While he was taken the covenant he was not wanted in 
treating with them he informed the queen I Scotland, while the English parliament ap- 
that he would grant toleration to the catho- , pointed him a residence at Holmby House. 
lies * if the pope and they will visibly and On 80 Jan. 1(U7 the Scottish army marched 
heartily engage themselves for the re-tista- i homewards from Nowpastle, receiving shortly 
blishment of the church of England and my afterwards the first instalment due to them 
crown* (('harles to the Queen, 12 March 1040, by England for their services. Charles was 
Charles I in 1040, Camd. Soc), by which left behind with a party of English commis- 
means he hoped * to suppn>ss the presbvterian ' sioners who had been appointed to conduct 
and independent factions.* There was no co- him to the residence assigned to him. 
herence in these projects, and, like all inco- At Holmby House Charles was well treated, 
herent aims, they were certain to clash one \ He read much; his favourite books were An- 
with the other. drewes's * Sermons,* Hooker's * Ecclesiastical 

Oxford,li(>wever, was soon too hard pressed Polity,* Shakespeare, Spenser, Herbert, and 
for Cliarles to remain there, and though he translations ol Tasso and Ariosto. Before 
had resolved never to grant more to thepres- long he had the satisfaction of hearing that 
byterians than at the utmost a toleration, he the independent army was falling out with 
at last, having on 13 April recorded and , the presbyterian parliament, and just before 
placed in the hands of GiU)ert Sheldon a vow this quarrel readied its crisis he sent in an 
to restore to the church all lay impropriations answer to the parliamentary proposal sent to 
held by the crown if he ever recover<id his him at Newcastle, in which he offered to re- 
right ( Clarendon MS. 2170), delivered him- sign the command of the militia for ten years, 
self on 5 May to the Scottish army at Newark, and to agree to the establishment of presby- 
On 13 May, guarded by the Scottish army, terianism for three years, permission being 
he arrived at Newcastle. ' granted to himself and his nousehold to use 

Charles had hoped that his coming would the Book of Common Prayer. He was to be 
lead to a national Scottish combination in his allowed to name twenty divines to sit in the 
favour in which Montrose, who had been de- ' Westminster Assembly to take part in the 
feating one presbyterian army after the other, negotiations for a final settlement of church 
might be included. He found the Scots affairs. Nothing was said about toleration for 
wanted him to take the covenant. Chai*les tender consciences, an omission which shows 
had to do his best by such diplomatic skill as that the frequent offers of Charles during the 

Some time was taken up by an epistolary dis- they were good things in themselves, 
eussion between himself and Alexander Hen- ! On the morning of 3 June, before Charles 
derson on the respective merits of episcopacy could receive an answer to his proposal, a 

Camd. Soc), urged him to abandon episco- the army to carry him off. On the 4th, 
pacy. He remained constant, though the de- Charles, apparently fully satisfied, rode off 
feat of Montrose at Philiphaugh on 3 Sept. with him. For some time he moved about 
deprived him of his last chance of armed from house to house, taking up his abode at 
assistance. On 4 Dec. he went so far as to Hampton Court on 24 Aug. In the mean- 
suggest to his friends that he might accept while the army had taken military possession 
presby terianism with toleration for three of London, and had made itself master of the 
years, but added that if the Scots would sup- parliament. 

port his claims to temporal power, he would Charles had already been requested to give 
expunge the demand for toleration. His his consent to a document drawn up by the 
friends told him that the Scots wanted a per- chief officers of the army and known as 
manent, not a temporary, establishment of * Heads of Proposals.* These proposals, if 
presbyterianism, and on 20 Dec. he dn>pped accepted, would nave transformed the old mo- 
the whole proposal, merely asking to come to narchy into a constitutional monarchy, some- 
London to carry on a jiersonal negotiation. what after the fashion of 1089, and would 
Charles had imagined that he was playing have put an end to the religious difficulty by 
with all parties, while in reality he had pro- i abolisliing * all coercive power, authority, and 
vokedall parties to come to an understanding jurisdiction of bishops, and all other ecclesi- 
with one anotlier behind his back. The Scot- astical officers whatsoever, extending to any 




civil penalties upon any.' Neither the prayer- 
book nor the covenant was to be enforced. 

It is intelligible that Charles should not 
have been prepared to accede to so wise a 
settlement; but at least he might have been 
expected not to make the overtures of the army 
counters in intrigue. He had at first rejected 
them, but on 9 Sept., having been asked by the 
parliament — which in spite of the domination 
of the army retained its presbyterian senti- 
ments — to accept a presbyterian government, 
he answered that he preferred to that to adopt 
the proposals of the armv. All that he got 
by this move was to weaken the hold of the 
army upon the parliament, and the result 
was that on 2 Nov. the houses came to an 
understanding that presbyterianism should 
be established, with toleration for tender 
consciences, but with no toleration for those 
who wished to use the Book of Common 
Prayer. Charles, if he had been wise, would 
have closed even now with Cromwell and 
the army. All he thought of was to try to 
win over the army leaders by offers of peerages 
and places. Whether Cromwell actually in- 
tercepted a letter from Charles to the queen 
informing her that he meant to hang him as 
soon as he had made use of him, may be 
doubted, but it is quite clear that Cromwell 
was not the man to be played with. The 
army and the parliament came to an under- 
standing, and on 10 Nov. drew up new pro- 
posals in concert. On the 11th the king 
escaped from Hampton Court, making his 
way to the Isle of Wight, where he seems 
to have expected that Colonel Hammond, the 
governor of Carisbrooke Castle, would pro- 
tect him, and perhaps contrive his escape to 
France if it should prove necessary. Ham- 
mond, however, was faithful to his trust, and 
CJharles became a resident, and before long a 
prisoner in the castle. 

Upon this the houses embodied their own 
proposals in four bills. To these bills, on 
28 Dec., Charles refused his assent, and on 
3 Jan. 1648 the commons resolved that they 
would not again address the king, a resolu- 
tion which on the 15th was accepted by the 

At last it seemed likely that Charles would 
find supporters. The Scots had long been 
dissatisfied with the behaviour of the English 
parliament towards them, and on 26 Dec. 
their commissioners in England signed with 
Charles a secret treaty in which they engaged 
to send an army to replace him on the throne 
on condition that he would establish presby- 
terianism in England for three years and put* 
down the sects. The result of this treaty, the 
engagement as it was called, was the second 
civil war. The invading army of the Scots 

was backed by the English cavaliers, and in 
part at least by the English presbjierians. 
Fairfax and Cromwell, however, disposed of 
all the enemies of the army, and by the 
beginning of September Charles was left 
unaided to face the angry soldiers. 

At first, indeed, it seemed as if the second 
civil war would go for nothing. On 18 Sept. 
a fresh negotiation with Charles — the treaty 
of Newport — was oi>ened by parliamentary 
commissioners. Charles would neither close 
with his adversaries nor break with them. 
His only object was to spin out time. By 
the end of October the houses, anxious as 
they were for a settlement, discovered, what 
they might have known before, that Charles 
was resolved not to abandon episcopacy. He 
had fresh hopes of aid from Ireland and 
the continent. * Though you will hear,* he 
had written to Ormonde, * that this treaty is 
near, or at least most likely to be concluded, 
yet believe it not, but pursue the way you 
are in with all possible vigour ; deliver also 
that my command to all your friends, but 
not in public way.' 

The army at least was weary of constant 
talk which led to nothing but uncertainty. 
In a remonstrance adopted by a council of 
the officers on 16 Nov. it demanded ' that the 
capital and grand author of our troubles, the 
person of the king, by whose commissions, 
commands, or procurement, and in whose 
behalf and for whose interest only, of will and 
power, all our wars and troubles have been, 
with all the miseries attending them, may be 
speedily brought to justice for the treason, 
blood, and mischief he is therein guilty of.' 
The complaint ugainst Charles was true, but 
it w^as not the whole truth. Charles, ill- 
judged and irritating as his mode of action 
was, did nevertheless in making his stand upon 
episcopacy represent the religious convictions 
of a large portion of his subjects. Moreover, 
the demand of the army shocked all who 
reverenced law, or, in other words, who wished 
to see general rules laid down, and any at- 
tempt to infringe them punished after they 
had been openly promulgated, and not before. 
To depose Charles was one thing ; to execute 
him was another. In hurrying on to the 
latter action the army only exposed the radi- 
cal injustice of its proceeding by the self- 
deception with which it clothed an act of 
violence with informal forms of law. Charles 
was removed from Carisbrooke, and on 1 Dec. 
lodged in Hurst Castle. On the 6th members 
of the House of Commons too favourable to 
the king were excluded from parliament by 
Pride's purge. On 17 Dec. Charles was re- 
moved from Hurst Castle and brought to 
Windsor, where he arrived on 23 Dec. On 

o 2 


1 Jan. the conimona wlio were left behind 
Hliitr Pride's purge resolved thathe had com- 
mitted treason by leTylng war 'against tlii! 
Iiarliament and kinf;dom of England,' and uti 
4 Jan. they resolved that it was unneceflsnrv 
for the beingr nf a law to have the consent of 
the king or of the Houxe of Jjords. On i lii' 
rtth they passed a law by their own sole au- 
thority fortheestalilishmcnt of a high coun of 
justiceforlbuking'strial. On lllJan. Charles 
wnabrought to St. James's Palace, and on ibH 
20th he was led to Westminster Hall to be 
tried. He refused to plead or to acknowled(^ 
, the legality of thecourt [see Bradshaw, John, 
"^ 1602-16fi9],andontliemhhewa3condemtied 
to death (on qnest ions arising out of the death- 
warrant, see two communications of Sir. 
Thorns to Kotetand Queries of U andlSJtily 
1872, and the letters of Mr. R. PalgraTfe in 
thn Athentrttm of±JJan.,5and2eFeb. 1881). 
Not only was the sentence technically illegal, 
>• but on the grounds alleged it was substan- 
tiolly unjust. Tlie civil war was neither a 
levy of arms by the king against the parlia- 
ment, nor by the parliament against the king. 
It had been a conflict between one section of 
the kingdom and the other, Yet those who 
put Charles to death believed that they were 
m reality executing justice on atraitor. On 
30 Jan. he waa executed in front of White- 
hall, His own cono'ptioii of ^vemment waa 
expressed in the speecli which he delivered 
on the scaffold: 'For the people,' he said ; 
' and truly I desire their liberty and freedom 
as much as anybody whosoever; but I must 
tell you that their liberty and freedom con- 
sists in havinjf of government those laws by 
which their life and their goods tna^ be most 
their own. It is not having share in govern- 
ment, sirs 1 that is nothing pertaining to 

[On the uuthorsliip of the Eikon BusilikB ^ec 
GaudW), John. The principal soiirco of informa- 
tion on the reign of Charles I is the serips of State 
Papers in manuscript, DomoBtic and Foreign, pre- 
Nerved in thu Rwonl OlBca These, hovever, be- 
come BCiinty after tho outbreak of the civil Wiir, 
and may h« supplemented by theTiinner nndClii' 
KndoiiMS.'^. in tho Bodlpiao Lilirary, and, as far 
III Ireland is cont-orned. from llie Carte MSS. in 
tho wmc library. There is also mui^h nuiauscript 
material in the British 3Iuseum. The <lespatcbe.'« 
of fbreign amba-vodoni should Im consulted, of 
uiuny of which there arecopies either ia llie Mu- 
seum Library iir in the Record Office. Selections 
from the Cliin^ndon MSS. are printed in the Cla- 
rendon Sbkte J'uperH. i'jXtraets from tho Tanner 
MSS. are printed vory inipecfnjtly in Catj's Mo- 
moriiils of the Civil War. Portions of the Carte 
MSa. appearin Cane's Lifoof Onnoode, in Carte's 
Original Lettera.and in Mr. J. T-Gilbert'sedilions 
uf the Aphorismical Discovery and of Belling'a 

\ Charles 

History of the Irish Confederation. lAudVWork* 
shoulil bs consulted fnr the eccleiiastieal and 
.'^rnifTurd'sLettBrafDrthp political Boveniment of 
Cliiiilis. whose own Works hare also been pub- - I'll 1! 11 iot's speeches and letters are printed in 
Fiiri.!,T's Life of Kliot, while tt>a Letters and Pa- 
piis i,C ri-iberlBaillie give the Scottish side of the 
f^I ru^rgle, and Miiis Hichson, in her Ireland in Che 
Seventeenth Century, prints a large number of the 
depositions taken in relntiun to the Ulster mas- 
sacre. Kushworth's CnlleetinQ is full of state 
■ piparB, bat the nriPTative part is chiefly taken 
fWiiii (he pamphlets of tho dav, most of which 
will h,'. found in tho great seriea of Civil War 
Trwlt. in the British Museum. Papers relating 
to Eupert's eRntpnijiinB are given in WarbnTtoo's 
Memoiranf Rupert and the Cavaliers; and others 
connected with Fairfax in Johnson and Bell's He- 
niorial of the Civil War. Among contemporary 
ornearlyeontemporary ttritingHare: Clarendon's 
History of the Great RebelUoo : May's History 
of the Long Parliament ; Hornet's Lives of the 
Duken of HamiltoD ; Lord Herbert of Cherbury's 
Expedition to the Isle of Re; the Memoirs of 
Holies; the Memnirsof Ludlow; the Historical 
Disconraus of Sir E Walter; Sprigge's Anglia 
Rediviva ; Herbert's Memoirs of the Two I^st 
Tears of . . . King Charles I ; Heylyn'g <>pri- 
anns Anglicanus ; and Hncket's Life of Williami. 
The Lif" of Colonel Hutchinson and the Livesof 
the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle may atso be 
studied with adTontnge. Whitelocke's Memo- 
HbIs contain a certain amount of personal in- 
foriimtiou die|iersed among short notes of events 
of loss value. Those who wish to pursue the 
subject further mav consult Ihe references in 
Slaasous Life of Milton ; and in Gardiner's His- 
tory of Kneknd. 1603-42, and his HistJ)ry of tho 
Croat Civil War.] S. R. O, 

CHARLES n (1630-1686), king of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, sc^pnd sonf 
of CliHrles I and Queen Henrietta Maria,* 
was bum at St. James's Palace, London, , 
29 Mav laso, and bapti.=ed bv Laud, bishop ( 
of London, 7 July 1(130, T.A)ui3 XUI of 
J'ninoe being one of his godfathers. In 
1(1.11 he wns entrusted to the care of the 
CniinlGss of Dorset (Ca!. -State Paperg,T)om. 
who according to Clarendon exercised a bale- 
ful influence upon him, was WyndhMn {Se- 
beUiori, V. 153; cf. Caf. 1661-2, pp. 5B3-S). 
As a child he seems tfl have had vivacity and 
e. will of his own (see hie letters in £lli», 
, Ist series, iii. 28(i. 287). About 163S an esta- 
. blisliment was provided for him as Prince of 
I Wales, with William Cavpndish(1592-1676>. 
] earl of Newcaatle [q. v.], as governor, and 
' Dr. Brian Duppa [q. v.] as tutor. In 168ft 
he broke hia arm and passed through a serious 
illness. Ill the following year, when a de- 
sign is said to have been temporarilv enter- 
tained of committing the cliarge of' him to 




Hampden (Whitblockb ap. Harbis, i. 10».), 
he took his seat in the House of Lords, and 
his first public act is said to have been that 
of carrying to the peers his father's letter in 
favour of Strafford (Cook, 8-9 ; Monarchy 
Mevivedf 9). Early in 1042 Newcastle gene- 
rously resided his post of governor to the 
prince, which, on his recommendation, was 
bestowed upon the Marquis of Hertford, a 
personage in favour with the popular party, 
And probably by his amiability very accept- 
able to the prince. In February 1642 the 
House of Commons failed, however, to pre- 
vent Hertford from obeying the king's oraers 
to take the prince to meet him at Greenwich, 
whence both moved to Theobalds and New- 
market, reaching York by 9 March. Here 
he was appointed to the nominal command 
J -of the troop of lifeguards formed of northern 
noblemen and gentlemen who had offered 
their services to the king. At EdgehiLl, he 
and his brother James, duke of York, nar- 
rowly escaped being taken prisoners. He ac- 
•companied the king in his November march 
f upon London, but on the retreat to Oxford 
^ he fell sick of the measles at Reading. At 
Oxford the government of the ^ hopeful and 
•excellent pnnce,' as Clarendon calls him, 
was placed in the hands of the Earl of 
Berkshire, a nobleman of very slight reputa- 
tion. The prince of course sat in the Oxford 
parliament, and his name was among those 
subscribed to the letter in favour of a pacifica- 
tion addressed to Essex 29 Jan. 1644. During 
his residence at Oxford negotiations seem to 
have been set on foot by Queen Henrietta Ma- 
ria for a match between him and Louisa Hen- 
rietta, eldest daughter of Frederick Henry, 
{)rince of Oran*ge; but in the end (April 1646) 
that project was dropped, like the one started 

I about 1645 of a marriage with the infanta 
Joanna of Portugal. Soon after the break- 
down of the Uxbridge negotiations Charles I 
at last resolved to separate from his son by 
sending him into the west. A council was 
at the same time named to be about the 
prince, consisting of the Duke of llichmond, 
the Earl of Southampton, Lords CajK)!, Hop- 
ton, and Colepepper, Sir Edward Hyde, and 
probably Berkshire, >vhose govemon^hip now 
came to an end ( Clarexdox, v. 155). At the 
same time the prince received a commission as 
general of the association of the four western 
counties, and anotlier to be general of all the 
king's forces in England, although he was in 
truth intended for the present to remain quiet 
in Bristol. The final parting between fatlier 
and son took place 4 March 1645, when with 
Hyde and three hundred horse the prince 
left Oxford (Whitblocke, i. 404; for the 
prince's itinerary see Clarbsdon, Life, i. 

230-1). In Bristol, and in the west in 
general, things were in a most unsatisfactory 
state, and much confusion and complaint had 
been caused by the royalist general Gdring 
and his troops. Clarendon states (v. 153) 
that at first the prince frequently attended 
the sittings of his council, where he accus- 
tomed himself ^ to a habit of speaking and 
judging upon what was said ; ' but at Bridge- 
*water, whither he went 23 April, and where 
an attempt was made to reorganise the de- 
fence of the western counties, he fell under 
evil influences and began to adopt a disre- 
spectful tone towards the council, using. his 
position to promote a general feeling of irre- 
verence towards his advisers. His recall by 
the king to Bristol was therefore a judicious 
step, but on account of its unhealthy state he 
soon again quitted it for Barnstaple, where 
he received the news of Naseby. After this 
he was much harassed by contradictory 
orders from the king, and by the proceedings 
of Goring and Sir Richard Greenville, whom 
the king had appointed commander-in-chief 
and major-general of the army in the west. 
In July Fairfax victoriously advanced into 
Somersetshire, and a visit from Prince Rupert 
apprised his cousin of the condition of the 
king, now a fugitive in Wales, and of the 
royal cause. Nothing remained for the prince 
but to withdraw into Cornwall ; and at Laun- 
ceston he received an autograph letter from 
his father, dated Brecknock, 5 Aug. 1645, in 
which he was ordered whenever he found him- 
self in personal danger to proceed to France, 
there to be under the care of his mother, 
^ who is to have the absolute full power of 
your education in all things except religion.' 
The prince was commanded in carrying out 
this order to require the assistance of his 
council ; but both inside and outride of it the 
feeling was strong against his departure for 
France. Among the Devonshire gentry a 
desire had arisen that lie should interpase 
with the parliament in favour of peace ; and 
to quiet the prevailing agitation he paid a 
visit to Exeter. He accordingly sent a letter 
to Fairfax, requesting a pa«*s for Colepepi)er 
and Hopton to go to the king and advise a 
pacific policy. Fairfax communicated the let- 
ter to both liouses of parliament CVVhite- 
LOCKE,i.517-18). Even after the surrender of 
Bristol (10 Sept.) and the defeat of Montrose 
(13 Sept.) the prince's council seems to have 
not despaired of holding part of the west for 
the king if the prince remained; and, in view 
of the rivalry between Goring and Green- 
ville, obedience was delayed to an explicit 
command from the king that the prince should 
immediately remove to France. One more 
overture to Fairfax was respectfully declined 


Charles 86 Charles 

though the prince was assured that on dis- Digby, who had arrived with two frigates 
banding his army Fairfax himself would safely from Ireland, ^posed to carry the prince 
c mvey him to the parliament (ib. i. 537); and I thither. In Paris both Colepepper and Digby 
while Goring betook himself to France, the . were converted to the queen s views ; Jermyn 
prince, though orders continued to reach ^ supported them, and the news of the king 
liim from the king for his departure to the having placed himself in the hands of the 
continent, continued to move about in the ' Scots at Newark (6 May 1646) clinched the 
wfst, with the hope of heading a force for prince's resolution. But though they per- 
the relief of Exeter. After the arrest of ceived further resistance to be useless, Hyde, 
( treenville and the rout of Hopton at Tor- i Capel, Hopton, and Berkshire declined to 
rington, the prince moved by way of Truro accompany the prince to France, where he 
to Pendennis Castle at Falmouth (February I arrived about July. Hyde and his friends 
1 646). Here he received information of a \ declared their commission at an end (ib, v. 
design, known to many persons of conside- j 367-407). Thus closes what may be called 
ration in Cornwall, for seizing his person. • the first chapter of Charles's public career. • 
Though the time had now obviously arrived j Cardinal Mazarin had encouraged the re- 
for obeying the king's positive and repeated , moval to France of the heir to the English 
command, it was not till the beginning of throne. But he hesitated under the circum- 
Murch that the council resolved that the I stances to identify himself with his interests. 

iirince should remove to Jersey or the Scilly ' The prince was therefore at first treated with 
AeSj the latter being announced as the goal i something like studied neglect by the French 
of his voyage. Fairfax was within twenty , court. His mother annexed to her allowance 
miles of Falmouth, while Jermyn's promise his own slender pittance, and kept him asde-. 
of reinforcements from France remained un- ' pendent upon herself as possible (ib. v. 413-/ 
fulfilled. Accordingly 2 March 1646-6 the I 415, 564-6). After, it is said, being baulked' 

I prince sailed in a frigate that had been kept | in his desire of taking service in the French 
111 readiness, and reached Scilly 4 Marcn. ; army under the Duke of Orleans, he was 
Tlie army under Hopton, already completely prostrated by a long attack of aguish fever 
demoralised, was speedily dissolved. (For ' (Cook, 21-2 ; Monarchy JRevived, 28). He 
further details of these transactions see Cla- I remained at Paris for rather more than two 
KKND0N*8 coloured narrative, V. 187-322; Sir , years, being there, as Burnet (i. 184) asserts, 
Richard Greenville wrote his own account; introduced to the vices and impieties of the 
l^ord Hopton's is in the Ormonde Papers, ed. i age by the Duke of Buckingham and Lord 
by Carte and cited by Harris, i. 21 n.) | Percy, without being funded in the prin- 

Charles was in the Scilly Isles from 4 March ciples of religion by his mathematical tutor, 1 1 
to 16 April 1(J46 with Hyde. Colepepper, who Thomas Hobbes. (After the Restoration a )\ 

enabled to consult the king before assenting ' however, he arrived at Helvoetsluys, and 
( WiiiTKLOCKE, i. 587-8, ii. 12, cf. Harris, | sailed thence with nineteen English ships 
i. 24 w.) According to Clarendon (v. 360), j faithful to the king, and a reputed force of 
the islands were on 12 April surrounded by a I twenty thousand men. He reached the 
flret of twenty-seven or tw^enty-eight sail, ' Thames, where he took some prizes, issued a 
which was, however, dispersed by a two days' I proclamation specially intended to conciliate 
storm. The opportunity was not to be lost; | the Scots and the Londoners, and then re- 
aiul the resolution to leave Scilly, in which, j turned to Holland (Harris, i. 32 w.; Whitb- 
with the exception of Berkshire,' the council lockb, ii. 367-8 ; for his letter to the lords, 
was unanimous, was determined bya letter | ib, i375-6 ; for his offer to give up his prizes 
written by Cliarles I to his son from Hereford to the merchant adventurers on payment of 
soon aftt»r Nase})y, but hitherto, in accordance 20,000/., ib. 372). 

with the king's wishes, kept secret by the 
prince (Clarendon, v. 361). A fair wind 

In Holland, notwithstanding some hesita- 
tion, Charles was courteously received and 

brought the fugitives to Jersey 17 April, where | liberally treated (Whitelocke, ii. 399, 408), 
entreaties n^ached Charles from Queen Hen- but he cannot have spent many gloomier 

rietta Maria to pursue his flight to Paris. His 
council urged objections to this plan ; while 

months than these. He was attacked by \ 
the small-pox (ib, 436) ; and while his fleet 




dissolved by slow degrees (ib. 440), the news 
from England after the defeats of the Scots 
at Preston (17 Aug. 1648), Wigan, and War- 
rington, became worse and worse. Though in 
his later years little piety was observable in 
Charles towards the memory of his father, no 
effort was spared by him to avert the catastro- 
phe of January 1649 ; he induced the States- 
General to attempt intercession ; he appealed 
to Fairfax and the council of war, who laid his 
letter aside (Clakbndon, vi. 211-13, 227-9) ; 
it is even supposed that he forwarded to the 
parliament a blank sheet, with his signature, 
in which they were to insert the terms on 
which they could 'save his father's head* 
(Harris, i." 37-41 n.) But all was of no avail, 
f ( and Charles I was beheaded on 30 Jan. 1648-9. 
In Edinburgh Charles II was proclaimed 
( king on 5 Feb. 1648-9, and public ojjinion in 
Scotland was with him. The commissioners 
of the Scottish parliament appear to have 
reached Holland towards the end of March, 
but it was not till just a year later that they 
were admitted to an interview with Charles ' 
(KoCHER, VSy He was likewise proclaimed \ 
by Ormonde m the parts of Ireland under his 
control, by the Scots inUlster, and in Guem- ! 
sey. In England he was only proclaimed in 
one or two places, but assurances of sympathy j 
as well as pecuniary support were rtfceived by . 
him from Lincolnshire and the west. Nor 1 
were his relations with foreign powers alto- 
gether unpromising. France at least main- | 
tained no diplomatic intercourse with the . 
Commonwealth government, and the States- ! 
General were at first disposed to be friendly 
towards the guest and kinsman of the house 
of Orange (Wuitelocke, iii. 4, 30). The 
young queen Christina of Sweden was like- 
wise friendly (Cal. 1649, preface). It was not 
till some months after his mother had urged 
him to return to France that Charles found 
his way to St. Germain (Whitelocxb, iii. 3, 
60, 63 ; Clarendon, vi. 307 et secjq.) His 
own inclinations lay, not towards Scotland 
and the covenant, but rather towards Ireland ; 
this design, however, collapsed for want of 
money even before Cromwell's arrival in Ire- 
land. From France, where as usual he felt 
ill at ease, Charles in September 1649 crossed 
to Jersey, wh<?nce 31 Oct. he issued a declara- 
tion asserting his rights. But the presence of 
the parliamentary fleet at Portsmouth caused 
him to set sail again 13 Feb. 1650, and once 
more to take refuge in the United Nether- 
lands at Breda. Here he now felt obliged 
to listen to the Scotch parliamentary com- 
missioners, who were all along supported by 
Hamilton and Lauderdale. Meanwhile Mont- 
rose, who had pressed upon Charles a scheme 
of his own, set up the royal standard in Scot- 

land (January). A curious picture of the 
needy and frivolous but agreeable prince 
in this period of suspense remains from the 
hand 01 the Princess Sophia, whose mother 
the queen of Bohemia, then resident at the 
Hajfue, wished to marry her to her cousin^ 
while the Dowager Princess of Orange meant 
to secure him for one of her own daughters, 
and favoured the presbyterian offers (Kocheb, 
41-2 ; cf. Lord Byron to Ormonde in Ormonde 
Faperti, and Cal. 1650, 85, and 1651-2, 135). 
Before the news of Montrose's overthrow 
reached Charles he had accepted the commis- 
sioner's terms, which imposed the covenant 
on himself and the entire Scottish nation, 
and stipulated that all civil affairs should be 
determined by the parliament. Soon after- 
wards he embarked at Terheyden in a frigate 
commanded by young Van Tromp, and pro- 
vided, together with two other men-of-war, 
by the IVince of Orange. The prince's ap- 
plications to Spain and other powers had 
proved in vain ; some moneys raised in Poland 
and Muscovy seem to have come too late (Cla- 
rendon, V. 405 seq. vi. 569-70: Whitb- 
LOCKE, iii. 116, 179). 

After a tempestuous voyage of twenty- 
two days, an attempt to intercept him having 
failed, Charles arrived in the frith of Cro- 
marty 16 June (Heath, Chronicle j 268 ; Cal. 
1650, 188). For three days he stayed in the 
bay of Gicht, in a house belonging to the 
Marquis of Hunt ly, but garrisoned by Argyll, 
who was in fact as well as in name ' president 
of the committee for ordering his majesty's 
journey and gists* {ib. 234 ; for his itinerary, 
see ib. 265-9). On the ninth day he reached 
* his own house ' of Falkland. Here or here- 
abouts he delayed for some weeks, as there 
were divided counsels at Edinburgh, and he 
still hesitated about his position (White- 
LOCKE, iii. 210). No sooner had he arrived 
in Scotland than the parliament, with which 
Argyll was all-powerful, bade him dismiss 
Hamilton and Lauderdale. Buckingham, on 
the other hand, notwithstanding his scanda- 
lous life, was allowed to remain about the 
king. During the first part of Charles's stay 
in Scotland hi» heard many prayers and ser- 
mons, * some of great length, and underwent 
severe rebukes for the meagre gaieties he per- 
mitted at his court. The former friends of 
the royal cause were carefully kept at a dis- 
tance ; even the loyalty of the common people 
was warned off. In the words of Hoboes 
{Behemoth, pt. iv.), ' the sum of all is, the 
prince was then a prisoner.* It was these 
things which made Charles afterwards as- 
sure Lauderdale that * presbytery was not a 
religion for gentlemen ; * but he understood 
the situation, paid attention to Argyll, and, 



Charles 88 Charles 

ficiiordiri^ to Jiiirnet (i. lOo), ayttn talkftd of thus at last liberated himeelf. Hisexpecta- 
m&rryity^ Iijh (Juii((hf«;r. Finally, a declara- t ions that his forces would increase as he went 
tion wfM In'id l>«{fon' him, in which, in arldition on, and that a thousand armed men would 
to liin |jn;viouM conciisnion.s, hf. was made to join him in Lancashire (Gfi/. llJ*)l-2, 2), were 
acknowl'tdfftt not nnly th<; sinfiilnt.'ris of his di8ap]K)inted, while the measures of resist- 
own di^aliri^'rt with th«j Irinh, but his fathers ance taken by the council of state at Westmin- 
hlofMl-^iruiltinoss and his moth#;r'» idolatry, ster wen* prom]>t and extensive. The army 
Thin (hrciuration, ai'tur noma hesitation, *the with whicli Charles entered England num- 
H(i(}\.H t hri;/it4;nin^ to cast him off,* Ik; signed ■ bered about ten thousand men ; it was com- 
(for tlw; dfrclaratirm, datf^l Dunfermline, manded by David Lesley; according to Claren- 
18 Aug. \(i'A),HtHi WiiiTKWH'KE, iii. 2'W-4; don,thecommitteeofministersinitdidmuch 
<:f. ^AKKr^4, i. H'J-iKi 71.) Yet al>out this mischief. At Carlisle and elsewhere Charles 
tim«; he was extending lilx^ral pnimises to was on his arrival proclaimed king ; from the 
the (ratholifH in Knglnnd (CaL 10o(), 88-9), general pardon which he offered in his de- 
iuiditwaH ail! rmf*d that letters were ])resented claration, only Cromwell, Bradshaw, and a 
in his name to 1*o]N! Innocent X, expressing third rep^cide were excepted. In I^ancashire 
his gornl-will Ui tin* church of Uomt^, and he was joined by the Earl of Derby: thence 
JipjxMilingfnriHuniniarv'and diplomatic assist- he continued his march through Cheshire, 
nnce (Wiiitkwm'KK, iii. li.'U-')). The settle- ' where the attempt of Lambert and Harrison 
munt Ix'twri'u the Scots and Charles had to throw themselves across his path had been 
kwnn linHtiiiii'd by the a])proach of Cromwell, ' defeated by Massey at Warrington, pa8se<l 
but it was not till .*J Sept. that the })attle through Shropshire, where Shrewsbury shut 
of Dunbar was fought. In England and its gates against him, and 22 Aug. entered 
rVance tlii» rumour spread that Charles was , AVorcester. Ilis forces, now about thirteen 
Hick or (I<>a(l (('LAHkndoN', vi. 47<i): but in ' thousand in number, were but slightly in- 
•S(M)thind tin? ellects of tin' defeat, followed I creased by the gentlemen who had answered a . 
by the surrender of Kdinburgh, were not , general summons issued by him 2(iAup. Mean- I 
wholly unfavDiirablr tohim. It was f»»lt that ' while (*n)mwell had reacluKl the neighbour- / 
the reins ha<l b»'en drawn too tight, and a hrKxl with an army of bet ween thirty thousand 
resolution (►!' the genenil assembly at oncenj- ' and forty thousand men, and was preparing I 
Jaxed llu' rigour of tln» Act of Classes. Mean- ' to surround the royalist forces. After two 
while Chnrles had trii'd to rsea])e fnmi St. , preliminary encounters C28 and 29 Aug.) 
Johnstone's, lio])ing in the company of four tli»» battle of "Worcester was fought 3 Sept., ( 
hors(>mi>n to makr hiswavto the north.wlu're ' which virtuallv annihilated Charles's armv. ( 
lluntly, thr A thole mrii, and others were ' II«* afterwards spoke with pfreat bitterness 
HMuly to nM'i'ive him. 1 le was, however, over- of the conduct of Lesley, Middleton, and the 
taken in tln' northern conlinesof Kile, and in- greater part of the Scots; but there 8(»ems no 
<luc<'d ti» rrtiirn (Munarvfnf rrriiffff 95-8). cause for suspecting ti-eason (Cct/. ItVil -2. 2. 
•Tln'start.'a.sit wascalKMl,ratherim])rovedhis As to the king's march, see Heath, Cltroniole, 
treatment at St. Jnhnst(m«''s,wheiv a chance . and Momirvhtf rerivrd; as to the hattle, 
nHM>itl (li>cov«'rs him in congt»nial comi>any, (*af. ItWil, preface x, and 474-7). Charles 
comiiii^si(»ning pietures for which he omit- had })onie himself with conspicuous bravery 
tinl to pay {Trnrstiri/ Pa pern, l.V>(t-l(>lH>, during the day, charging the vnemy in person 
wiii viV Hut at his ct»nmaiion at Scone, and with tem]»orarv success, and even at the 
I .Ian. ItJ-M, ho had to swrar both to the cove- last mountinga fn^sh horse within the walls, 
iiant, and to the .-oh'nin li'jigue and covenant with the intent of renewing the struggle. 
«i|' lti|.'», wheri'hy ho UiUild haM' beeome a Abrnt six in the ovening he was, however, 
pri'sh\ tiTian king on both sido^ of the Tweed obligetl to (juit the town with the main bodv 
<tor tln» coi'itnation, soe Mtnmrvhif rrrimf^ ofthehor^e. ^Vhih* Losley and the Scots tiH»k 
101 .'»; d'. a> to the aiiti-ahsolutist sermon the diroct road northwards, Charles, attended 
on tho iMva^ion, 1 l\uuis, i. 97 //.) Alter set- by Duckingham, Derln-, I^uderdale, AVilniot, 
ling M]> his >t:in(lanl at Aln^nleen, he, alx^ut andothei*s — al.>out sixty horse in all — presstnl 
Vpril l(»o|,ni«^\tMlhiscourt toStirling. Alwut on towards Kidderniinstor, near which they 
nihNunnnorCromNM'llst't his army in motion, lost their way. IVrby then suggested that 
Whilo l.auih«>rt placevl himself in the king's Hom-oM I Iouso,alMnit twenty-five miles fn.^iii 
ivar.CromwfU ainancedujH>nlVrth: but just AVonvster, on the b<»nlers of Shropshire and 
bofon- taKing it he learnod that Charlos liad Stairordshin\ might atVord to the king the 
(III J 111 O si art I'd with his army l*or England, shelter which he had himself found "there 
It waN II di>peni(e n»>olution, but no other a few nights Uifore; but it was aftena*ards 
itMirse remaiiuHL and Arg\ll ahme had oi>- agretnl that tlio king should first pn»ceed to 
piwtMl the man4i. fn>m whose i»rth*rs Charles AVhite I-adies. anotlier st»at of the Giffard 

Charles 89 Charles 

family, half a mile further on. Here at day- against the Scots, and in vain sought to : 
break on 4 Sept. Charles took leave of all his [ duce him to attend the presbyterian services 
companions, except Wilmot, who alone was at Charenton ; while his weig^htiest advisers, 
privy to his design of escaping not to Scotland, i Hyde and Ormonde, who with Jermyn and 
but to London, and who remained concealed in ' Wilmot formed his new council, could offer 
the neighbourhood. Charles wandered from him no better advice than to remain quies- 
WorcestertoBo8Cobel[8eeCARL08,WlLLiAM]; cent, and he was observed to lapse into taci- 
thence to Mr. Whitgreave's seat of Moselejr, tumity (Cal, 1651-2, 2). But from France, 
and Colonel Lane s at Bentley ; thence agam , torn by internal conflicts, there was nothing 
as Miss Jane Lane's attendant to Leigh, near ; to be hoped (cf. Whitelockb, i v. 54). He lost 
Bristol, and to Colonel Wyndham's house a good mend bv the death of his brother-in- 
at Trent, near Sherboume ; and finally to the law, William II, prince of Orange. When the 
George Inn at Brighton, a journey extending States-General had declared war against Eng- 
(I over forty-one days. During this period he land, they declined his offer to take the com- 
was recognised, according to various calcula- mand of any English ships which might come 
tions, by from forty to fifty men and women, over to their side, and when peace was made 
and a reward of 1,000/. had been set on his in April 1654, the exclusion of the English 
head, and a penalty of death attached to any royal family ^om the United Provinces was 
act aiding his concealment. His own part one of its conditions. No result followed from 
was well played throughout in the way of ; the diplomatic tour of the Earl of Norwich in 
endurance and $ang-fro\d, and after the lie- | 1052 (Cal, 1651-2, xi), and the mission of 
storation he gave substantial proofs of his ; Rochester (Wilmot) to the diet of Ilatisbon 

Ctitude to many of those who had contri- i in 1655 produced only a small subsidy, pro- 
ed to his preservation. (The best account ! posed like a charitable subscription by the 
of the adventures of Charles after Worcester . Elector of Mainz (Clabendon, vi. 51, 105). 
is in Thomas Blount's relation entitled Bos- \ Yeteven in these years his followersMemands 
cobel (1660), which, however, it is curious to i for commissions and places, mostly, no doubt, 
find declared inaccurate by royal order ; see prospective, continued. At home Cromwell, 
the quotation from The KingdoTtCs Intelli- in ^^ovembe^ 1652, rejected Whitelocke's ad- 

fencer, January 1661, in A Cavalier^ s Note- 
book J 139-40. The king dictated his own 
narrative to Pepys, October 1680; Claken- 

vice to arrive at an understanding with the 
king of Scot« (Whitblocke, iii. 468-74), 
whose subjects were on 12 April 1654 de- 

don's account, vi. 513-45, is also derived from clared discharged from their allegiance to 
the accounts of the king and of Wilmot. him. About the same time Vowell^ plot for 
Whitgreave likewise drew up a narrative.) ; the murder of the Protector and the procla- 
Charles landed in safety at F6camp in Nor- mation of Charles, who was beyond doubt 
'' mandy on 16 Oct. 1651. His expressions now cognisant of the scheme, was discovered (Cal. 
and four years later, when he was urged to 1654, xvii-xviii). Early in the same year 
make another attempt in the same quarter, regular diplomatic relations were opened be- 
showed that he had had enough, and more \ tween England and France, and a treaty of 
than enough, of Scotland (CaL 1651, xxi ; alliance between these powers projected, of. 
cf. Clarendon, vi. Ill); and never were his . which the expulsion of Charles from France V 
prospects gloomier than during his sojourn ! would inevitably form a proviso, 
at Paris and St. Germain, which lusted till j In the end Charles resolved to go to Ger- 
June 1654. He was at first well received by , many. The royalists in England contrived to 
the Duke of Orleans and several of the great send him a few thousand pounds, Mazarin 
nobles ; it is even stated that there was a paid him all the arrears of nis pension, and 
notion of his marn^ing the duke's daughter Charles took the opportunity of appointing a 
(Clarke, Life of James II, i. 55). His pecu- j treasurer, Stephen Fox, so etHcient that, ac- 
niary difficulties pressed hard on him; the cording to Clarendon (vii.l07),from this date 
pension of six thousand livres a month now | to just before the llestoration the king's ex- 
assigned to him by the French court was more ' penses never exceeded 240/. a year. * Good 
regularly anticipated than paid (Clarendon, old secretary 'Nicholas shortly afterwards re- 

vi. 568), and his share of the profits from 
Prince Rupert's sea brigandage was only 
occasional {Pythottae Papers, 34). Unable, 
like his brother James, to take service under 
the French colours, he had to remain the 
nominal head of a factious court, where his 
mother and her favourites, * the Louvrians,' 
as they were called, deplored his anger 

turned to the royal service. Early in June 
1 654 Charles passed unregarded through Flan- 
ders, in order to spend several weeks with his 
sister, the widowed Princess of Orange, at 
Spa, and afterwards at Aix-la-Chapelle, where 
he had at first thought of fixing his residence. 
He, however, proceeded to Cologne, where he 
was received with much solemnity both by 



Charles 90 Charles 

lagistrates of the city and the College of , taking the field to the Spanish council at 
^'suits (Jesse, iii. 286-7, from Tmubloe), Brussels, he could not move it to action. The 
and there he established himself for about , Protector's government was kept well in- 
two years. He afterwards described the formed bv its secret agents — one of them, Sir 
people of ( 'ologne as the most kind and wor- ' Kichard Willis, actually engaged in a plot for 
thy he evtT met with (Evelyn, Diary , 6 July inveigling over to England the king whom he 
KidO) ; and, according to Clarendon, his own | had long faithfully served (Clakenbon, vii. 
life thero was exemplary, divided between 324 seq.) — and their reports give a striking 
reading in his closet and walks on the city picture of the sanguine supplications ana|( 
walls, for h(? was too poor to keep a coach sorry shifts of Charles's court at this time, 
(vii. 119). He seems, however, to have been and of his own gaiety in the midst of indi- 
fondofhuntingandotheramusements(ELLi8, gence (CaL 1657-8; in the preface is a list 
Oriff. LetterSj 2nd ser. iii. 376). He affected of his officers of state). In the winter of 
attachment to the church ot England, and 1657-8 he contrived to be present at the at- 
a wish to guard his brother, the Duke of tempt upon Mardyke (Clarendon, vii. 277 ; 
(iloucester, from conversion to the church cf. Pepts, 2 Jan. 1688), andat theendof Fe- 
of Home. He could afford little other en- bruary 1658 he was allowed to remove his 
eouragement to his supporters in England, court to Brussels. But the project of arising 
though he travelh»d to iliddelburg to be in in the south of England for which he was 
readiness for the Salisbury rising in March holding himself in readineas was betrayed 
1655, for thti failure of which he and the (Heath, 403); on 17 June Dunkirk fell, and 
factions at his court had to bear their share Flanders was overrun by the French and 
of blame {Cal. 1655, 245-6). His incognito , English. In August Charles withdrew to 
visit with his sister to Frankfort fair in Sep- Hoogstraten, near Breda, whence, on re- 
t ember 1655, when he met Queen Christina ceiving news of the death of Oliver Oomwell, 
of Sweden, was not a political manoeuvre. , he in the middle of St»ptember returned to 
After the Protector had concluded his alliance Brussels. \ \gKQ 

with France (24 Oct.), Charles naturally be- In the troubles wiiich ensued in p]ngland 
came anxious for the support of Spain. In ' the cry for the king's restoration was soon 
March 165(5 he proct»edea incognito to the | raised, and the royalists eagerly watched an 
neighbourhood of Brussels, where he nego- opportunity for a rising. On receiving through 
tinted a treaty with the Archduke Leopold ' John Mordaunt (aften^'ards Lord Avalon) a 
William, and after the latter had been sujM»r- I report that nearly every county in England 
s(»ded in the government of the Spanish , was ready to rist^ in his favour, Charles, ac- 
Xetherlands by Don .lohn of Austria, C-harles companied by Ormonde and Bristol, repaired 
moved his court from Cologne to Bruges. I to Calais, and thence to the coast nf Brittany, 
But he found the new governor-general, not- where, however, he received the news of the 
withstanding the good offices of the Princess frustration of his hopes by the defeat of 
of Orange, extremely coy, and his own re- Booth and Middlet on at Xantwich (19 Aug.) 
sources ran very low {('al. 165()-7,xiii. 258). Charles had don(^ his best to make success 
Yet, if re])ort spjke true ( Jkssk, iv. 292, from ' possible, and it was probably about this time 
TnuuLOE), shameless debauchery ran riot at | that Fox was sent with a letter to Monck in 
Bruges, so as to justify in the.eyes of puritan Scotland, begging him to march against the 
England the aci of November 1656, which ' Uump((iiTizoT,i&owcA-,£. 7V-.10()//.) Instead 
absolutely extinguished any supposed title to , of returning to Brussels, he now resolved to 
the throne on the part of the sons of Charles I ' cnrr^* out a former plan of his, and proceed to 
(Cal. l()5(J-7, 173). At last, accompanied , Fuentanibia in the Spanish Pyrenees, where 
by a profusion of mutual eoni])liments (S<h- Mazarin and Luis de Haro were arranging a 
mcrs 'frarfj<j vii. 410-12), the authorisation ' pacificat ion Ix^tween France and Spain. Under 
arrived from Spain. Charles was politely , a mistaken impression Charles penetrated as 
receivjtl at Brussels by D(m John, and the i far as Saragossa, together with Ormonde and 
trtmty was signed in its final i'onu. Charl(?s Bristol, but idtimately rt^ached his destina- 
engagedto collect all hissubjects now serving tion. His hope was to induce the PVencli 
in France under his own command in Flan- i crown to take up hiscause in conjunction with 
ders, and was ])roniised a monthly allowance, the Spanish, and perhaps to sendCond6 with 
which was, however, paid as irregularly as ; his army across the Channel. But the failure 
the French had been, which ( 'harles had now ; of the rising in England had its effect. Maza- 
resigned (Harris, ii. \*2H n.j from t\w Ormonde I rin refused him an interview, though it is said 

Papers, and Cartk's Life of Ormonde). But 
though he commenced the levy of four Eng- 
lish regiments, and made a spirited offer of 

Charles offered to marry the cardinal's niece, 
Hortensia Mancini (Macpkbrsox, Original 
Papers, i. 21 ; her hand is said to have been 

Charles 91 Charles 

offered in vain to Charles aft^r the liestora- ! liousen, in the city before the lord mayor^and 
tion — she afterwards married the Duke de elsewhere. At Breda he was of course be- 
Mazarin, and lived in England as tlie kinpf*s sieged with congratulations and applications 
pensioner and mistress), and the Spaniards of every kind, and urgently invited back to 
had strong reasons for not wishing to exa«pe- Brus8t»ls by Don John's minister, and to 

rate the actual English government (Ranks, \ Paris by Queen Henrietta Maria, according 
/) iv. 40-4). Towards the end of December , to Clarendon, at Mazariu's instigation. But 
r ' Charles, who on his return journey paid a | he preferred an invitation to the Hague, ac- 
' conciliatory visit to his mother at Paris (Cla- companied by the opportune gift of 6,000/. 
RENDONjVii. 362), was back in Brussels. There i He could now allow himself full play as the 
remained only a very faint hope that Monck^s fountain of honour, and made a large num- 
march into England might produce some ber of knights. Then the English fleet under 
change for the better, and only gradually the Montague (soon afterwards earl of Sandwich) 
significance of his proceedings oecame clear hove in sight, and lay off the coast till about 
at Brussels (tb. 420j. When the elections for the middle of May. Shortly afterwards came 
the * free ' (convention) parliament were at the deputations of lords, commons, and city, 
hand, Charles is stated to have communicated who, together with * eight or ten ' presbyterian 
with some leading men, who in return signi- ! divines accompanying them, were very gra- 
fted their desire to* revert to their duty' (feiR ciously received by the king, though these 
Philip Wabwick, Memoires), and this may last could not, according to Clarendon (vii. 
have beenthe origin ofthe private conferences 601-3), extract from him certain promises 
held byWarwick, Manchester, and others with concerning the services in the Chapel Royal 
Bridgman and other royalists. But Monck which they had at heart. On 22 May he fol- 
was still imapproachable by the royalist lo wed his brothers on board t he Naseby, which I 
. agente, till at last SirJohn Greenville ventured | was hereupon rechristened the Royal Charles I 
I to place in the general's hands the credentials ' (Pepys). On the 24th he set sail, and on the ^ . 
I with which he had been furnished by the king. 26th he landed at Dover. Here he was wel- ' ' 
^ About the beginning of April Greenville re- | comed by Monck, whom he kissed and called, 
turned to Brussels, folio wea by a message from father ; by t he mayor of the tow^n, from whom 1 
the presbyterians informing the king that they , he received a very rich bible, saying it was the \ 
had induced Monck to acknowledge him on thing he loved above all things in the world I 
the basis of the treaty of Newport (Hallam, (Pepys), and by a large multitude* of all sorts.' 
ii. 290-1 ; cf Chkistie, i. 220). It came too His progress was by Barham Down to Cantor- 
late, for the king and his advisers already had bury, where he heard sermons (Whitelocke), 
under consideration conditions not very dif- and thence bv Rochester and Blackheath, 
ferent from the subsequent terms of the De- I where Monck s army w^as drawn up, to St. 
claration of Breda (as to Broghill's Irish George's Fields in Southwark, where he was re- 
scheme, which he says was only frustrated ■ ceived by the lord mayor and aldermen. After 
by the prosperous accounts from England, I passing through the city and by Charing Cross, 
see Orrery State Letter/*, i. 63-5). Monck was ; the procession reached Whitehall, where the 
anxious that Charles should quit the Spanish two houses of parliament were awaiting the 

Netherlands, and, against the will of the 
Spanish government, who had actually issued 

king, at seven in the evening of 29 May (see 
the tract Englawfs Joy, 16<i0, reprinted in 

orders for detaining him, he crossed the fron- Somers Tracts, vii. 419-22 ; cf. Whitelocke, 
tier to Breda. The famous declaration, and , iv. 414-16). As to his restoration in Scot- 


the letters addressed to the council of state, 
the officers of the army, the two houses of 
parliament, and the authorities of the city, 
If were dated 4 April 1060 from Breda, but were 
really handed by the king immediately after 
he had crossed t he frontier to Greenville, who, 
with Mordaunt, carried them to London (for 
their text see Clarendon, vii. 464-7(5 ; also 
Somers Tracts, vii. 394-7; on the significance 
of the concessions made in the declaration 
by Charles, see J. S. Wortley's note to Gui- 
zot's Monck, 253 ; and Hallam, ii. 288-302 ; 
for the proceedings which followed in Lon- 
don, Whitelocke, iv. 409-1 3 J. On 8 May 
** Charles II was solemnly proclaimed in West^ 
(minster Hall in the presence of the two 

land, he had expressly refrained from giving 
any directions himself (see his letter to Lau- 
derdale, 12 April 1060, in Laiulerdale Paj)ers, 
i. 13; cf. ib. 17, 18). It was easily accom- 
plished by the parliament which met in Edin- 
burgh on 1 Jan. 1661, and repealed all acts 
passed since 1639, besides renouncing the 
covenant. In Ireland, where after the fall 
of the protectorate a convention of officers 
of the army had entered into an understand- 
ing with Charles, there was great confusion, 
which showed itself in the conflicting ad- 
dresses presented to the king in London (Cla- 
KENDON, Life, i. 442-60) ; nor did the decla- 
ration issued by him (30 Nov. 1660) for the 
settlement of Ireland, which had not been 

Charles 92 Charles 

mentioned in the Breda document, advance | matter : in the case of Vane, however, whom 
matters far (see Cla.bendon, -^(/^^; ^^* lB-97 ; the king had promised the houses to spare in 
cf. Memoirs of Orrery). ] the event of his being judicially condemned, 

The first period of the reign of Charles II . his conduct hardly admits of condonation (cf. 
is that of the ascendency of Clarendon, from i Hallam, ii. 327, and Vaughan, iL 291 n.) 
the Restoration to the autumn of 1667. Ap- i The proclamations issued by the king before 
plications for offices had pursued the king all the passing of the act had partly been intended 
the way from the Hague to London ; indeed, ! to prepare the public mind for it ; another was 
at Canterbury there had been a slight fencing- directed against vicious and debauched per- 
match between him, Clarendon, and Monck's sons who sought to make the Restoration the 
confidential friend Morrice, concerning a list starting-point of a reign of license (Somers 
of high officials drawn up by Monck (QuizoT, ^ Tracts, vii. 423). Together with the Indem- 
Monckj 273, 278-80). Fmally the privy coun- nity Bill the king gave his assent to several 
cil was formed of thirty members, of whom others, including one for a perpetual anniver- 
twelve had not been royaUsts, and within it, sary thanksgiving on 29 May, and the ex- 
according to a practice already in use under tremely important bill for disbanding and 
Charles I, was selected a committee, com- paying off toe military and naval forces of 
monly called a * cabinet ' or * cabal,' but tech- the realm. Charles, however, contrived to re- 
nically known as the committee for foreign : tain three regiments in his service, under the 
affiiirs, which in the first instance consisted name of guards, and thus to form the nucleus 
of Lord-chancellor Clarendon, together with of a standing army at the very moment when 
Albemarle(Monck), Southampton, Ormonde, the nation thought itself freed at last from 
Colepepper, and the two secretaries of state, j the hat«d military incubus (Hallam, ii. 315 ; 
Nicholas and Morrice. The Duke of York see his conversations with the Spanish general 
and the Bishop of London (Sheldon) were j Marsin ap. Ranke, iv. 159-60). More diffi- 
afterwards included (Christie, i. 231-3; cf. cult than either the amnesty or the army 
CLABBNDON,i//c, i. 315-16). Unfortunately, ; question was that turning on the passojge in 
however, the king's initial difficulties were , tiie declaration of Breda which many inter- 
not confined to the need of establishing a prcted as a promise of liberty of conscience, 
kind of balance between the leaders of the but which in truth * was but a profession of 
parties which had supported his restoration. ■ the king*8 readiness to consent to any act 
Long-standing dissensions among the king's which the parliament should offer him to 
friends reijuired his attention. Clarendon that end *(iif<»%?^i<8i?a.r^m«wep, 217). Charles 
was openly opposed by l^ristol, who as a was prepared for concessions in the way of a 
Roman catholic was excluded from the privy ' reorganisation of the church ; and the aecla- 
council ; Buckingham, who was sworn of it ration issued by him 25 Oct. before the clos- 
in 1662, always had the king's ear; and with , ing of the Convention parliament (Harri:?, 
him lienn<'t (Arlington), who Iwicame score- i. 401-14, and note) excited strong hopes 
tary of state in the place of Nicholas in the in this direction. In the negotiations which 
same year, and Berkeley (P'almouth) operated ensued the king was brought into personal 
against the chancellor. But the real focus | contact with Baxter and his other presby- 
01 tht'se intrigues was the apartment of the i terian 'chaplains in ordinary,' and at first 
king's mistress, Mrs. Palmer, whose husband seemed to smile upon the plan of bringing 
in 16()2 was created Earl of Castlemaine, and ' about an agreement on the basis of Ussher's 
to whom ( /larendon and Southampton alone ^ model. But even the more sanguine of thtj 
refused to pay homage. On the discovery, how- | divines must have been shaken by his wish 
ever, in October 1(3()2, of the secret marriage to add to his declaration a clause implying 
of Clarendon's daughter to the Duke of York, ' toleration of papists and sectaries, and though 
the king behaved with great kindness to the ' he consented to the offer of high church pre- 
chancellor {Lifi'i i. 371-40<5). Possibly he j ferments to a few presbyterian ministers, his 
was not unwilling to prove his independence sup])0sed good-will to the scheme of union 
of the infiuence of his mother, who mid come proved a broken reed {Jielifjuice Baa:terianai, 
over puq)osely from France to prevent the esp. 231-2, 277). The friends of the court 
match (Kankr, iv. lOd, 1(58). I voted in the majority which rejected a bill to 

On 27 .luly Charles urged upon the lords give effect to the royal declaration. After 
in the Convention the speedy passing of the the Savoy conference the presbyterian minis- 
long-delayed Act of Iiulenmity with the ex- ' ters were admitted to a final audience, at 
cepted names, and 29 Aug. it was passed (see | which he had nothing to offer them but the 
Somers TracU, vii. 462—4). It would be query, with reference to certain disputed 
wholly unjust to impute to Charles the want ! points, * Who shall be judge I-* * (ib, 365). Yet 
of generosity shown by parliament in this though he did nothing to bring about a settle- 




ment on tolerant principles, the policy of 
the Act of Uniformity (1662), which con- 
tradicted his two declarations, was not his 
own policy. 

In the adjustment of questions concerning 
the ownership of estates, the honour'of the 
king was hardly less involved than the secu- 
rity of the state. But the course adopted was 
unsatisfactory ; the king*s estates and those 
of the queen dowager, of nohlemen who had 
served the royal cause, and of the church, 
were restored by enactment (Harris, i. 370 
71.), but other claims were dealt with at hap- 
hazard. In general the pet it ions of aggrieved 
cavaliers became a never-ending trouble to 
Charles and his government ; and the sum of 
60,000/., voted as late as 1681, for distribu- 
tir)n among the more needy of these claimants, 
fell far short of their demands ( Vaughan, ii. 
;30o). In Ireland, the large grants of forfeited 
lands to the Duke of York and others aggra- 
/ voted the dissatisfaction. Charles's diiHcul- 
Vties on this head were extraordinaiy ; but 
/there was no subject on which it would have 
1)etter become him to take pains (cf. Cal. 
1660-1, 217, and Soniers Tracts, vii. 516 
seq.) The king's revenue was settled by the 
Convention parliament at 1 ,200,000/., of which 
one-third was from the customs, tonnage and 
poundage having been granted to him lor life 
from 24 June 1660, and 100,000/. was derived 
from an excise on beer, &c., granted in return 
for his consent to the abolition of various 
feudal tenures and rights. Burnet (i, 287) 
states that he afterwards suspected his income 
to have been kept lowerby the chancellor than 
parliament would have thought requisite, and 
JamesII subsequently thought that this might 
be accounted for by Clarendon's suspicions of 
the king's catholic sympathies (Clarke, i. 
•S93). it is due to Charles to state that it is 
doubtful whether the income of the crown 
j)roved at all equal to the sum at which par- 
liament estimated it (see, however, Harris, 
i. 365 w.) 

The interval between the dissolution of the 
Convention parliament (29 Dec. 1660) and the 
meeting of its successor was marked, among 
other events, by the outbreak of Venner's 
plot, and by the coronation of the king, which 
imd been deferred to St .George's day (23 April) 
1 661 , possibly on account of the death in Eng- 
land of Charles's sister, the Princess of Orange, 
who had so actively exerted herself in favour 
of his restoration (24 Dec. 1660). Not long be- 
fore (13 Sept.) he had also lost nis brother the 
Duke of Gloucester, whom, according to Bur- 
net (i. 308), he loved much better than the 
Duke of York. Of the coronation solemnities 
and festivities, and of the thunderstorm which 
burst overthem, ample accounts are pre8er\'ed 

(see Cook, 200-81 ; Heath, Chronicle, 4^7 Ar- 
496, with lists of honours and dignities con- 
ferred from restoration to coronation; Somers 
Tracts, vii. 514-15 ; cf. Cal, 1660-1, 584-6). 
The first parliament summoned by Charles II 
met 8 May 1 66 1 . It immediately passed an act 
for the preservation of the king and govern- 
ment, providing among other things for the 
exclusion from office of any one who called 
the king a heretic or a papist, vested the com- 
mand of the militia in the crown, and autho- 
rised a benevolence. In Ireland, where a 
parliament met about the same time as the 
English, the church was re-established. In 
Scotland an act rescissory beg^n a complete 
reaction ; Argyll sufl!ered death ; and the 
covenant was burnt by the common hangman. 
When opening the English parliament the 
king announced his approacning marriage 
witn Catherine of Braganza [q. v J, daughter 
of John IV of Portugal, determined aft^r 
protracted ne^tiations. His foreign policy 
at the beginnmg of his reign had been natu- 
rally tentative. First he had turned to the 
States-General, from whom he would have 
much liked a loan ; but parliament crossed 
his plans in this quarter by renewing the 
Navigation Act. Then he tried Spain, ready 
to listen to a sovereign who had Jamaica and 
Dunkirk to restore ; and schemes were formed 
for his marriage with Mara^aret Theresa, se- 
cond daughter of Philip I V, and again with 
Eleonora, widow of the Emperor Ferdi- 
nand ni. In such a matter France could 
not look on inactive, and not long before 
Henrietta Maria had succeeded in negotiat- 
ing the marriage of her daughter and name- 
sake with Philip, duke of Orleans, brother 
of Louis XIV (31 March 1661). The ob- 
jection taken by Clarendon and others to a 
French marriage for the king himself must 
have rested on their fear of any increase of 
the queen dowager's influence. Portugal, 
on the other hand, more than ever menaced 
by Spain, was ready to purchase the alliance 
of England by very considerable concessions ; 
and thus the marriage was determined upon, 
though it appears that Charles would him- 
self have preferred a Spanish infanta, while 
Bristol was at the eleventh hour searching 
for eligible Italian princesses (Ranke, iv. 
157-74; the rumour of the king's previous \ 
secret marriage with a niece of the Prince de 1 
Ligne, mentioned by Pepts, 18 Feb. 1661,/ 
was an unfounded scandal). The announce- 
ment of the marriage was very enthusiastic- 
ally received in England, more especially as 
the Duchess of York had quite recently 
given birth to a son; it was not foreseen 
how costly a gift Tangier, which Portugal 
ceded on the occasion, would prove, nor how 

Charles 94 Charles 

loDf^ it would be before Bombay proved a > Uniformity for three months had proved fu- 
better inv«»tment. The weflding of Charles, tile (CLAREyDOX, Life, ii. 149). On 26 Dec. 
who, after prorog^uinf;^ parliament (see his 1^362 he issued his first Declaration of Indul- 
Rpeech in Homern Tracts, vii. 64^5-7), had es- j^ence, in which he undertook, with the con- 
corti^d the infanta from Portsmouth, was cele- currence of parliament, to exercise on behalf 
hrated amid ^reat demonstrations of joy at of religious dissidents the dispensing power 
IjWinchester, 20 May, according to botn the which he conceived to be inherent m the 
/y English and lloman ritual (Burnet, i. 315). crown. The bill founded on this declaration, 
V The bride, however, failed to attract the king, opposed by Clarendon and Southampton, but 
andhenotonlya^lheredto LadyCastlemaine, supported by Ashley, was shelved in com- 
but forc<Kl her up<^)n tlie queen as one of the m it tee by the lords, while an address from 
Lulies of her bidchamlxtr. A passing quarrel the commons insisted on the maintenance of 
was the result, in the course of which nearly ' the Act of Uniformity. Though the attempt 
the whole of Queen Catherine's household of Bristol, the nominal originator of the un- 
was dismissftd, but in the end she had the fortunate declaration, to impeach Clarendon 
gfXMl senwj to acquiesce. During their long ' was discountenanced by the king, yet his 
childless union Catherine was treated with vexation with the chancellor and ^e bishops 
I respect at cf>urt [see Catherine of Br.^- , contributed to his readiness for ministerial 
" 1 OANZA.]. In K>^i3, 1WJ8, 1673, and 1679 changes. The Declaration of Indulgence only 
rumours of a divorce were rife, and in 1668, ' led to the Conventicle Act (1664) and the 
when Buckingham pressed the king to own i Five Miles Act (1(565). Before parliament 
a marriage witli Monmouth's mother, Burnet , reassembled in March 1664 the king's popu- 
was consulted on the relative permissibility larity was revived by a royal progress in the 
of divorce and polygamy (Jb, i. 479-80). west, followed, however, by a futile repub- 
()n the other liana, CJliarles seems to have felt | lican attempt in the north (summer 1663). 
occasional remorse on account of his treat- j He contrived in this session to supersede the 
ment of his wife {ib, i. 482-.3) ; he would not Triennial Act of the Long parliament by a 
allow the brazen lies of the inventors of the ' much less stringent measure; but the burning 
popish plot to touch her, and in the most criti- ' question was already that of war with the 
cal period of the agitation she thought herself , Dutch, for which the parliament was eager, 
safest at his side (^Prifleaux Letters, 82). The | and the king, angered by the exclusion of the 
French government very speedily made up j house ofOrangeftom the stadholdership, well 
its mind to treat the Portuguese marriage as a | inclined. In the speech on the reassembling 
proof of an entente cordiale between itself and of parliament in November, and in which he 
the English court. No sooner had Charles II ' rebutted the ' vile jealousy ' that the war was 
begun to arm in favour of Portugal in 1(J61, I on his part only a pretence for obtaining large 
than, without the knowledge of his parlia- I supplies (Oi/. 1664-6, 89), he showed himself 

fment, the first of the long succession of secret at one with public opinion. He had recently 
payment's — in this instance one of 80,0(X)/. — recovered from a troublesome indisposition, 
was made to him from France. The English " and was in vigorous health (JSTa^^on Corr«(pow- 
armaments early in 1(J62 were undertaken in ' denee, i. 34) ; so that he could constantly en- 
distinct reliance upon French support. A | courage by inspections the naval preparations 
foretaste of the concessions which this depen- i for which parhament had made an enormous 
donee was to involve was given by the sale to , grant (Clarendon, Life, ii. 333 ; for the re- 

France of Dunkirk and Mardyke, accomplished 
in the last two months of li>62. The transac- 
tion, reasonable in itself, was looked upon as 
a proof of weakness both at home and abroad ; 
and Louis XL V was himself astonished at the 
easiness of his success (Rankk, Franz, Oe- 
nMr/ifef iii. 281 ; iw//. GeMck. iii. '2'22-S'2), 
The English public laid the blame on Cla- 

verse of the medal see Wheatlby, 147-9). 
On 22 Feb. 1(W55 war was declared, and soon it 

E roved that, though long foreseen, the conflict 
ad been rashly entered into. The campaign 
of 1666 led to no definite results; and there 
was no prospect of peace to cheer the winter 
of 1664-6, in which London was afilictod by 
a fearful visitation of the plague. The pesti- 

rendon. | lence was referred to in the speech in which 1 

At this very time (Decrml)er 1662), when j the king prorogued parliament from April to 
Charlos II hud first involved himself in a dan- ! September 1665, and in July he was forced 
gerous ]M)liti(Mil intimacy with his powerful ' to remove from Whitehall to Hampton Court 
catholic niMghbour, lit» made his earliest direct ■ and Sion House. Soon afterwards he trans- 
attempt to remiMly the grievanct»s of his ca- ' ferred his court to Salisbury (see Pepys, 
tholic subjects. His etlort to expand for their ' 27 July 1666). About the same time the 
Ixmefii his declaration of October 1660 had i queen-mother quitted England ; one of the 
failed, and his promise to susptmd the Act of . lust and most doubtful services she had ren- 




ilered to the king had been to bring over to 
England his illegitimate son, known under 
(it he name of James Crofts, whom Charles II, 
against Clarendon's advice, soon afterwards 
created Duke of Monmouth (Clarendon, 
Life, ii. 384, 252-6). The plague followed 
the court to Salisbury, the air of which more- 
over disagreed with the king (Cal. 1 664^ , 
7 f 1 1 Sept.), and in Septembt»r he moved lo 
S I ( )xfor(l, where parliament had been summoned 
I I to meet 10 Oct. It passed a patriotic address 
and a painfully significant act attainting all 
Englishmen in the Dutch service, as well as 
a large additional supply, to be strictly ap- 
plied to the purposes of the war— a proviso 
introduced by^ collusion between the kmg and 
the astute Sir George Downing, so as to de- 
feat the claims of the few Loudon bankers to 
whom Charles II had been in the habit of 
resorting for ready money. Clarendon's oj)- 
|K)sition was in vain ; his power was sinking, 
though he was able to prevent the king from 
carrying out his wish to dismiss Southampton 
KlAfe, iii. 1-33). Albemarle, whom Claren- 
don hated, was appointed with Prince Rupert 
to the command of the fleet in Sandwich's 
place. The king's return to Whitehall early 
m 16(16 restored confidence to London, where 
the plague rapidly decreased ; but the war 
reopened in this year anything but hopefully. 
In January France, Denmark, and the gpreat 
elector of Brandenburg allied themselves 
with the United Provinces; our only ally, 
* Munster's prelate,* had made his peace with 
the Dutch; Sweden had been pacified by 
France ; the negotiations for a league with 
Spain had proved sterile. The isolation of 
England was absolute (Ranke, iv. 284-6^. 
Nor was the campaign successful. A public 
thanks^ving was ordered for the four days' 
battle m the Downs (1-4 June), because it 
had not ended in the destruction of the Eng- 
yi/^ish armada. The great fir^ nf T^nHnn m^m/1 

# from 2-6 Sept., and destroyed ^wo-thirds of 

* the capital. The court (Ca/. 1666-7, xii.) and 
the king himself (Burnet, i. 458), Jews hired 
by French money, the presbyt^rians, other 
nonconformists, and pre-eminently the ca- 
tholics, were all suspected of its authorship. 
The king, who had of late been subjected to 
many pasquils and libels on the score of Ijady 
Castlemaine and other grievances {Cal. 1665- 
Qi^, XXXV iii.), showed great zeal on the occa- 
sion, sitting constantly in council, ordering 
measures of relief (i6. 1666-7, 107 et al. ; 
Somers Tracts, vii. 659), and otherwise ex- 
erting himself (cf. Pepys, 2-7 Sept.) Charles 
was less successful in his attempt, by an in- 
quiry before the privy council, to expose the 
baselessness of the rumours concerning the 
origin of the fire (Ci^bendon, Life, iii. 92-3). 

He is said by a courtly pen to have likewise 
shown a warm interest in the rebuilding of 
London, and a pious care for the restoration 
of the churches (Cook, 331-2). Though par- 
liament had with much spirit voted a further 
supply for the purposes ot the war, there was 
arising a widespread desire for peace, and 
Charles was growing weary of the war since 
it had ceased to be popular. Moreover, he 
was galled by the strict control which par- 
liament was inclined to exert over the public 
expenditure. In May 1667 peace negotiations 
were opened at Breda, ana the English go- 
vernment, hampered in addition by the defects 
of the naval administration, restricted its ac- 
tion to the defensive. The Dutch resolved 
to put pressure upon the English government 
such as might bring the negotiations to a 
point, and prevent an understanding between 
England and France. On 10 June De Ruyt^r 
appeared at the Nore, on the 11th he sailed 
up the river, and on the 13thy forcing the {:hain 
at the mouth of the Medway, burnt several 
men-of-war, including the Royal Charles, ly- y y 
ing at Chatham. In the panic which ensued\/f/ 
the report spread that the King had abdicated 
and escaped, no one knew whither (Cal, 1667, 
xxvii.) Burnet (i. 458) mentions a diiferent 
rumour, that on the fatal night he was very 
cheerful at supper with his mistresses. On 
the 21st he sent a circular letter to Clarendon 
and other authorities, ur^g a general sub- 
scription, on the part of tne nobility, gentry, 
and professions, to a voluntary loan {CaL 
1667, xl.) ; but on the 29th the Dutch, who 
had advanced nearly as far as Gravesend, took 
their departure. Their exploit undoubtedly 
hastenea the peace concluded 21 July, though 
it was essentially due to fear of France. To 
appease the indignation of the English public 
Clarendon was sacrificed. For a long time 
intrigues against the chancellor had been in 

Erogressin Lady Castlemaine's clique ; in May 
is staunchest supporter, Southampton, died, i 
and the treasury hsid been put into commission. 
Beyond a doubt Charles had grown tired of 
his mentor, and had been annoyed by advice 
concerning his private life honourable to the 
giver. In his own narrative of the circum- 
stances of his fall {Life, iii. 282-376; cf. 
Burnet ; Reresby, 170-1 ; and the letter of 
Charles II in Ellis, 2nd ser. iv. 39) Clarendon 
pretends that it was only the decisive com- 
mand of the king which induced him to quit 
England (29 Nov.) 

The second period of the reign of Charles II 
(1667-74) may be described as that of the 
Cabal ministry, though that administration \ 
was not fuUy formed till 1672. This period 
exhibits a marked progress on the king^ part 
in dissimulation, and in a daring readiness to 


Charles 96 Charles 

«nt#.T ujxMi I'li^aijreiiieiitf* vi-ry difficult of ful- 16*)8 tho conversion of the Duke of York beyl 

filmont. IJuckingham, who had been restored came known to Lini; on 25 Jan. 1669 ensued \ 

t ohia officios after a s«<?riou8dis^ace, now act etl the consultation in the duke's chamber be- 

tho part of prim** miniijter without a p<jrt folio, tween the king and his brother in the pre- 

and it can hardly 1j«» doubted that of pander sence of Arlinjfton, Arundelof WaKlour,and 

to the vicrffl of the kinjr. Ashh-y is likewise Sir Thomas Clifford, at which it was resolved 

charj:»*<l by Hurn«;t with havinj^souj^lit t0 8«^ to communicate the intended conversion of 

cun; the n)yal favour by similar means. He king and realm to Louis XIV. The French 

Hftaincd tlje offict* of chancellor of the ex- ambassador, Colbert de Croissy, was taken 

f h«Hju«*r, but his intl uenrre in t he kin jif's councils intr> confidence (CiARKE, Ltyh of James II 

was not well established till 1070 (Christie, i. 440-2, but the temper of the people made 

ii. 4). The pr»*at 8»*al was piven to Sir Or- secrecy for the time imperative. 

of Scotland. This was tho heyday of court iers Sir William Temple, whom Charles hated, on 
J of the stamp of liochester, still v«;rv far from the imrt of England, formed with Sweden the 
th»» season of his conversion; a time when triple alliance on '2l\ Jan. 1668, at the very 
the new Duchess of Cleveland (Lady Castle- moment that Buckingham and Arlington 
maine) had many less ambitious rivals, and were, by the instructions of Charles II, carry- 
when the Knjrli^fi court was given up to ways ing on negotiations with France in a directly 
of life painted by Grammont in far too flat- opi)osite sense ; while, to complete the com- 
tering colours, but more fait hfully reflected by plications, other negotiations with Spain, the 
the comic drama of the age. Such an incident arch-enemy of France, were being managed 


ner, by no means want ing in signs of a poli- even at the cost of throwing over the interests 

:iral intelligence, which may in part be placed of the houseof Orange, to close with theDutch 

to the credit of the king. The financial re- pro]K)sals and sanction the triple alliance, 
trenchments which came into etl'ect in KKW , Louis XIV consequentlv concluded with 

were indeed originated before Clarendon s S])ain the peace of Aix-Ia-Chapclle (2 May 

downfall, and the so-called Brookhousc com- KMW), and,m his own words, dissolved the al- 

mittee which recommended them was ap- liance against him at its very outset (Rahke, 

pointwl in opposition to the court {ib. i. 490; iv. ^22-41; cf. Onno Klopp, i. 2i?»S). But 

cf. (*al. Dom. 1607, Ixi. ) On the other hand, before this Spain had recognised the indepim- 

the king favoured the church compn^hension dence of Portugal, and in 1670 she renounced 

the pniposal for a union between Kngland Indies in pjirticular were virtually strangling 
and Scotland was renewtnl, and taken up by , our commerce. Towards France, on the other 
the king with some warmth. Connnissioners hand, he was, as l)efore, im]>elled by tho 
were actually named in 1670, but the project mixture of i)Owerful motives indicated above, 
dropped ( Ik'KNET. i. 511^-15 ; but cf. Laudet^ LouisXIV assiduously kept the door open. Bv 
dali' Papf'i'ji, ii. liV) //.) | way of calming Knglish susceptibilities Col- 

Without wishing either to neglect the in- ' bert de Croissy was sent to England in July 
terests or to ignore the pride of the nation, lfi«W to conclude a commercial treaty ad van- 
Charles as]>ired above all to that which at | tageous to this country, and soon afterwards 
^ist he secured during this ])erio(l, viz. the ' a curious attem])t was made to influence 
lower of yoveniing wit hout having to de]Kmd Charles by an emissary of a difl'erent descrip- 

1! -A t: i:..., ir.. ♦! r. «: t'»..i: i_* __ i i i i i • K 

U])on ])arliament for suj»]>lies. lie therefore i tion, an Italian monk and dabbler in magic 
souL'ht Fn»iu'h subsidies in ret uni for i»romises nanu>d Pregnani ( Fornerox, i. 1 7-19). Then 
made at difl'erent tim«'S to sup])ort the policy came early in 1669 the opening of the secret 
. He also desired to relieve his ca- negotiations concerning llie catholic religion. 

of France 

t holic subjects, and, should the ])roject prove Thus the reconciliat ion of Kngland to the # 
feasible, to reconcile I'^nglaud to Komo. In church of Kome and the overthrow of the \ 

Charles 97 Charles 


I Dutch republic became the two hin^ of I by way of a demonBtration against France, 
rthe proposed alliance. More remote in ita i and did not meet again till j^bruary 1673. 
^consequences was the promise of Charles to i In the meantime the conversion money and 
co-operate in the ulterior designs of Louis the first instalment of the annual war sub- 
upon the Spanish monarchy at large, in | sidy had been paid, and another treaty similar 
which event England was to obtain South i to the last had been concluded with France, 
America with MmorcaandOstende. It was ' probably intended to obscure the length of 
not settled whether the proclamation of ca- I time since which an understanding had been 
tholicism in England was or was not to pre- i arrived at (2 Feb. 1672, see Chbistie, ii. 2& 
cede the joint declaration of war against the ; and n.) Charles had, however, notwith- 
United Provinces ; but the date of the latter [ standing the urgency of his new mistress and 


was left to France. In return Louis promised 
f, to Charles a payment of 80,000/. to meet the 
cost of the disturbances which might occur 
in England when the plan was ma& known, 
and an annual subsidy of 120,000/. during the 
war, for which England was to fiimish six 
thousand soldiers and fifty ships, and France 
thirty ships and the rest of the land forces. 
The final compact concluded on these bases 
was the notorious treaty of Dover (20 M a y 
1670) signed by Arlingt<)n, Arundel, Ciino' 

of his wife's almoner, the Abb4 Patrice, de- 
layed his profession of Catholicism, which 
might have deprived him of lus crown with 
results more enduring than had attended the 
attempt of Colonel Blood (9 May 1671 ; see 
Blood, Thomas). But on 16 March 1671 he 
issued another Declaration of Indulgence,, 
announcing his determination to suspend all 
penal laws against nonconformists and recu- 
sants. Great endeavours were made to obtain 
addresses of thanks from the protestant non- 
Uings, and by Colbert de Croissy on | conformists, but with only partial success; in 
the part of France, and negotiated in its final | November the great seal was transferred f]X)m \ 
stages by Charles in person and his sister, ' Bridgeman, who had been in doubts about I 
the Duchess of Orleans. She had been per- the declaration, to Shaftesbury (Ashley). | 
mitted to travel to England, in order to uige Meanwhile the preparations for a Dutch war ' 
the view of Louis, according to whicii the continued. In the autumn of 1671 the king 
war against the United Provinces was to have made a 'sea-progress' from Portsmouth for 
preceaence among the objects of the treaty, inspecting the western ports (Heath, Chro- 
and she seems to have succeeded in impressing < nicle, 581 ; cf. Hatton Correspontiencey i. 62) ; 
this on Charles, who was in no immediate but a more important preliminary step was 
haste about the conversion scheme. With | the notorious ' stop of the exchequer ' (2 Jan. 
the latter Buckingham, Lauderdale, and Ash- i 1672), by which the chief bankers in London, 
ley remained unacquainted; but they ap- 1 from whom the king had borrowed 1,300,000/., 
pended their signatures to a second treaty ' were made bankrupt, and a great multitude 
(31 Dec. 1670), which fixed the beginning of of people ruined. All payments from the ex- 
the Dutch war for April or May following, and chequer were prohibited for a twelvemonth ; 
which dealt with the payment in considera- but a day or two afterwards the bankers 
tionof England's conversion as an additional ' were promised half the usual interest on the 
subsidyfor military purposes (Chbistie, ii. ! capital and interest due to them (Chbistie, 
26). The conclusion of the first treaty of ii. 66 seq. ; cf. Rebesbt, 175 ; Whbatlbt, 
Dover had been followed by the death, i 123-4). 

immediately on her return to France, of | The reconstruction of the government by 
the Duchess of Orleans under circumstances > the close of 1672 established in the chief con- 
deemed deeply suspicious. After her death | duct of afiairs the five politicians whose naidbs 
a Breton lady, who had accompanied her to I had been subscribed to the treaties with France 
Dover and attracted the notice of Charles II, I of December 1670 and February 1672. But 
settled in England as the king's mistress, the so-called Cabal never alone constituted 
This was Louise de K^roualle, called * Ma- i the committee of foreign afiairs, which the 
dam Carwell'in the country of her adoption, i Duke of York, Bridgeman till his dismissal, 
i where she was afterwards created Duchess of I and Sir John Trevor, who had replaced Mor- 
UPortsmouth, and became both the agent and ! rice as one of the secretaries of state (the 
\ the symbol of French infiuence in the royal | other was Henry Coventry), likewise at- 
y counsels (see FoBinsBON, X. de JT., in JRetme ; tended. Moreover, Buckingham, Shaftesbury, i 

Historigue, vol. xxviii. (1885) ; cf. Eveltit, and Lauderdale cannot be said to have been 
9 Oct. 1671). It was not long before the re- ' privy to the conversion scheme (Chbistie, 

— .;■ : :)i 

and most notably by Shaftesbury. It was on i 
the whole unpopular, yet there is truth in the 

suits of the new alliance began to show them- i li. 53-^). The Dutch war, declared 17 March, 

1672, was of course supported by them all. 

selves. Parliament, where a dispute had con- 
veniently arisen between the two houses, was 
prorogued in April 1671, after voting a supply 
TOL. Z. 

Charles 98 Charles 

<»Wrv4iiiiin of IMlrymple (Memoirs, i. 39-42) i closes the period of offensiTe alliance between 
riAt frtpm th<f em of the second Dutch war of i England and France. During the remainder 
i*hj^rUM il'M U) be dated the superiority in < of the reign of Charles II England pl^yed a 
c/^muufrvAt and in naval power which England . passive part in European politics. Though, 
^-Miibllshed upon the ruins of French and | according to Burnet (ii. 40-2), he had con- 
Jin tch maritime trade. No sooner had Wil- eluded peace sorely against his will, he at 
Ji«m £11 of Orange come to the head of affairs all events put a merry &ce upon the matter 
than he would gladly have made terms with i {LetUra to Williamson^ ii. 168);. and when 
hifc uncle, Charles II ; but the latter declined the peace congress at Cologne was broken up, 
these overt uresjust as two months before he , he had the satisfaction of being appointed 
had told the Dutch envoys that he could , mediator by all the remaining belligerents 
resolve on nothing without consulting his , (Schwerin, 7 and n.^ But his mraiation 
brother of France (Hat ton Correttpondence, i. \ had no rapid effect. At home the cabal was 
9') -1 ; cf. BuRNBT, i. 596). Thus when par- at an end. Buckingham was driven from of- l| 
1 lament at last met again, 4 Feb. 1678, fice ; Arlington became lord chamberlain, and 
('harles II in his speech insisted both upon i the head of a court faction of secondary im- 
tlie necessity of the war and upon the benefi- . portance ; and an address was voted against 
cent results of the Declaration of Indulgence, j Lauderdale, who, however, retained office till 
.lie was vehemently supported by Shaft«8- 1676, and influence for some time longer. 
I bury, and the commons promised an adeauate From 1674 Danby [see Osborne, Sib Thomas] 
/ supply ; but only a minority of 116 could be , was at the head or affairs. He cared little for 
brought to vote against an address pronoun- popular liberties, and practised widespread 
cing the Declaration of Indulgence illegal, , corruption; but it was his ambition to recon- 
which was followed by the bringing in of the cile the crown with the country party, whose 
Test Act. The king hereupon appealed to attachment to the church and whose dislike 
the lords, but with no success, ana in order , of dependence upon a foreign power he shared, 
to avoid further conflict and to obtain his He found no ditnculty in 1676 in persuading 
8U|>ply he on 7 March cancelled the decla- Charles to publish a proclamation for en- 
ration CChbtstie, ii. 123-34, correcting Bur- forcing the laws against the nonconformists, 
net). The Test Act was then passed and andstilllessinobtaininghisapprovalofanon- 
the Bupplv gfranted. On 29 March parliament resistance test, which, however, parliament 
Hdjoume<), Clifford resigned his treasurer's , rejected ; but the king would not enter into 
Mtaff, and the Duke of York his office as lord a foreign policy which in this year made war 
high admiral. When parliament reassembled with France seem highlv probable. He made 
in October, the Cabal was virtually at an a ' se^-progress ' roun J the south coast in 
♦*nd. Clifford's office was filled by Sir Thomas July (Hbatii, Chronicle^ 602), but he was 
( )sbome, who was created Viscount Latimer . determined to keep the peace. Before pro- 
(from June 1674 Earl of Danby). But the , roguing parliament in November, which did 
more popular side of the cabinet now consisted not meet again till February 1677, he in- 
of Shaftesbury and Arlington with Ormonde, i formed it that he was four millions in debt, 
and it was supposed Prince Rupert and Co- i exclusive of the large sum he owed the gold- 
ventry. Popular feeling was stronger than smiths ; but he could obtain no grant except 
ever against any concession to the catholics, for the building of ships (Rebesbt, 179-80: 
especially among the presbyterians (Letters cf. Burnet, ii. 78 sea.) A few weeks later 
to Williamson, i. 161 ), and the prevailing ap- he had to stop the salaries and maintenance 
]>rehension8 were increased by the project of money of his household, and soon adopted a 
a marriage between the Duke of ifork and i reducSed scale of expenditure (Schwbrin, 43, 
t!ie Princess Mary of Modena (Christie, 47). On 17 Feb. 1676 Charles II concluded 
ii. 147; cf. Letters to Williamson, ii. 27). i another secret treaty with Louis XIV, which 
Two protesting addresses from the House of < he copied and sealeSd with his own hand. It 
Commons were followed by two prorogations, . bound him, in return for an annual subsidy of 
and immediately after the second Shaftesbury 100,000/., to enter into no engagements with 
was dismissed from the lord-chancellorship \ any other power without the consent of his 
(9 Nov.) It is true that the king for a mo- | ally. (The story of a secret compact for the 
ment wished to have him back, but the net | subjection of England to France, and for her 
was spread in vain. The parliament which i conversion to Rome, detailed in delation de 
reassembled 7 Jan. 1674 was determined on | /*-^ccrow*«?t^w^<fo /a Pitt/miw^^, has no evidence 
peace with the United Provinces and on the I to support it. A great part is played in it by 
overthrow of the ministers who had shown i the three English regiments in the service of 
themselves subservient to France. i France, as to wliich see Bitbnbt, ii. 1 16-17.) 

The peace of Westminster (9 Feb. 1674) , Soon after this Charles is found affecting svm- \ 




pathy with the anti-French feeling of his sub- 
jects (see ScHWERiXy 67 S\ Diinby, who 
though aware of the Frencn treaty hietd not 
signed it, had meanwhile been working in a 
contrary direction. To him were due the ne- 
gotiations for a marriage between the Prin- 
cess Mary and the Prince of Orange, berun in 
1674. Whenjparliament reassembled in Fe- 
bruary 1677, Cnarles II souj^ht to apnease the 
continued anti-French feeling by declaring 
that he had entered into a close alliance with 
the United Provinces against France (Rbke»- 
BT, i. 199). Shaftesbury, Buckingham, Salis- 
bury, and Wharton, who supported a resolu- 
tion declaring the long prorogation illegal, 
were sent to the Tower (cf. Sohwbrik, 105). 
Popular excitement ran hi^h against FVance, 
ana the king prorogued parliament in an angry 
speech, blaming it for meddling in questions 
oi foreign policy. Yet, notwithstanding a 
splendid special French embassy sent over in 
tne spring, he gave way to public feeling, 
and the Orange marriage was celebrated on 
4 Nov., the king himself giving away the bride 

g:HWBRiK, 168; cf. Burnet, ii. 120-4). 
uis XIV forthwith took his revenge by be- 
ginning a series of intrigues with the oppo- 
sition leaders; and on 26 Jan. 1678 Charles II 
retorted by withdrawing the English regi- 
ments from France and sending part of them 
to Flanders. To patch up matters another 
secret treaty was concluded on 17 May, 
when, in return for three annual payments of 
300,000/., Charles II undertook to disband his 
troops and dissolve his parliament. But the 
English troops brought from Flanders to Eng- 
land were maintained there on the pretext of 
want of money for paying them off (Buritbt, 
ii. 146), and to put pressure upon France at 
Nymwegen an Anglo-Dutch treaty was con- 
cluded on 26 July. The treaty with France 
thus remained unexecuted. On 10 Aug. the 
peace of Nymwegen was signed (Ranke, 
V. 01-«). 

Charles II involved himself as little as pos- 
sible in the shameful transactions which fol- 
lowed the alleged discovery of a popish plot 
(August 1 678). At first he betook himsefr to 
Newmarket, thereby arousing censure of his 
levity (Burnet, ii.'l53). He protected the 
queen (ih. 165-7). But otherwise, though 
he had shrewdly found out the mendacity 
of Oates (ib. 152) and the crass ignorance of 
f.Bedloe (ib, 160-1), and believed the former 
|l to be acting under Shaftesbury's instnictions 
(ib, 171), he adhered to the plan of, as he 
phrased it, ' giving them line enough.' On 
9 Nov. he thanked parliament for their care 
of his person, and assured it of his readi- 
ness to maintain the protestant religion, 
and very possibly he haa at first some fears 

for his own safety, in consequence of his 
failure to effect anything for the catholics. 
In no case — not even in Stafford's — did he 
venture to exercise the prerogative of mercy 
on behalf of the victims of popular frenzy, 
though he expressed his displeasure at the. 
condemnation of the five Jesuits in June 1679 u 
(H. SiDNET, i. 7-8), and is said to have told ^ 
Essex that he * dared not ' pardon Archbishop 
Plunket (LiNOARD, x. 15). The parliament, 
which had passed an act excluding all catho- 
lics except the Duke of York from parlia- 
ment, ana all except him and some of the 
? ueen's ladies from court,prooeeded on 21 Dec A 
678 to impeach Danby. This step,contem- [i 
Elated as early as 1675, was now forced on 
y the revengeful disclosures of Louis XFV. 
Cfharles saw no way of saving his minister 
except by the prorogation of tne parliament 
(30 Dec. ), followed by its dissolution (24 Jan.Il 
1679). Thus the 'Long,' or 'Pensioners'! 
parliament ' came to an end (Eveltk, 25 Jan.jl 
1679). *' 

Shaftesbury and his party had fostered 
the popish plot panic to effect the exclusion 
of tne Duke of York from the succession. 
Charles saw this, and contrived to excite the 
advocates of the exclusion to a pitch of vio- 
lence which gradually brought round the 
preponderance of opinion to his brother's and 
his own side. A few days after 28 Feb. \ 
1679, when he liad ordered the Duke of York 
to go abroad so as to avoid the meeting of 
the new parliament, he sanctioned the attempt 
of the primate and the Bishop of Winchester 
to persuade the duke to return to the pro- 
testant religion (Dalbyxple, ii. 260-4). In 
view of the agitation in favour of Monmouth, 
the Duke of York, before leaving the country, 
induced the king to declare in council, and 
to have his declaration placed on record, that 
he had never been married to any person but 
Queen Catherine. (He appears to have made . 
two such declarations, on 6 Jan. and 3 March I 
1679 ; see Soment Tracts, viii. 187-9 ; cf. * 
Hatton Correspondence, i. 177, and Burnet, 
ii. 198.) 

In the new House of Commons the court 
party was reduced to insignificance, and a 
bill of attainder was passed against Danby, 
who in vain pleaded the kings pardon, and 
was committed to the Tower. Charles now^ 
resolved upon the novel experiment recom- 
mended by Temple of carrying on the govern- 
ment by means of an understanding with the 
majority (see Macaulat, chap, ii., and his 
Essay on Sir William Temple). The old 
council was dismissed, and an enlarged and 
partly representative council named in it« 

Elace, with Shaftesbury at its head. But [( 
e was not one of the K>ur out of the thirty 

H 2 

Charles loo Charles 

memlxTs of the council wlio fonned the real October, Shaftesbury had been abruptly dis- 
directory of affairs, and who, led by Halifax, missed from the chiancellorship — about the 
upheld the succession of the Duke of York, time of Dangerfield's pretended revelation of 
though advocating the limitation of his theso-called Meal-tub plot— overtures should 
powers as king. And even this directory oc- have been made to him in November to re-> 
casionally, as in the matter of Lauderdale, turn to office as first commissioner of the 
found itself overruled by CharWs arbitrary treasury. He replied that the king must be 
will (H. SiDNET, i. 5 ). Very soon Shaftes- advised to part with both the queen and the 
bury was working on behalf of the Exclusion Duke of \ork (Chbistie, ii. 852), and at 
Bill ; but its progress was arrested by the the close of the month this post, vacated 
I f prorogation (26 May), followed by the ^isso- by Essex, was filled bv Laurence Hyde (Ro- 
" lution (July) of the new parliament, which Chester). About this time the intrigues-* 
the king and HalifEix hadpressed against the of the promoters of the Monmouth scheme ] 
majority of the council (U. Sidney, i. 5 ; cf. took a bolder turn. In November Sidney (i. J 
BiTRNET, ii. 22d-9). The excitement which 85) reports that endeavours were being mad& 
prevailed is illustrated by the rumour, spread to get witnesses to swear that the kmghad 
/ pearly in July, that an attempt had been made been married to Monmouth s mother, and in r 
^•/vupon the king's hfe^Pythotue PaperSf 72-3), December Monmouth returned to England l\ 
b^ In August following he was taken with a series amid great popular rejoicings, but was for- |\ 
I of fits, which were cured by quinine ; but bidden to come near the court (Lfttrell, \\ 
siLspicions of poison were rife (H. Sidney, i. 29). About the beginning of 1680 rumours- 
i. 97 et al. ; Luttbell, i. 20 ; Hatton Cor-' were circulated as to the existence of a 
retpondence^ i. 189-92 ; Burnet, ii. 237-8). ' black box containing a document importing 
The general election which followed resulted marriage, or contract of marriage, between 
in the return of another House of Commons the king and Monmouth's mother, and it was- 
favourable to the bill; and the new parlia- i then that, after instituting inquiries into the- 
ment was at once prorogued from October origin of the report, Charles put forth his- 
1679 to the January following, the king hav- ' declarations in council mentioned above- 
ing, as he assured Sidney, made up his mind {Somers Tracts, viii. 187 seq. ; Luttbell^ 
' to wait till this violence shoula wear off, i. 46, s. d. 8 June). Libels on the subject^ 
and meanwhile live upon his revenues, and ' however, continued to be published (ib, i. 50 ;- 
do all he could to satisfy his people '(i. 188-9). ' Somers Tracts, u. s.) But though there was 
A loud cry arose for the assembling of parlia- no thought of yielding to the demand for the 
ment, and numerous addresses to the king 'protestant duke,' and though the Duke of I 
poured in urging it (Addressers not its Afn York was present in England early in 1H80, 1 
)t4!>rrers). At the same time the purpose of the feeling of king and court about this time 
•Shaftesburv and his party to substitute the was strong for a compromise. It was urged 
Duke of Monmouth in the succession for the ' by Halifax ; and in foreign aflairs there was 
Duke of York more and more openly declared ' at least a possibility that the king, who had 
itself. The first notion of such a scheme of late been on excellent terms with the- 
seems to have been Buckingham's, when as Prince of Orange, might fall in with hi» 
fiur back as 1667 he had projected a divorce be- ' scheme of an alliance against France, which 
tween the king and queen, and Shaftesbury had been made the pretext for proroguing 
was rumoured to have taken part in that plan the new parliament (H. Sidney, i. 26, 172,. 
(Christie, ii. 8-9). The Duke of York had 292 ; BmRNET, ii. 246-9). A scheme seems 
taken his departure for Scotland in the au- to have been formed for encouraging this- 
tumn ; but tne king had no intention of even humour in the king by means of a new 
passively countenancing the designs in favour mistress, who favoured Monmouth (H. SiD- 
of his son. During the popish plot afiritation net, i. 298) : but the Duchess of Portsmouth 
in 1678 he told Burnet that he would rather was found by no means averse to fall in for 
Bee Monmouth hanged than legitimatise him ; the moment with a policy of conciliation to- 
bvt he seemed then to be under the delusion wards the opposition and of politeness to- 

I that he could in the last resort keep him wards the Prince of Orange (Fobnbron, ii. 
under his control. In 1079 Monmouth fell 40 ; cf. Burnet, ii. 260). The king— who was 
more and more under Sliaftesbury's influence, generally in good health, though in May 1680- 
aiid his quasi-royal progresses through dif- | his seizure by another fit of ague created a 
ferent parts of England deeply ofiended the '■ passing alarm (Savile Correspondence, 158 n.) 
king, who in September deprived him of his i — made himself popular on a visit to the lord 

Igenerars commission, notwithstanding his re- 
bentservices in Scotland (Luttkbll, i. 21 , 22). 
This makes it the more curious that after, in 

mayor (H. Sidney, i. 301-2); but when 
parliament actually assembled, in October il 
1680| all the finessing proved to have been in. \ 

• « 



.• • 



Tain. The Exclusion Bill, though opposed 
on behalf of the court by Sir Leoline Jenkins 
( in favour of whom Coventry had resigned in 
April), was passed by the commons. But 

/ through the influence of Halifax it was re- 
jected by the lords. Hereupon the king — ^who 
found mmself in danger of being protected 
by a protestimt association, with which he 
had no sympathy, against the papists, with 

I whom he had no quarrel— dissolved parlia- 

» •♦ 

come suddekjfy to town to decide upon the 
step {HatUfj\»'(^pre9p<mdencej ii. D ; but he 
recovered his h^^it^ on the rejection of the 
indictment of Ugh^ ^reason against him by 
the jNIiddlesex gralid^ury (November). A 
humbler offender, St^phegi College [q. v. j, had 
however previously ^i|id!&Qe^ death (August). 
In Scotland a j'e^Wijf jrreat severity was 
established by the Duke of Ycg:4c, and Argyll 
was convict^ but escapee^ <^cember). A 

Ument on 18 Jan. 1681. Even now he had < visit of the Prince of Orange to tU^ king (July) 

not despaired of a parliamentary settlement 
But, ofiended by the seal of the city, and un- 
moved by a petition from Essex and fifteen 
other peers deprecating the calling of a parlia- 
ment out of Westminster (^Somers Tracts, 
( viiL 282--3), Charles proceeded in March to 
Oxford, and summoned parliament to meet 
^ there. The king took up his residence at 
7 Ohrist Church, and the queen at Merton. The 
Duchess of Portsmouth and ' Mrs. Gwyn' ap- 
pear to have lodged out of college (Lvttrell, 
1. 70-1). The king found time before the 
opening of parliament to attend a horse-race 
and to visit Lord Combury (Pridcaur Letters, 
S2y According to Burnet (ii. 276), he about 
this time gave ear to a scheme for combining i 
with the titular succession of the Duke of 
York a r^ency in the person of the Prince of 
Orange. On the other hand, he was rumoured 
to have safeguarded himself against the tena- 

resulted only in an increase of^vM^Ul ftn<l jea- 
lousy towards him on the part b^Oiiarles, as 
well as of James (H. Savile, ii. ^JO ?t. : see, 
however, Bubnet's story, ii. 415, that|Cliarles 
prophesied the fate of James to Wjllifthi). 
Though in October England joined wifk*t^ 
Unit^ Provinces and bpain m a joint dip^o** 
matic memorial (Saoile Correspondence, 'Ju), 
a secret agreement had been negotiated by 
Barillon and Hyde in London, whereby, in 
return for a payment of 200,000/. within the 
next three years, Charles II engaged to detach 
himself firom the Spanish alliance, and remain 
independent of parliament. In conseauence, 
Louis XIV laid siege to Luxemburg in Novem- 
ber ; but he raised it again when he perceived 
that he might be driving his bargain too hard 
(Ranke, v. 178-9, 202; cf. Clarke, Life of 
James 11,100^-6). In 1682 Louis XI Voffered 
to Charles the arbitration of his claims upon 

XMty of the commons by a large sum of money < the Spanish Netherlands. Spain not imnatu- 
f rom France {Savile Correspondence, 181 ). At rally demurred, and nothing came of the ofler. 

u the Oxford narliament. which met on 21 March During all this time the popularity of 

Charles II at home seems to nave been on 

J Shaftesbury himself appeared numerously at^ the increase. He spent September 1681 at 

1681, the leaders of the country party and 
Shaftesbury himself appeared numerously at^ 
tended bv armed followers. The parliament, 
addressed by the king in a speech reproduced, 
it is said by his own oroers, in nis poet- 
laureate's great satire (see Scott and Saints- 

Newmarket, whence, on the 27th, he paid a 
visit with the queen to Cambridge ; on 1 2 Oct. 
they returned to London, and the bells were 
rung and bonfires lit. On the 29th thev dined 

BrBY's Dryden, ix. 810), proved wholly in- j attheGuildhall,andwere received wittipopu- 
.1 tractable; Shaftesburv, in a paper communi- ; lar acclamations both on entering and leav- 
ycated by him to the King, insisted upon his j ing the city (Luttbell, i. 128, 130-1, 134, 

139-40) ; on 19 Feb. 1681-2 the king laid 
the first stone of the Chelsea Hospital for 
disabled soldiers ; in May his birth and re- 
storation day was kept with unusual strict- 

naming Monmouth as his successor; and no- 
body but Sir Leoline Jenkins was found to 
speak against the bill. The parliament was 
I therefore dissolved by the king on 28 March, 
audits dissolution was followed by the issue < ness (t6. 190). The government was thus 
of a royal declaration, which was published in j encouraged to persist in the path of reaction, 
the churches, and reckoned up the misdoings Contemporary wit well named it the ministry 
of the last three parliaments, but protesteid i of the Chits, on account of the comparative 
the king's afiection to the protestant religion, i youth of its most prominent members, llo- 
and his resolution still U) have frequent parlia- Chester, Sunderland, and Godolphin. The 
ments. A multitude of addresses in different last-named, much liked by the king for being 
shades of loyalty followed, but the greater . ' never in the way and never out of the way * 
number of them condemned the Exclusion i (Dartmouth's note to Burnet, ii. 246), hur- 
< Bill (Burnet, ii. 282-6). Manifestly the tide ! came one of the secretaries of state on the 
( had begun to turn in favour of the court, which I retirement of Jenkins in 1C84, and soon 
was not slow to take advantage of it. In the ; moved to the first commissionership of the 
^ oourse of thisyear Shafbesbury became a pri- j treasury, Middleton taking his secretaryship. 
4oner in the Tower, the king having himself j The lord chancellorship was held by Guil- 

Charles •••./••* 102 Charles 

ford (Xortli). The spirit ofa^h^frovemment - doubtful whether Charles II had completely 
was shown in the enforcen^^V Ji the penal | cast him off, or merely wished the Prmce of 
laws against the protestiD^'tlissenterSy and Oran^ to suppose so (cf. Bitbnbi, iL 416). 
more especially in the nroceddings intended | With the year 16^ the (question presented 
to secure the surren^K* of the city and , itself whether the Triennial Act should be 
liorough charters, ciiJilHptiHnff in the declara- , boldly violated, in compliance with the last 
tion (12 June lG8fi)'cf(\he forfeiture of the secret agreement with Louis XTV, who was 
charter of the city.of'London. Thus it was . again at war with Spain and on the point of 
hoped to insuf;e mana^able parliaments and , renewing the siege of Luxemburg. Halifax 
servile juries, wb^e a judicial bench presided . was for a parliament, but his influence had 



agitation.\£arly in September 1682 the king , siderable pecuniary claims on France, showed 
is fou44' AAyiog that he would willingly re- , no wish to interfere with the proceedings of 
cei^Vi ^llonmouth (^Hatton Correspondence, ii. j his debtor, and congratulated him on his cap* 
1^)! '•'a fortnight afterwards Monmouth was ture of Luxemburg (June 1684). The reaction 
'awftested in the west, but soon liberat-ed on , therefore continued, as the statue erected to 
baif, and on 19 Oct. Shaftesbury, who had , the king in the Iloyal Exchange in this year 
l>een scheming to the last, took his departure remains to show. Danby and the noblemen 
for Holland. In the spring of 1(^ ensued imprisoned on popish plot charges were bailed,, 
the discovery of the so-called llje House and Titus Gates was sentenced to a fine which 
plot, of which the purpose was said to have meant perpetual imprisonment. The system 
been the murder of the king and the Duke ; of governing without a parliament, however, 
of York on their way from Newmarket to made it necessary to reduce public expendi* 
Ijondon, at a lonely house on the high road ture. Tangier was abandoned (1683), and lesa 
near Hoddesdon in Hertfordshire. Whatever defensible operations seem to have been at 
may have been the truth as to the confessions times resorted to with the king's connivance 
concerning the projected assassination at the to obtain money (see the case of Sir H. St, 
Rye House, there can be no doubt that among John, ib. ii. 457 ). 

certain fanatics of the whig party a scheme As the reign of Charles II approached ita 
for ' lopping ' the king and his brother had close, the clouds gathered. Rumours, fed by 
been discussed, and that some of these fana- court gossip, went to and fro between Lon- 
tics had been in contact with several of the don and Paris as to the king's intention of 
opposition leaders, among them Monmouth, joining the church of Rome, and gave ad- 
A> illiam, lord Russell, Essex, Howard, and ditional significance to a project for taking 
Algernon Sidney, upon whom Shaftesbury the nomination of the officersoithelrisharmy 
had urged the plan of a rising. The king , from the new lord-lieutenant, Rochester, and 
came up to town so soon as any important placing it and the control of that army in 
names had been brought before the council, the hands of the king (Burnet, ii. 459-64 ; 
He displayed much concern on account of Dalrymplb, i. llo, referring to the corre- 
I Monmouth, who contrived to escape for the spondeuce in Carte s * Life of Ormonde *). 
time, but showed no hesitation with regard About the same time the king revoked a com- 
to the rest of the accused. In the case of i missiim by which he had three years before 
Russell he is said to have repelled the pres- delegated to the primate and others the dis* 
sure jmt upon him by the characteristic argu- i>osai of ecclesiastical preferments within his 
ment that unless he took Russeirslife Russell immediate patronage (Cook, 462). In May 
would soon take his (Dartmouth's note to . 1684 the last admiralty commission was re* 
BuKNET, ii. 280 71. As to the plot, see Lord voked, and the office of lord high admiral 
(JoHX) Russell's Zi^eo/" William^ Lord Rub- again conferred upon the Duke of York, the 
sellfil. l-i8-7^f and FoXyllifttori/ of James IT king evading the Test Act by signing the 
(1808), 50-»5. For a list of the conspirators most important documents appertaining to 
free Sotners TractHf viii. 405 seq.) Of course , the office (Evelyn, 12 May 1684). The duke 
loyal addresses followed in profusion, and on had in 1682 returned firom Scotland amidst 
9 Sept. a thanksgiving day was celebrated royalist acclamations, but just before the close 
(LuTTRELL, i. 276, 279, 282; Smtiers Tracts, . of the reign the relations between the bro* 
viii. 420 ; S. T. C. ii. 153 seq.) Not long after- { thers seem to have lost something of their old 
wards Monmouth submitted himself to the '. cordiality. Whatever might be his brother's 

king*s grace; but he soon rejiented of his 
submission, was ag^in banished the court, 

plans, Charles was heard to remark, he was 
too old to go on his travels again. To meet 

and reimired to the Hague. It is, however, • theking'sdiMatisflEictiontheDuchessof Ports-^ 




mouthy for whom the king's infatuation had 
become stronger than ever, is said to have 
proposed a strange scheme. The Duke of 
York was to be sent back to Scotland, and 
Monmouth brought over to England, a re- 
conciliation being thus effected with the 
Prince of Orange at the cost of a change of 
policy towards France. But the precise his- 
tory of this design remains obscure, and the 
part said to have oeen assigned to the Duchess 
of Portsmouth is highly improbable (Bxtbitet, 
ii. 464-6; Dalbtmplb, i. 116-17; Secret His- 
tory of Whitehall, letter Ixxii.) It seems 
certain that Monmouth came over on a short 
visit, though statements differ as to whether 
he actually saw his father. Whatever specu- 
lations may have been rife as to the possi- 
bility of a change of policy both at nome 
and abroad, they were cut short by the death 
of Charles II. Since his serious illness in 
1679 the care which he took of his health 
had helped to prevent a relapse, though Lut- 
trell, in May 1682, notes his having suffered 
at Windsor from a serious distemper (i. 190). 
On the ni^ht of 1 Feb. 1685 he had been 
supping with the Duchess of Portsmouth ; 
next morning he was seized by an apoplectic 
fit. At first his malady seemed to give way 
to remedies, and the news of his recovery 
spread through the country, where it was 
received with demonstrations of joy (Cook, 
471-2). But on the night of the 4th he grew 
/ /worse, and shortly before noon on the ((th he 
a/ died (LuTTRELL, i. 327). The narratives 
differ as to the question whether the queen 
attended his deathbed, at which the Duchess 
of Portsmouth seems certainly to have been 
present. An edifying account of the last 
* words consciously spoken by Charles II was 
composed by his brother (Clabke, Zi/e of 
James 11, i. 749) ; the pathetic * Let not poor 
Nelly starve ! * has the authority of Burnet 
(ii. 478). The rumours which attributed his 
death to poison seem to have had no foun- 
dation (see If at ton Correspondence, ii. 61-4 ; 
Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd series, iv. 74-6 ; 
Harris, ii. 376 n. ; Burnet, ii. 473-8, and 
note to 476 on the opinion of the Duchess of 
Portsmouth ; North's Hjcamen and his Life 
of Lord Ouilford, ii. 107. The whole evidence 
is well reviewed by Jesse, iii. 371-80). The 
remains of the king, which seem to have been 
exposed to unwarrantable neglect, were in- 
terred on 17 Feb. in Henry Vll's chapel with 
solemnities that were thought inadequate 
(IjUTTRELL, i. 330 ; CooK, 475-7). Doubt- 
/ less not a few Englishmen moralised, after the 
' / fashion of Evelyn, over the end of Charles II 
in the midst, of such a court as his. 

Charles II died a professed catholic. What 
there was of reverence in him — and it was 

little even in his boyhood (cf. Lake, Diary, 
26) — had been driven out by the experiences 
of his earlier days. While he carea nothing 
for the church of England (Bttbket, ii. 296) 
he hated presbyterianism (ib, i. 197) ; and 
notwithstanding his declarations of indul- 
gence there is no sign that the ^rsecutions 
of protestant nonconformity in his reign dis- 
turbed his peace of mind. Thus it is probable 
that he would have contented himself with 
' a religion all of his own ' had it not been for 
the repeated efforts made during his exile to 
lead him over to the church of Kome. There 
were rumours of communications from him 
to the pope when in Scotland in 1650, and 
again in 1662, which latter Whitelocke was 
said to have originally inserted in his ' Me- 
moirs ' and then torn out (Secret History of 
the Reigns of Charles II and James II, \\, 
18) ; and Burnet asserts (i. 135) that in 1655 
he was actually convertea by Cardinal Retz, 
Lord Aubigny likewise having much to do 
with the matter (cf. CiARBin>oy, vii. 62-4). 
It would also seem that during his residence 
at Paris Olier, a zealous propagandist, had 
intercourse with Charles on the subject of 
religion ( Vie de M. Olier, cit. in Gent Mag, 
u. i!) ; and he was stated to have declared 
himself in private to be a catholic some time 
before the treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 
(Carte, Life of Ormonde, cit. in Harris, ii. 
61 n, ; cf. Somere Tracts, viii. 226). There 
can be little doubt that when Charles came 
back to England he was virtually a catholic, 
but there is no satisfactory evidence that he 
had ever actually been received into the 
church of Rome. His hesitation to declare 
himself after his restoration requires no ex- 

Slanation ; of his strong catholic sympathies 
uring the whole of its course there can be 
no doubt whatever. His two declarations of 
indulgence were passed for the benefit of his 
catholic subjects (Vaughan, ii. 331),and his 
undertaking to France in the treaty of Dover 
was in consonance with his personal wishes. 
Shortly after his marriage he sent Sir Richard 
Bellings [q. v.] to Rome, one of whose com- 
missions was to propose to Pope Alexan- 
der VII terms upon which the kmg and the 
nation should be reconciled to Rome. The ne- 
gotiation was afterwards laid aside, but in 
August 1668, about the time when the Duke 
of York's conversion became known to him, 
Charles II corresponded with Oliva, the gene- 
ral of the iesuiti* at Rome, who sent to Lon- 
don a novice of his order. The instructions 
of this agent are unknown, but the transaction 
is all the more significant inasmuch as the 
young novice in question, who was known in 
Home under the name of James La Cloche, 
was a natural son of Charles II, bom to him 




in his youth by a lady at Jersey {Gent Mag, 
January 1866, based on G. Bobro, Storia deUa 
Conversione di Carlo II, published at Rome 
from the Jesuit archives ; cf. Christie, ii. 17, 
with Colbert's memoir in Appendix, ib, ; Mig- 
XBT, NSffodatians rel, d la Succession d!Es- 
pagncy iii. ; and Ranke, iy. 23). Yet eyen these 
discoveries prove nothing as to Charles having 
made any profession of the catholic faith 
before he lay on his deathbed. That he made 
it admits of no doubt. Barillon states that 
at the suggestion of the Duchess of Ports- 
mouth he prevailed upon the Duke of York 
to obtain the king's permission to bring a 

Sriest to him, and that from this priest, 
'ather Iludlestone, who had helped to save 
the king's life in his wanderings, Charles, 
after declaring himself a catholic and ex- 
pressing contrition for having so long delayed 
nis reconciliation, received absolution, the 
communion, and extreme unction (see the 
father's narrative, Ellis, 2nd series, iv. 78- 
81; cf. Dalrthple, ii. Appendix, 110-21). 
James II asserts that his brother refused the 
communion according to the rit«s of the 
church of England proffered by Bishop Ken, 
who, however, pronounced the absolution 
on the king's expressing regret for his sins 
(Clarke, i. 747 ; cf. A True Relation, <J-<?., in 
Somers Tracts, viii. 429). There are some 
minor discrepancies between the various ac- 
coimts, which include Burnet's (ii. 468-72), 
but as to the main fact of the king's profes- 
sion their agreement leaves no room for doubt. 
The controversial papers in support of the 
doctrines of the church of Rome found in 
his strong box after his death, and afterwards 
communicated by James II without effect to 
his daughter, the Princess of Orange (see 
her Lett res et MSmoires, 1880, 61), may, as 
Halifax shrewdly observes, have been written 
all by Charles II himself, * and yet not one 
word his own.' 

Halifax, the author of the best character 
ever drawn of Charles II, observed (Bttrnet, 
ii. 840) that God had made him of a par- 
ticular composition ; and though his fortunes 
were certainly more extraordmary than his 
qualities, he was not altogether a common 
ty])e of man. The vicissitudes of his fortunes 
may be held in part accountable for some of 
his weaknesses and his vices; for his fickle- 
ness (Rbresbt, 221) ; for his dissimulation, 
which at times imposed upon the unworldly 
{Beliqui<e Baxtertan^e, 231 ) ; even perhaps 
in some measure for his immorality. These 
were hardly counterbalanced by the gifts 
which help to account for his undeniable 
popularity. He was good-natured, or, in 
Evelyn's words, 'debonnaire and easy of 
access,' grateful to those who had rendered 

him personal service in misfortune, kind to 
all, oown to the spaniels who dwelt in his 
bedchamber. He had it not in his nature, 
as is told by a cast-off mistress, to do cruel 
thinffs to anything living (Harris, ii. 396), 
and Evelyn calls him ' not bloody nor cruel.' 
Burnet, however, demurs to this praise (ii. 
481), and without dwelling on an excep- 
tional instance of brutal revengefulness such 
as the mutilation of Sir John Coventry, we 
may well believe that Charles II had ' no 
tenderness in his nature.' He was, however, 
blessed with an excellent temper, which only 
broke down when a courtier, such as Henry I / 
Savile, ventured to use his vote ai^d interest y 
against the royal wish {Lauderdale Papers, 
iii. 139-40; cf Burnet, i. 501). At the 
root of his character lay a selfishness which 
showed itself in innumerable ways, but above 
all in an indomitable hatred of taking trouble. 
It was this which, when he could not get 
rid of petitioners by fast walking or by 
taking sanctuary with one of his mistresses 
(Halifax, 23-5), made him g^ve pleasant 
words to everybody, careless whether he or 
lus ministers for nim afterwards broke his 
promises (Schwbrin, 176; cf. BuRiraT, ii. 
480) . It was this too which made him shrink 
from wise counsellors, in accordance, as Cla- 
rendon writes (iii. 63), with the unfortunate 
disposition of his line to follow the counsel 
of mt«llectual inferiors. Yet he was by no 
means always inattentive to business. What- 9 
ever really interested him, beginning with his 7 
health, he generally thought worth trouble. / 
The records of courtiers and diplomatists 
(Henry Sidney, Schwerin, Savile Corre- 
spondence) alike convey the impression that 
he frequently applied iiimself to matters of 
state, both in council and in parliament, 
although his habit of standing by the fire 
with a circle of peers round him during the 
sittings of the House of Lords, which he 
thought as diverting as a play, did not tend 
to expedite affairs (Dalrymple, i. 21 ; cf. 
Jesse, iii. 343-4). 

The sensualism of Charles was another 
phase of his utt«r selfishness. Among his 
favourite vices drinking had no place. Again, - 
though high play was fashionable at court, 
he never became a gambler. Except in one 
direction, he cannot be charged with great 
personal extravagance, although, as Evelyn 
says, he loved planting and building, and in 
general brougli in a politer style of living 
which led to luxury. The extraordinary 
superfluity of offices in his court and house- 
hold (see especially Cdl. 1661-4, and Cham- 
berlayne) can hardly be laid at his door ; nor 
did he only preach economy in dress, &c. to 
parliament (May 1662; see Somers Tracts^ 

Charles 105 Charles 

vii. 547), but sought an occasion to pructise j Fitzroy (f*), who became a nun in France ; 
what he preached (Evelyn, 18 Oct.; Pbpys, ' by Margaret Davis, Mary Tudor, countess of 
15 Oct. and 2'2 'Sov, 1666). The passion Derwentwater ; by Nell Qwynne, Charles 
which in him swallowed up all others was a ' B«*auclerk, duke of St. Albans (bom 1670), 
love for women, in which, as Halifax says, i and James Beauclerk ^bom 1671) ; by the 
he had as little of the seraphic part as ever i Duchess of Portsmoutli, Charles Lennox, 
man had. The palliation which ne once at- duke of Richmond, bom 1678 (Hubner, Ge- 
tempted for his wantonness (Rebesby, 165) : ttealogische TabelUtn, i. 78; CuNNiNeHAX ; 
is contemptible ; better is Halifax's half ex- i Ji^sE ; Fobnebok). 

•cuse, that ' sauntering ' is a stronger tempta- i In his relations to the government of the 
tion to princes than to others (see (Jttn- > country Charles II was imder the influence 
NiNGHAH, 16). It would be an error to i of motives not very difiBrent from those which 
i r suppose that the public was indiiferent to swayed his private life. His desire to be free 
1 1 the king's proceedmgs, or regarded them as | from the control of parliament, and yet pro- 
1/ ^ matter of course. The task would be too ' vided with the means which he could not 
^ arduous to endeavour to give an accurate i honourably obtain elsewhere, brought about \ 
list of his mistresses. The names of Lucy | his corrupt dependence upon France. His own I 
Walters (or Waters or Barlow), Catharine council (at the time when it had been put on a 
Peg (afterwards Green), Lady Shannon (Eli- ' broader basis) would not trust him to have pri- 
xafcth Killigrew), ana Lady Byron (Eleanor vate interviews with the foreign ambassadors, 
Needham) Ix^long to the period of his exile ; and though he contrived sucn with Barillon, 
after his restoration, Mrs. Palmer, succes- ' it was with many signs, on the kin^s part, 
sively Countess of Castlemaine and (from i ofthefear of detection (Dalbtmple, li. 280). 
1670) Duchess of Cleveland, was mistress en \ He even owned to having taken a bribe to 
litre till she was succeeded by Louise de j help a colonial job through the council itself 
K^roualle, duchess of Portsmouth (1673), ; (Bubnbt, ii. 105). Of course he expected 
who was, like her predecessor, named a lady I others to be equally venal, and he rarely re- 
of the bedchamber to the queen. The king^ ! sorted to threats (for an instance see Me^ 
futile passion for * la belle Stewart,* who mar- ' moirs of CoUmelHutchiivton (1885), ii. 266 n.) 
ried the Duke of Richmond, at one time < Charles II may be excused for not having 
aroused the jealousy of Lady Castlemaine ; I loved parliamentary government as he pre- 
but the position of the Duchess of Ports- i tended to do (see Somera Tracts^ vii. 553 ; cf. 
mouth was never seriously threatened, though • Clabekdon, Life, ii. 225-6), and for having 
a rumour to that eflect arose in 1680 (H. \ failed to combine the system of cabinet govern- 
Savile, i. 298). In rank and notoriety, but ; ment, which was not his invention, with the 
not in political power, the Duchess of Ma- j principle of a collective ministerial responsi- 
jcnrin (Hortensia Mancini) was her foremost I bility to parliament, for which the times were 
rival (Evelyn, llJune 1699 etal.) But she not yet ripe. But it was his fault that 
had to submit to endless other infidelities on I throughout his reign the system of backstairs 
the king's part, among which his attachment | influence prevailed. He can hardly be said 
to Nell G Wynne (from the beginning of 1668) to have had favourites projwr; neither Ro- 
had preceded the opening of ' Madame Car- Chester nor Buckingham, neither Arlington 
well s ' own reign, and endured throughout nor Falmouth, actually had an ascendency 
it (see FoBKEBON, ii.) Other actresses in over him. But he was surrounded by cour- 
the list were Margaret Davis and Margaret tiers of the menial type, and the real centre 


Hughes; and further names are those of 
"Winifred Wells, Mary Knight, and Jane 
Roberts, the daughter of a clergyman. By 
these and others Charles II had a numerous 
progeny, of which may be mentioned his 

of government lay in the apartments of the i 

reigning sultana. Among the chief poten 
tates of the backstairs were Baptist May, 
keeper of the privy purse ; Thomas Chiflinch 
[q. v.], keeper of his private or cabinet closet, 
children by Lucy Walters, James, duke of! succeeded on his death in 1 666 by his brother 
Monmouth and Buccleuch (bom 1649), and a I William, who enjoyed still greater favour; 
•daughter Mary (?) ; by Catharine Peg, Charles lastly, Edward Progers, who, after attending 
Fitzcharles, earl of Ply mouth (born 1657); by ' Charles in Jersey, and being banished from 
Lady Shannon, Charlotte, countess of Yar- ' his presence in Gotland, afterwards became, 
mouth; by Lady Ca8tlemaine,CbarlesFitzroy, | in Grammont's words, 'the confidant of the 
<hike of Southampton and Cleveland (bom i king's intrigues,* and M.P. for Breconshire 
ir)rt2), Henry Fitzroy, duke of Grafton (bom ! (cf. Wheatley, 181-2). There was the same 

1 <JtJ3), George Fitzroy, duke of Northumber- 
land (bom 1665), Anne, countess of Sussex, 
<;harlotte|. ooontess of Lichfield, and Barbara 

disorder in the accounts of the court as in 
those of the state, and in truth parts of both 
were hopelessly mixed up under the head of 

Charles io6 Charles 

secret services; if the navy office was in 
chronic disorder in the earlier part, of the reign 
(Whbatlbt, 128-68; Dalrtmple, ii. 1,105- 
110), neither were the salaries of the royal 

(Whbatlbt, 167 ; cf. Burnbt, i. 169). He 
had, too, a fondness for curiosities, wluch he 
caused to be collected for his cabinet at 
foreign courts (Cb/. 1660-1,499; cf.t*.890). 

household paid with regularity, but are found I His favourite bodily exercise was walking ; 
on occasion all in arrear, at periods varying I in his youth he was a good dancer, and even 
from one to three years {Secret Servicer of \ after the Restoration he excelled at tennis 
Charles II , vi-viii.) • (Whbatlby, 229 ; cf. Hatton Correspondence^ 

Charles II was endowed bv nature with ' i. 189). Both before and after his return he 
an excellent intellect. Hali/ax praises hia > liked hunting, and it was for this pastime, 
admirable memory and his strong power of but more especially for the horse-races, that 
observation, and says that whenever one of Newmarket was his favourite resort (see 
his ministers fell, the king was always at Savile Correspondence^ 271, and note; cf. 
hand with a fuU inventory of his faults. His Hebebby, 288). 

quickness of apprehension was extraordinary, • When after the battle of Worcester a re- 
and was the chief source of his wit. Many of ward of 1,000/. was offered for the capture 
his witticisms were seasoned with a very gross of Charles Stuart, he was described as 'a 

8altwhich,even in a court whose conversation ' tall man, above two yards high, his hair a 
was indescribably coarse, struck the critical as deep brown, near to black * {OU. 1651, 476). 

cially concerning his adventures after Wor- | lier's Note-book,' 90, there is a curious anec- 
cester ; he wearied even Pepys (2 Jan. 1668), ' dote of his measuring his height in the cabin 
but probably unconsciously, for Burnet (i. 170) | of theNaseby on his return to England, and 
calls him an everlasting talker. He understood of its exceeding that of any other person on 
both French and Italian, though he does not board (cf. Pepys, 26 May 1660 ; Cuknikq- 
appear to have written the former very idio- ' ham, 74, however, states him to have mea- 
matically (Clabendon, vii. 64) ; Latin he ' sured five feet ten inches only). The king^s 
seems not to have read with ease (Schwebiit, ' gwarthy complexion (Evelyn speaks of his 
:n4). He is asserted (by Cook, 500-1) to have < fierce countenance '), with its effect height- 
been well versed in historical and political lite- ened by the dark periwig, is the most dis- 
rature, as well as in English law and divinity, i tinctive feature of all his portrait*. Of these 
He had a liking for poUte literature, and for ' the National Portrait Gallery contains three, 
the drama more especially. His literary judg- | of which one is by John Greenhill, another 
ments show much discernment, and he en- ' by Mrs. Beale, while a third, an allegorical 
couraged the stage. He was a buyer of pic- piece, is attributed to Sir Peter Lely. 
tares, and had a strong taste for architec- r^^ biography of Charles H of any preten- 
ture ; in the history of which art, even more ^^^^ ^^j^^ ^^^ Dr. William Harris's Histo- 
than in that of portrait painting, in hngland ricalandCriticalAcrount of the Life of Charles II 
his reign forms a memorable epoch. But, (2 vols. 1766), which, with its copious and eni- 
curiously enough, the bent of his intellect ^jte notes, * after the manner of Mr. Bayle,' 
was rather in the direct ion of physical science, forms a long and searching indictment against 
nor is it inappropriate that the Koyal Society the king. Of a lighter kind is the Memoir of 
should have been founded, though not pro- Charles in vol. iii. of J. H. Jesse's Memoirs of 
jected, in his reign. He knew, savs Evelyn, the Court of England under the Stuarts (4 vols, 
of many empirical medicines, and* the easier 1840). Of panegyrical hiHtones Aurelian Cook's 
mechanical mathematics. With his interest I Titus Brifannicut (1686) is serviceable; another 
in the former his anxiety for his health may i is Augustus Anglicus (1686). A useful short 
have had much to do, and with the latter his ' P/"^"*! History is appended to Bohn s edition 
love of ships and shipbuilding, for he was ^. Grammont. At the ^^^^^1^^^^^}^^^ 
constantly it Sheeniessand on the fleet, and 1 biographies of the king w,re of course published, 


KKJl). But ^ ^ 

of seeing dissectTons (11 May l»6i^), and de- ' of his Sncred Majesty King Charles 11 (1660)"; 
scribes his celebrated chemical laboratory as I ^ third, D. Lloyd's True Portraiture of the same 
a pretty place (15 Jan. 16(59). His liking (i660). On the other hand, the Secret History 
for chemistry, which he had shared with his ' of the Rrigns of Charles II and James II (1690) 
cousin Prince Rupert, was longlived ; in the is, so far as the former is concerned, a venomous 
very month of his death he was engaged in ' libel ; and the Secret Histr.ry of Whitehall (1697) 
experiments in the production of mercury a more eUborate attempt, pretending to be pub- 




lished from original papers bj D. Jones, is apo- 
cryphal though curious, aud seeks to trace the 
hand of France in everything. There is also a 
Secret History of the Court and Reien of 
Charles II (2 vols. 1792). Heath*s Chronicle of 
the late Intestine War, &c., 2nd ed., to which 
is added A Continuation to the present year 1675, 
by J. P. (1676), senree the purpose of brief an- 
nals up to that date. Of particular episodes in 
the life of Charles that of his wanderings after 
Worcester received both biographical and auto- 
biographical treatment (see above) ; the several 
accounts are collected in J. Hughes's Boecobel 
Tracts (1830, purtly repr. by Bohn, 1846) ; there 
is also a work by S. £. Hoskyns, Charles II in 
the Channel Islands (2 vols. 1854). Among con- 
temporary memoirs Clarendon's great work in 
its two divisions accompanies the public life of 
Charles II up to 1668 ,* the text cites the Ox- 
ford editions of the Rebellion (cited simply as 
Clarendon), 8 vols. 1826; and the Life, 3 vols. 1827. 
Next in importance is Burnet's History of his 
own Times (6 vols. Oxford 1833), which narrates 
the Scottish experiences of Charles II before the 
Restoration, and English and Scotch ai&irs from 
that date (Burnet went abroad in 1683). Vol. i. 
of Clarke's Life of James II (2 vols. 1816) con- 
tains genuine memoranda of his brother's life 
and reign. Evelyn's Diary gives the whole of 
the reign, that of Pepys ends 31 May 1669 ; the 
Correspondence of both extends beyond the 
death of Charles. An invaluable commentary on 
what it professes to condense is H. B. Wheatley's 
Samuel Pepys and the World he lived in (2nd 
ed. 1880). A. Hamilton's French Memoirs of 
the Court of Charles II by Count Grnmmont, 
which owe much to their real author, only cover 
the period from 1662-4. Of greater historical 
value are the iSavile Correspondence, ed. for the 
Camden Society by W. I). Cooper (1858), which 
Mpreuds over nearly the whole of the reign (from 
1661), but more particularly belongs to the years 
1677-82, and the Diary, beginning in 1679, and 
Correspondence of Henry Sidney, ed. by R. W. 
Blencowe (2 vols. 1843). Of annalisttc works 
Whitelocke's Memorials (4 vols. 1853) end with 
the Restoration, and N. Luttrell's Brief Re- 
lation (6 vols. 1857^ begins September 1678. 
Curious information is contained in the Hatton 
Correspondence, ed. for the CamHen Society by 
K. M. Thompson (2 vols. 1878), chiefly concern- 
ing the middle and later parts of the roign; in 
the Travels and Memoirs of Sir John Reresby 
(here cited in the 3rd ed. but well edited in 1875 
by Mr. Cartwright) ; in the Letters to Sir Joseph 
Williamson, 1673 and 1674, ed. for the Camden 
Society by W. D. Christie (2 vols. 1874) ; in the 
<lespatches of the Brandenburg minister. Otto von 
Schwerin, Briefe aus England, 1674-8 (Jterlin, 
1837), and in R. North's Life of Lord Guilford 
(Lives of the Norths, 3 vols. 1826). There are 
gleanings in vol. vi. of Ru»<hworth*s Historical 
Collections, 1618-48 (1703); Thurloe's State 
Papers, Ludlow's Memoirs, also in the Prideaux 
Letters, ed. for the Camden Society by E. M. 
Thompson (1876)» the Crosby Records, A Cava- 

lier's Note-book, ed. by T. Ellison (1880), Dr, 
E. Lake's D'ihtj (Camden Miscellany, vol. i. 
1 847), and the Pythouse Papers, ed. by W. A. Day 
(1879). In Ellis's Original Letters (1824-.7)» 
vol. iv. of the 2nd series in particular illustrates 
this reign. The letters of Secretary Coventry 
remain in manuscript at Longleat. Arlington's- 
Letters to Temple, &c., 1664-70, ed. by Bebington 
(2 vols. 1871). are valuable for the diplomatic 
history of the earlier half of the reign, as are 
the Letters of Temple himself (Works, 1750, 
vol. ii.), which extend to 1679, while his Memoirs 
(id. vol. i.) reach from 1672 to the same year. Of 
special periods in the biography of Charles, the 
Memoirs of the Duchess Sophia, ed. by A. Kd« 
cher (Leipsig, 1789), throw light on hisafbirs at 
the Hague b^ore the Scotch expedition, those of 
Cardinal de Retz (tr. 1 774) on his second sojourn 
in France ; Dr. Price's Mystery and Method of 
H.M.'s Happy Restonitioi) (1680, repr. in Ma- 
sires'sSelect (3ivil War Tracts, 1 81 5) on the trans- 
actions leading up to that event ; the Reliquise 
Baxteriane (1696) on the religious schemes and 
difficulties ensuing upon it. Forneron's papera 
in the Revue Historique, vol. xxviii., on the 
Duchess of Portsmouth are mainly based on the 
desmtches of Colbert de Croissy in the French 
nrchives. The authorities concerning the king's 
death and the circumstances attending it have 
been mentioned in the text, as has been the 
masterly summary or the character of King 
Charles II by Halifax (1750). The king's way 
of managing, or leaving .to be managed, Scotch 
and Irish affiiirs is to be gathered from the 
li&uderdale Papers, ed for the Camden Society 
by 0. Airy (3 vols. 1884-6), and from the Orrery 
State Letters (2 vols. 1743), and the document» 
in Carte's Life of Ormonde (6 vols. 1852) respec- 
tively. Of English (and French) State Papers 
and cognate documents a most important but in- 
complete selection forms the basis of Sir John 
Dalrymple's Memoirs of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, which begin with the dissolution of the 
Pensioners' Parliament (2 vob. 4th ed. 1773). 
The Clarendon State Papers (3 vols. 1767-80, 
calendared in 3 vols. 1872) extend only as far as 
the Restoration. Though much use has l)een 
made by historians of the despatches of Barillon, 
the French archives, as is shown by the recent 
researches of Forneron, contain much more in- 
formation concerning the reign of Charl&s II 
than has hitherto been made public. Modern 
students, however, have at their service the twelve 
volumes of Calendars of State Papers, Domestic 
Series, of the Commonwealth (1875-85), and the 
seven of the reig^ of Charles II (1860-6) up to 
1667, edited by Mrs. Everett (rreen, together 
with the volume of the Calendar of Treasury 
Papers 1556-7-1696, ed. by J. Bedington (1868). 
Much light is thrown on the finances by Secret 
Services of Charles II and James II, ed. for the 
Camden Society by J. Y. Akerman (1851). In 
addition there are the State Trials, the Parlia- 
mentary History, and Chamberlayiie's Angliae 
Notitie (here cited in the ed. of 1676), which 
last gives a valuable account of the constitution 


1 08 


of the court and household of the king. Mrs. Jame- 
son's Memoirs of the Beauties of the Court of 
Charles II (2 yols. 1830) derive interest from 
Lely's portraits ; but P. Cunningham's Story of 
Nell Gw^n is the compilation of a genuine anti- 
t|uary. A large number of pamphlets, &c. con- 
•oeming the events of the reign are collected in 
!iM)mers Tracts, vols. vii. and viii. (1812, see 
•especially vol. vii. for the popish plot agitation) ; 
the State Tracts in the collection here cited as 
.S.T.C. (1693) date especially from 1671 to 
1681, and are intended to justify the policy of 
■a league a^nst France. Of older historical 
works treatmg of the reign of Charles II those 
of Oldmixon, Echard, Kennet, Hume, and Mae- 
pherson are still quoted ; nor ought the opening 
<!hapter of Fox's unfinished History of James II 
to be forgr)tten, even by the side of Lord Macau- 
lay's more elaborate introduction to a far grander 
fragment. Together with Hallam the chapter in 
Qnest's Englisches Verwaltungsrecht, vol. i.(2nd 
ed. Berlin, 1867) deserves study. Guizot's Monck 
(tr. with notes by Stuart Wortley, 1838) and 
W. D. Christie's Life of SbaOesbury (2 vols. 
1871) are monographs of high merit. The best 
account of the foreign policy of England under 
Charles II is to be found in one of the most mas- 
terly portions of Ranke's Englische Geschichte 
(tr. 1875). The same side of the subject is treaUni 
in vols. i. and ii. of Onno Klopp's Fall des 
Hauses Stuart (Vienna, 1876). Vol. ii. of B. 
Vanghan's Memorials of the House of Stuart, 2 
vols. 1831, bears largely on the religious troubles 
of the times. Masson's Life of Milton, vol. v'l. 
best summarises the literary as well as the poli- 
tical condition of England in the earlier part of 
the reign ; and no student of any aspect of it 
will fail to turn to Scott's edition of Dryden, re- 
cently re-edited by Mr. Saintsbury.] A. W. W. 

CHABLES Edwabo Louis Philip 
Cabimir (1720-1788), commonly called the 
YovxG Pbetbndeb, eldest son of the Cheva- 
lier de St. Qeorge, or, as his adherents styled 
him, James III, and of the Princess Clemen- 
tine, a daughter of Prince James Sobieski, 
was bom at Home on 31 Dec. 1720. Owinff | 
to the differences between the chevalier and | 
his wife the education of the lad was de- 
sultory. Jesuit priests were exchanged for 
protestant tutors, and when these were dis- 
missed Jacobite soldiers took up the work 
of instruction, until the mind of the young 
prince became rather hazy. Yet Charles was 
not deficient in ordinary acquirements, and 
spoke French and Italian well at an early 
a^ ; he had a taste for music and the fine 
arts, and his conversation exhibited marked 
intelligence. Charles served with much 
credit at the siege of Oaeta (1734) under the 
Duke of Liria. * I wish to God,* writes Liria 
to his brother, the Duke of Fitz-James, ' that 
some of the greatest sticklers in England 
iigaiofit the family of the Stuarts had been eye- 

witnesses of this prince's resolution during^ 
that siege, and I am firmly persuaded that 
they would soon change their way of think- 
ing.* As he grew up the hopes of the Jacobites 
became more and more centred in the prince. 
The Old Pretender by his miserable conduct 
to his wife had completely alienated his ad- 
herents. The birth of Charles and the favour- 
able impression made by his courage, dig- 
nity, and intelli^nce restored the waning 
energies of the Jacobites. The year 17^ 
saw England supporting the cause of Maria 
Theresa and at variance with France. The 
Jacobites, through their English and Scotch 
committees, proceeded to put the machinery 
of conspiracy into motion. Scotland, it was 
said, could raise twenty thousand men. Eng- 
lish Jacobite leaders predicted that Charles 
hod onl^ to appear to make all England em- 
brace his cause. France also was lavish in 
her offers of assistance. On the faith of these 
promises the young prince resolved to head an 
expedition. * I ffo, sire,' said he to his father, 

* in search of three crowns, which I doubt 
not but to have the honour and happiness of 
laying at your majesty's feet. If I fail in 
the atten^t, your next sight of me shall be 
in my comn.' The departure of Charles ^m 
Rome was secret, but the English govern- 
ment was at once informed of the fact. As 
the prince passed through Florence, Sir 
Horace Mann drew his portrait and sent it 
to the Duke of Newcastle : * The young man 
is above the middle height and very thin, 
lie wears a light bag wig ; his face is rather 
long, the complexion clear, but borders on 
paleness ; the forehead very broad, the eyes 
fairly large — blue but without sparkle ; the 
mouth lar^, with the lips slightly curled, 
and the chin more sharp tnan rounded.' On 
the arrival of the prince in France war had 
not as yet broken out between England and 
France, but the remonstrances of the Eng- 
lish cabinet led to a speedy rupture. It soon 
became evident to Charles that the zeal of 
France on his behalf was by no means com- 
mensurate with her promises of aid. The 
Dunkirk expedition, which had set out for 
the invasion of England with seven thousand 
troops on board under Marshal Saxe, had to 
beat a retreat before the vigilance of the Eng- 
lish channel fleet, while, a storm springing up, 
the expedition only succeeded in regaining 
the French coast at a severe loss. This dis- 
aster damped French enthusiasm, and the 
prince was informed that at present further 
assistance could not be expected from Ver- 
sailles. Charles vowed that he would cross 
over to Scotland and raise his standard, even 

* if he took only a single footman with him.* 
All his adherents, excepting the Duke of 




Perth, deemed this a mad resolve, but the 
prince was not to be deterred. He borrowed 
180,000 livres, ordwed hisjewels to be pawned, 
and, without the knowledge either of his 
father or the French ministry, embarked at 
Belleisle in the Doutelle, one of two ships 
lent to a private individual to cruise on the 
Scottish coast. The little squadron set sail 
on 1*3 Julv 1745, and four oays afterwards 
fell in with an English man-of-war, the Lion, 
which immediately engaged the Elizabeth, 
the consort of the Doutelle. After a con- 
test of six hours each vessel was so shat- 
tered that the enemies parted and the Eliza- 
beth, with all the arms and ammunition of 
the expedition on board, had to bear up for 
Brest, while the Doutelle held on for Scot- 
land, where on 2 Aug. Charles landed at an 
islet in the Hebrides, a part of the posses- 
sions of Macdonald of Clanranald. He was 
advised to return to France by those who 
now welcomed him. * I am come home,' said 
Charles, ' and I will not return to France, 
for I am persuaded that my faithful high- 
landers wul stand by me.' With the con- 
spicuous exceptions of Macdonald of Sleat 
and Macleod of Macleod, all the neighbour- 
ing chiefs flocked in, thoufirh boding no good 
from the undertaking. His followers soon 
swelled into a formidable gathering, and on 
19 Aug. the royal standard was unfurled at 
Glenfinnan, and Charles began his march 
south. As soon as the committee of six, 
which had then the control of the affairs of 
the government in Scotland, began to re- 
cognise the danger, prompt measures were 
adopted. A price of 30,000/. was put upon 
the nead of the prince, troops were levied, and 
Sir John Cope was ordered to take up the 
dragoon horses from grass and to secure the 
forts and garrisons in the highlands. Cope 
was, however, easilv outwittwl by the tactics 
of the rebels, and Charles pressed on to 
Perth, where he was joined by Lord Ceor^ 
Murray. Halting at Perth a week to dis- 
cipline his forces, the prince marched to 
Edinburgh, where he was received with the 
utmost enthusiasm. And now the severe 
defeat of Cope, who had at last come up with 
the enemy at Prestonpans, caused matters 
for the first time to look serious for the go- 
vernment. Their best officer. Marshal Wade, 
declared that Scotland was lost, and that 
England would fall a prev to the first comer. 
Horace Walpole wrote that he should have 
to leave Arlington Street for some wretched 
attic in Herrenhausen, and perhaps be re- 
duced to give lessons in Latin to the young 
princes at Copenhagen. Three battalions of 
the guards and seven regiments of infantry 
were recalled from Flanders, under the Duke 

of Cumberland ; Wade was to march north 
with a large force, including six thousand 
Dutch auxifiaries ; while Cope was ordered to 
throw himself into Newcastle. The militia 
was also called out. The prince marched 
south, resolved upon swiftly reaching London 
and following up his advantage. By way of 
Kelso he crossed the border into Cumberland, 
and laid siege to Carlisle (8 Nov.), which 
after a few davs, disappointed at not re- 
ceiving relief n*om Wade, was forced to 
capitulate. At this time Wade, who had 
expected the rebels bv the east coast, was 
making his way with much difficulty to 
Newcastle ; but he was now completely out- 
generalled by Lord George Murray, who pive 
him the slip at Carlisle, so that the high- 
landers were soon between him and the me- 
tropolis. Marching by Penrith, Shap, Kendal^ 
and Lancaster, the rebels reachea Preston 
(27 Nov.), while Wade was toiling after 
them through Yorkshire. The Duke of Cum- 
berland had landed from Flanders, and was 
at Lichfield the same day that the hi^hlanders 
entered Preston, and on their reaching Man- 
chester he was under the impression that 
they intended passing through Cheshire inta 
Wales. And now he was deluded by Lord 
George Murray as completely as Marshal 
Wade had been. By a mlse attack on Con- 
gleton, the duke was induced to leave the 
route to Derby by Ashbourne open, and thus 
to their great delight the clans entered Derby 
two or three days in advance of their anta- 
gonists. The news of this fresh move of the 
prince fell on London like a thunderbolt. 
The shops were shut up and all business 
was suspended ; there was a run on the 
bank : the guards were marched to Finchley,. 
and the Duke of Cumberland was requested 
to hasten up to London. Yet at this very 
time the question of retreat was seriously 
discussed by the Jacobites. On 5 Dec. Lori 
George Murray and other officers high in 
command waited on the prince to express 
their conviction that the cause was hopeless, 
and that their only safety lay in beatmg an 
immediate retreat. The French, they said, 
had not landed, the English had not risen, 
thej were between the duke's and Wade's 
armies, either of which was equal to their 
own. The prince remonstrated, but was 
forced to yield ; he had no alternative, and 
contented himself with declaring that in fu- 
ture he should act on his own discretion. 

Shortly after dawn on 6 Dec. the high- 
land army began its retreat northwaro.s. 
The duke was outmarched, Wade was out- 
witted, and Hawley, who had succeeded 
Wade, was defeated at Falkirk. The clans 
marched rapidly, but the Duke of Cumber- 

Charles "o Charles 

land followed them slowly and surely. At who had joined him soon after his return 
last the rebels were brougnt to bay on Cul- from Scotland. It is certain that he was in 
loden Moor, 16 April 17^. Oharles, though ! London in 1750, and that at this time he 
his forces were diminished by desertion and | declared himself a protestant, under the idea 
weakened by fatigue, resolyed to offer battle, that by so doing he would greatly improve 
The clans, outnumbered and outgeneralled, his chance of obtaining the Englfsh crown, 
suffer^ a severe and complete defeat, and ' Evidence has also presented itself that he 
the cause of the prince lost its last and only ' was in London in 1752 and 1754 to rouse the 
liope. After the action the highlanders were English Jacobites into action, but without 
found lying in layers three and four deep, success. Indeed his friends were di8gust«d 
Horrorstruck and overwhelmed by the sight ' with liis conduct.. Charles was now an in- 
•of the slaughter of his brave followers, the : veterate drunkard ; it is said that he acquired 
imhappy pnnce left the battle-field of OuUo- his drinking habits when exposed to the cold 
•den with a few members of his staff. A vain ' and wet in Scotland dunzig the anxious 
iittempt to rally his scattered forces at Ruth- : months of his fugitive life. His union with 
yen was the last struggle of Charles to main- ' Miss Walkenshaw also tended to alienate his 
tain an organised opposition to the advance ' followers. The sister of this lady was house- 
of the royal troops. He fled and remained ' keeper to the Princess Dowager of Wales, 
for mont&s — from April to September 1746 ' and the English Jacobites, suspecting that 
— hiding in various islands of the Hebrides ! the prince's mistress was playing false to the 
and among the crags of the western high- ' cause, tried to induce Charles to send her 
lands. He was hunted from place to place ' away. He refused, not, as he admitted him- 
by the Hanoverian soldiery ; an enormous self, because he loved her, but because he de- 
sum was placed on his head ; but, in spite of ' dined to be dictated to even by his most 
poverty and ignorance, the loyalty of the trusted friends. In 1756 we find him making 
highlanders was proof against all tempta- ' Switzerland his home, and living for the 
tion. At last Charles was fortunate enough ' most part at Basle, with occasional visits to 
in getting on board a French ship, and arrived ' Paris. His ill-re^pilated home was now to 
safely at Morlaix in Brittany. Thence he be broken up. Miss Walkenshaw, unable to 
proceeded to Paris, where he was cordially i bear the brutality of the prince, left him in 
received by I>ouis XV, who renewed his ' 1760 and took refuge with her infant daugh- 
assurances of assistance. Charles, however, ter in the abbey of Meaux. In 1766 the 
was not unreasonably suspicious of a court Chevalier St. George died, and Charles, now 
which had fulfilled none of its promises of ' titular king of England, took up his abode 
aid. He was now informed by Cardinal at Rome, expecting to be acknowledged by 
Tencinthat Louis miffht be induced to grant ' Benedict XI V. He was bitterly disappointed, 
him help on one condition. * And that con- ' The counsellors of the pope saw clearly that 
dition P eagerly asked the prince. * That to incur the hostility of^England for the sake 
Ireland be ceded to France,' replied the car- of a creaturt* like the present representative 
dinal, ' as a compensation for the expense of the house of Stuart was not calculated to 
the court at Versailles must necessarily be I benefit the interests of the holy see, and the 

dinal, . _ _ _ _ _ 

de partage 1 * The king of France continued, by the remonstrances of his brother Henry, 
however, to accord his visitor * moral sup- now created Cardinal York, and whose entry 
port' until 1748, when, in accordance with into the Romish hierarchy had given a great 
the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Charles was ' blow to the cause, he in 1767 agreed to pay 
requested to leave France. The prince re- his respects to his holiness, and became once 
solved to disobey the order. He refused to more a member of Roman society. It was 
listen to all expostulations, and was at last not the wish of France to see the Stuart 
expelled by force, removing to Avignon. An ' line extinct, and Charles, on promise of a 
objection was raised by the English govern- ' pension from the French court., married in 
ment to his stay in this city, and Charles ' 1772 Louisa, princess of Stolberg, whose 
departed of his own accord, no one knew I beauty and wit won the heart of Al fieri. For 
whither. For the next few years his move- ' a short time Charles lived happily with his 
ments are wrapped in mystery, which recent j wife, but he soon became enslaved again by 
investigation has onl v partially unveiled. For ! his love of drink, and commenced that coursie 
some time he was living secretly in Paris, of ill-usage which eventually compelled the 
though not unknown to the French govern- princess to separate herself* from her hus- 
ment, with his mistress, Miss Walkenshaw, iNUid. In 177/ the Countess of Albany met 

Charles m Charles 

Alfieri. The intrigue between them was as | died on 2 Sept. 1834, and was buried at 
much the effect of Charles*8 ill-conduct as it | Llangunnor. His eloquent ' Sermons ' were 
was the immediate cause of the final quarrel i published at Chester in 1840, and were trans- 
bet ween him and his wife. The countess fled | lated in 184C. They have been several times 
to Rome in 1780, and was very kindly treated , reprinted. 

by her brothep-inrlaw the cardinal, who acted | [Memoir by H. Hughes, prefixed to English 
in the matter with marked good sense and , edition of Charles's Sermons.] T. F. T. 

good feeling. A separation was arranged, | 

and the countess continued to live openly | CHABLES, JOSEPH (171B-1780), au- 
with Alfieri till his death. Neglectea and i thor of ' The Dispersion of the Men of Ba- 
in solitude, Charles now thought of the | bel, and the principal cause of it enquired 
daughter that had been bom to him by Miss | into* (1755, 2nd edition 1769), was bom at 
Walkenshaw in the days of his wanderings. ; Swaffham, Norfolk ; the register of his bap- 
He heard that she was living with her mother ; tism is Nov. 1716. If he studied at any 

in the convent at Meaux, and he wrote ask- 
ing her to come and live with him. She 
acceded to his request, and became a great 

English university, he took no degree; he 
must not be confounded with his father, 
Joseph Charles, who graduated at Oxford 

favourite in Florentine society. Charles j 1710. He was present^ in 1740 to the vicar- 
created her Duchess of Albany, and until | age of Wighton, which he retained till his 
his death regarded her with the greatest death on 4 July 1786. He was buried at 
affection. He lived now chiefly at Florence, Swaffham, of which his father had been vicar, 
but returned to Rome a few months before j The 'Dispersion* is his only known book, 
his death, 31 Jan. 1788. His brother became j The argument is based on a literal acceptance 
the pensioner of George HI, who with a | of the narrative in Genesis, supplemented by 
grraceful generosity placed in 1819 a menu- i harmonising interpretations of prophecy and 
ment by Canova over the tomb of James HI i concurring testimonies of profane writers. It 
and his two sons in St. Peter's. The Jacobite i is written in a style prolix even for the time, 
cause, except as a sentimental reminiscence, but characterised by much naivete. To 
had long since been buried by Charles him- Japhet was given the possession of all Europe 
self. I and America, and the sentence appainst Ham 

[Sir Horace Mann*s Letters among the State | — 'servant of servants' — is now m full force. 
Papers of Tuscany in the Record Office; Decline : 'Are we not trading constantly to Guinea 
of the last Stuarts by Earl Stanhope. Roxburghe | for them P . . . Howmany millions of negroes 
Club; Letters of John Walton among the State i have been transported from their own country 
Papers Italian states in the Record Office; Sute , gjnce Japhet got possession of America P' 
Papers, Dom. 1746-6; MS. Journal by Lord j The city afterwards called Babel 'must needs 
Elcho, in po«8j»88ion of Mrs Erskine Wemyss ; . ^^^^ l^n jjui^. j^ ^he district of Ham.' 
the Ifckhart Papew; Stuart Papers; Sir Walter ^.^^ ^^s the head of the undertaking, 
Scott's Tales of a Grandfather ; von Renmonrs ^i- i, i^;„^ ^^«*— ,.„ *,. ♦!,« j;«:«« .v,,.™! 
Die Grafin von Albany ; Life of Prince Charles ' ^^^^^' ]>®'"5 contrary to the divine purpose, 
b A C Ewald 1 ACE! ^** defeated by a miraculous gift of lan- 

y ' ' '^ I gruages. ' These men therefore must have had 

CHARLES, DAVID (1762-1834), of • their new languages, as the first man had his, 
Carmarthen, Welsh preacher and writer, a j by divine inspiration, and Moses tells us that 
vounger brother of tne celebrated Thomas . this was the case ... so that tliis miracle is 

Charles of Bala [q. v.J, was bom at Uanfi- 
hangel-Abercowin. He was apprenticed to 
« flax-dresser and rope-maker at Carmarthen, 
afterwards spent three years at Bristol, and 
finally married and settled down at Carmar- 
then. Long connected with the Calvinistic 
methodists, he began to preach at the age of 
forty-six, and was one of the first lay-preachers 
ordained ministers in South Wales in 1811. 
He soon won an exceptional reputation as a 
preacher, both in Welsh and English. He 
travelled all over South Wales, and was espe- 

• «« ^'i* •! 11 V* * 1* m\ • 

one grand and living demonstration of the 
truth of Moses' history.' 

[Blomefield*8 Norfolk, ix. 209; Swaffham 
parish registers, and information from vicars of 
Swaffham and Wighton.] J. M. S. 

(d. 1013), herald, is stated by Noble to have 
been son of a London butcher named George 
Carles, and grandson of Richard Carles of 
Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. Wil- 
liam Careless or Carlos [q. v.] is believed to 

cially distinguished by his extending the m- have belonged to the same family. The 
fluence of the methodists to the English- herald's name is epelt in a variety of ways, 
speaking districts. He was possessed ofsuffi- i but Charles is the commonest form. At an 
cient means from trade, and received nothing | early age Charles appears to have entered 
for his preaching. Paralysed in 1828, he | the College of Arms as Blanch-Lion pur- 

Charles 1 1 2 Charles 

mil van t. Hi« Hkill and industry attracted precursor of the methodist movement in 

fill; fittention of hiH suneriora, and on 21 April Wales and the founder of the ' circulating 

MKJil he waM cn^ated Lancanter herald in the schools/hadheenyicar until his death in 1761. 

plfiC!«? of Francis Thynne. In 1611 he ac- Falling under the influence of an old disciple 

i!/»mpariif!d Hir Richard St. George, Norroy of Jones*s named Rees Hugh, Charles 'early 

king of arma, in hin viaitation of Derbyshire, ffutertained serious impressions.' When four* 

and on *I'2 July 161') William Camden (Cla- teen years old he was sent to the gp^anunar 

n^nceux king) nominated him his deputy for school at Carmarthen, and there he joined 

the viHitatiori of IIuntingdouMhire. Charles one of the methodist societies. He ascribed 

had ban>ly ompleted this task when he died his full ' awakening ' to a sermon from the- 

on 19 Nov. following. He married Penelope, famous Rowland of Llangeitho on 20 Jan. 

daughter of Hir Wuliam 8egar, Garter king 1773. The methodistswere still in communion 

(»f nnuM, who survived him and became the with the established church, so that CharlesV 

wife of Timothy Cartwright of WaAhboum, sympathies with them did not affect his de- 

Gl oncost orMhi re. stination for the ministrv. ' Providence un» 

(yharleH was in(imati) with the antiquaries expectedly and wonderfully opened up his 

(if liiH day. He was the friend of Camden way to Oxford/ where he matriculated at 

HU(l Hir Robert. (>)tton. Milles commends Jesus College on 31 May 1776. There he 

him in his 'Titles of Honour/ and Howes, remained until 1778. He became acquainted 

t he (*^)ntinuer of Htow's ' Chronicle/ acknow- with many of the chief evan^lical and me- 

liMlgori his assistance. Camden is said to thodist leaders, stayed during a simimer 

have ])urchaHedChurlus*H valuable manuscript vacation with Newton at Olney, where h& 

eollections after his death for 90/. A nor- met the ' great Romaine/ and on 14 June- 

tioii of thest) collections is now at the Col- 1778 was ordained deacon by the Bishop of 

It^ge of Arms, but the greater part is in the Oxford, as curate of Queen's Camel in So- 

Hritinh Mumuim. Amon^ the more impor- mcrset. During the summer he visited Wales, 

(ant volunieM is a collection of epitaphs in ' preached his nrst sermon in the church of^ 

the ch unfiles of Ijondon and elsewhere, with ! nis native village, paid a pilgrimage to Uan- 

driiwingri of monuments and arms (Lansd. ! geitho, and met on a visit to Bala Miss Sarah 

NJH. 874), and an historical catalogue of the Jones, the lady who subsequently became 

oIlleerH of the (Jollege of Arms (Harl. M8. his wife. In 1779 he took the degree of BJV. 

r>8H0). (J<uigh states that Le Neve possessed He found his curacy at Queen's Camel very 

n nmiiuHcrint visitation of Stafforashire by distasteful ; the villagers showed ' great coii- 

( -hsrleN, ana Sir John ('ullum a visitation of t«mpt to the gospel and godly living ; ' the 

Siilfolk ; but of these documents nothing is absentee rector r^uced Cmu*les*s salary from 

now known. Sin-eral of (Charles's letters are 4^/. to 40/. and then to 30/. ; but a clergyman 

nnunig the f'-ott^^nian MS8. named Lucas, vicar of Milbome Port, an old 

( 'hiirlesV Hunt ingdoushirt^ visitation is ex- Oxford friend, took him to live with him and 

Sir lltMirv KlUs ( 1849). The other two are He rejected an offer of Lady Huntingdon^ 

Ht the liritish Sluseum (Harl. MS8. 1075, chapel at Bath, and in 1783 abandoned his 

1 1 r\> ). curacy to marry (20 Aug.) and settle at Bain. 

[Sir Honry Kllissi IVofAoo to Charless Visita- When at last 'engaged to serve a church/ h»- 

lion ^r«nul.' S«H?. 1849^^ ; Noble's Hist. Collec:© was, 'after two Sundays, genteelly excused." 

of AriuH, pp. 2U>1A. 220; Oough's British To- nnd was content to take dutv at places so 

tH^^niphy. ii. -*IU> ; Cstt. of Harleisn MSS., distant from his home as ShawWrymShrop- 

UiiiMlowno MS8., And CottoniAQ MSS. at the shire, nnd Llanymawdd^y, fourteen miles 

\\y\\. Mus.) S. L. L. south-west over the mountains ; but in April 

OHARLEa THOMAS i^l7.V>-1814\ of 1784 the rector of the latter place dismissed 

\\%^ Welsh preacher and writer, was bom him. Charles was not in want of actual 

liala, ^> eisn preaener ana wnier, was oom 

on 14 iVt. l75o at l^Mitdwfn, in the parish means, as his wife conducted a large drapery 

K^{ Llantihangt*l-Ab*»rcowin, nt^ar St. Clears business at Bala. He bepn new and in- 

in Carmarthenshirt\ He A\-as the second dependent work by collecting and catechis- 

M»n of a larg*» family, of which l>avid, the ing the children of Bala, for which purpose 

t hinl sou ■ s^v i'liAKLBS, DiTiD], also attained he gladly accepted the use of the Calvinistic 

jH^me emineuiV, His father, Ri«» Charles, methodist chapel there. At the end of 1784 

was a small farmer. Thomas was sent to he preached in the chapel, and at once became 

S4*htK4 when aK>ut ten or twelve years old one of the most promment of the methodist 

10 LlamWowTor. whew Grilfith Jones, the olergr. He was soon ceaselessly occupied in 

Charles 113 Charles 

long preaching journeys over the whole of j Treasury), almost the first of its kind in the 
North Wales, and acquired celebrity for finely j Welsh language. It stopped in 1802, but 
delivered sermons which dwelt mainly * on ; was again published between 1809 and 1813. 
plain practical truths.' The results of Charles's i W^ith the object of printing good Welsh text- 
preacning were very striking. He was the , books for his circulating and Sunday schools 
first to spread the methodist movement in j with greater facility and less expense, he 
North Wales. Following the example of | established in 1803 a press at Bala, which 
Jones of Llanddowror, he began in 1785 ^ before his death was said to have issued fifty- 
to institute 'circulating* schools in North five editions and 320,000 copies. In 1805 
Wales. Money came from his methodist | he began to issue from the Bala press his 
friends in England ; he trained the teachers , * Geiriadur Ysgrythyrol ' (Scriptural Dic- 
himself, and oevoted the whole of the income ! tionary), which extended to four volumes 
from the chapel he served at Bala to their , octavo, and was completed in 1808. Of 
support. A school was established first in this his enthusiastic biographer says : ' It is 
one village, and then when, in about six to a magazine of useful, rich, scriptural know- 
nine months, the children had learned to read ledge ; ' * truly evangelical yet wholly prac- 
their bibles in W^elsh, was moved to another, tical,' ' a model of Welsh style,* and, * next 
Charles took a very active part in their man- to the Bible, the best book in the Welsh 
agement. His sympathetic and tender dis- language.' It has since gone through seven 

Position made him peculiarly successful in j editions. In 1801 he drew up the first de- 
is dealings with children. In 1789 he was finite constitution of the methodists (* Rheo- 
probably the first (but cf. Rees, WeUk Non- ! lau a Dybenion y Gymdeithas Neillduol yn 
conformity J pp. 893-5) to introduce Sunday mhlith y bobl a elwir y Methodist iaid yn 
schools into Wales, which were attended by Nghymru'). In 1802 he published an English 
adults as well as children. The standard of tract, * The Welsh Methodists vindicated,' in 
morality was thus notablv raised. The growth , answer to anonymous attacks on the society 
of Sunday schools, conducted by ^atuitous , (reprinted in Hughes's X{/5?, ch.xii.) He was 
teachers, made less necessary the circulating appointed by the Bible Society to prepare 
schools, which were also more expensive and ; for the press their editions of the Welsh 
difficult to maintain. Before long, associa- ^ Bible, and his alterations in the orthography 
tions of the difierent Sunday schools were occasioned a sharp literary war with advo- 
collected and catechised in some central place, ' cates of the older spelling, which, on an 
and Charles could point with just pride to , appeal to arbitration, was decided against 
assemblies, so great that no building would him. Among Charles's lesser literary labours 
hold them, gathered together in the open i may be enumerated a * Recommendatory Pre- 
fields. In 1791 a great * revival' radiated face to the works of W. Cradock ' (1800) ; a 
from Bala throughout North Wales as the translation of Jewel's *Apology 'into Welsh, 
result of Charles's Sunday schools. with a life of the bishop (1808) ; an arranged 

Zeal for the religious education of his and enlarged edition of the hymns of nis 
countrymen led Charles into literary com- , friend, the Rev. P.Oliver of Chester (1808); 
position. In 1775 his initials appeared on ; * Advice to Christian Professors,' written 
a Welsh tract called, *Yr Act am Bwyso jointlywith01iver(1817); theautobiography, 
Aur,' published at Carmarthen at the time j letters, and essays issued after his death ; and 
when ne was about leaving school there. In ^ a multitude of occasional articles and tracts 
1789 he printed at Trevecca the first draft on various subjects (Rowlands, Cambrian 
of the catechism which was afterwards uni- | Bibliography ; British Museum Catalogue). 
versally employed among the methodists of ' Charles kept up a closer relation with the 
Wales. It was called *Crynodeb o Egwy- ! leaders of Calvinistic methodism in England 
ddorion Crefydd, neu Gatecism byrr i blant , than any of the other great Welsh ministers, 
ac eraill, i'w dysgu.' In later and better and had in his own day u considerable English 
known editions it was styled ' Hyfforddwr , reputation. The disciple of Whitefield, he 
vn Egwyddorion y Grefydd Gristionogol.* i yet showed a charity and tolerance towards 
In 1797 appeared in English * An Evange- , the * Arminian methodists ' who followed 
lical Catechism, recommended by the late Wesley. Ladv Huntingdon befriended him, 

Countess of Huntingdon for all the children 
in the schools attending her chapels ' (Lon- 
don), which in 1817 reached a fourth edition. 
In 1799 Charles began, in conjunction with 
his friend, Thomas Jones oi Denbigh, to 
issue at Chester a quarterly religious maga- 

and adopted his catechism in her schools. He 
paid constant visits to London, corresponded 
with and visited Scott, Cecil, and others of 
*the serious clergy,' collected subscriptions 
for his Welsh projects, dined on board the 
Duff missionary yacht, spoke, preached, and 

zine called ' Trysorfa Ysprydol ' (Spiritual prayed for the London ALissionary Society, 
TOL. X. ' I 

Charles 114 Charlesworth 

established in 1795, and from 1793 onwards 
regularly served for three months in the year 
at Lady Huntingdon's famous chapel in Spa 
Fields, Clerkenwell(Zi/<5 and Times ofSelina, 
Countess of Huntingdon^ ii. 304-9 ; PiNK, 
History of ClerJcenwell, 141-8). Charles was 
fiercely attacked in the * Quarterly lleview ' 
(xxxvi. 7-8). 

In 1807 he paid a visit to Ireland, and 
endeavoured, in conjunction with the Hi- 

contents of the * Trysorfa.' In 1801 Charles 
drew up, at a quarterly association at Bala, an 
elaborate system of rules and regulations for 
the conduct of members of the society. But 
that very constitution repudiated dissent from 
the doctrinal articles of the established church. 
The burning question was, however, the ordi- 
nation of the lay preachers. For many years 
Welsh methodists discussed whether they 
should not follow the example of John Wesley 

bemianSociety,to establish schools for teach- in this respect, and the 'methodist clergy' 
ing in Irish, and * gospel preaching ' in the opposed the desire of the ])reacher8 for fur- 
same language. He also interested himself I ther recognition. In 1810 the death of Jones 
in Gaelic schools and preaching (1811). of Llangan deprived the conservatives of a re- 

Charles helped to found the British and ' spected leader, and Charles, who had hitherto 
Foreign Bible Society, mainly with a view ' opposed any change in the position of the lay 
to printing a bible at a price within the reach preachers, assented to their demands at an 
of the thousands who flocked to his Sunday association at Bala in 1810. At the next meet- 
schools. The Society for the Promotion of ing (1811) he himself ordained eight of the 
Christian Knowledge was persuaded to issue foremost lay preachers. The immediate result 
ft cheap bible in 1799, but * peremptorily do- was separation from the established church, 
clined to do any more. In December 1802, ' Charles's health was now declining, owing 
when Charles was in London, he suggested to his continued exertions. He died on 5 Oct. 
to a committee of the Tract Society tne plan 1814, and amid a vast concourse was buried 
of establishing a society like the Tract So- i in Llanycil churchyard. Without any very 
ciety, with the special object of furnishing great intellectual qualities, and with all the 
Welsh bibles at a low price. This plan, at limitations of the evangelical school, he yet 
the suggestion of a fellow-countryman, the possessed in abundant measure moral worth. 
Rev. Joseph Hughes, was extended from the strength of character, and capacity for leader- 
purely Welsh basis which Charles had sug- ship. 

gested to a more general one. The society I Mrs. Charles died 20 Oct. 1814. Charles's 
was soon established, and in July 1806 the ' grandson. Dr. David Charles (d. 1878), 
first copies of the Welsh bible printed by the I joined with his granddau^hter*s husband, Dr. 
society, prepared for the press by Charles ' Lewis Edwards, to open, in 1837, the Calvin- 
himself, were distributed (J. Owen, History I istic Methodist College at Bala, and was from 
of the Bible Society; Owen , Memoir of the 1842 to 1862 principal of the Methodist 
Bev. ThomMS Jones of Creaton; two interest- College, then establisncd on the site of Lady 
ing letters of Charles to H. Boase, esq., in "^-— * — ^ — *- -'-^ i-,^*.:*.,*:^ — ^4. t«w«^«««« 

Add. MS. 29281, if. 8-10). 

Charles was the organiser of Welsh Cal- 

vinistic methodism. For many years his 
position had been that of all Laay Hunting- 
don's followers. Repudiated by the church. 

Huntingdon's old institution at Trevecca. 

[There are several biographies of Charles: 
1. Cofiant neu hanes bywyd a marwolaeth T. 
Charles (Bala, 1816), written by his friend, the 
Rev. Thomas Jones of Denbigh. 2. Memoir 
of the Life and Laboars of Thomas Charles, by 

and preaching and teaching regardless of the Rev. Edward Morgan, vicar of Syston (Lon 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction, they carefully dis- don, 1828). These both largely consist of his 
claimed the title of dissenter, used the An- Diary and Letters. Mr. Morgan also published, 
glican liturgy in their worship, and allowed in 1837. Charles's Essays and Letters. 3. Life 
none but priests episcopally ordained to ad- and Letters of Thomas Charles, by the Rev. 
minister the Holy Communion, for which William Hughes (Rhyl 1881), which reprints 
and for baptism the connexion still largely . «°I"« ,P?f ^°f,.''? C^^j;l««« writings, but con- 
had recoui^e to the parish churches. Only ^v!"!,^^"^' ^^^^'^^^^^^VT'X/ M^^^^^^^^^ 
, « t .Y.'^ri *• 1 A i. J Shorter memoirs are m the Eclectic Review for 
heavyfines under the Conventicle Act drove jg.^g jj ^^^^,^ jj^^^^ Methodistiaid Cymru. 

them to obtain the benefit of the Toleration j^^^^.g History of Welsh Nonconformity, and 

Act by registering their chapels as places of prefixed to the fourth edition of the Geiriadur 

nonconformist worship. The development of Ysgrythyrol (Bala, 1836).] T. F. T. 

a complex system of organisation gradually 

and half-unconsciously created what might 
easily become a separate church. For some 

KER (1783-1853), physician, was son of 

years regular meetings and associations had John Charlesworth, rector of Ossington, Not- 
been held, accounts of which, drawn up by tinghamshire, whose father was a medical 
Charles, form the most valuable portion of the I man and was brother of another John Charles- 




worth, a well-known clergyman [see under 
Chableswobth, MiJUA Louisa]. After a 

Supilage with Dr. £. Harrison of Homcastle, 
e went to Edinburgh, where he graduated 
M.D. in 1807. He married a daughter of | 
Dr. Rockclifie of Homcastle, and settled at { 
Lincoln, where he acquired a large prac- 
tice. He became physician to the Lincoln ' 
county hospital, and from 1820 visiting phy- i 
sician to the Lincoln asylum for the in- 
sane. Having become conversant in Dr. 
Harrison's private asylum with the extremely 
coercive methods of treating the insane then i 
in vogue, Charlesworth devoted his energies 
for many years to improving the system at | 
Lincoln, and verv early secured the issue i 
of an order forbiciding attendants to use re- 
straint or violence without the consent of' 
the directors. He brought about succes- | 
sive improvements of the structure and ar- j 
rangements of the asylum, and secured in I 
1821 a classification of patients and oppor- 
tunities for their full exercise in the open 
air. In 1828 he obtained an order * that 
eveiy instrument of restraint when not in 
use be hung up in a place distinctly appro- 
priated to that purpose, so that the number 
and nature of such instrument in use at any 
time may appear.' Various more objection- 
able instnunents were destroyed, and the 
house surgeon was ordered to record every 
case of coercion. Finally, when a house 
surgeon named Had wen was in office in 1834, 
for some weeks no single patient was under 
restraint. While Mr. Gardiner Hill was 
house surgeon from 1835 onwards, mechanical 
restraint was practically abolished, and the 
experience of this asylum powerfully influ- 
enced Dr. Conolly in resolving to abolish 
restraint at Hanwell. Mr. Hill afterwards 
claimed the sole merit of this result ; but 
Charlesworth's long uphill fight for many 
years was undoubtedly the main factor in pro- 
ducing it {Lancet, 6 Nov. 1863, pp. 43^-42). 
Chiurlesworth was a most capable physi- 
cian, devoted to the poor, accomplishing 
much by rigid economy of time, very practi- 
cal in, everything, a strict disciplinarian, yet 
zealous in wise reforms. He died of paralysis 
on 20 Feb. 1853. 

[Lancet, 12 March 1853, p. 255 ; Extract from 
Lecture by Dr. Conolly, Lancet, 14 May 1853, 
p. 458 ; Lancet, 5 Nov. 1853, pp. 439-42 ; Medi- 
cal Times and Gazette, 19 March 1853; Conolly's 
Treatment of the Insane, 1856 ; Sir J. Clark's 
Memoir of John Conolly, 1869; Charlesworth 's 
Komarks on the Treatment of the Insane, 1828.] 

G. T. B. 

(1819-1880), author, was daughter of John 
Ohablbswobth (1782-18(U), son of John 

Charlesworth, rector of Ossington, Notting- 
hamshire. Her father was curate of Happis- 
burgh, Norfolk (1809); B.D. of Queens* Col- 
lege, Cambridge (1826) ; rector of Flowton, 
Suffolk (1814-44); rector of St. Mildred's, 
London (1844-62) ; an ardent supporter of 
church societies, and an admirable clergyman 
(Fitzgerald, TheQtiiet Worker for good John 
Charlestoorth, 1865). Maria Louisa Charles- 
worth was bom at the rectory of Blakenham 
Par\'a, near Ipswich, held by her father for a 
sliort time while rector of Flowton, 1 Oct. 
1819. From the age of six she ministered 
among the poor in her father's parish. After 
her parents' decease she sometimes resided 
with her brother, the Rev. Samuel Charles- 
worth, at Limehouse, but her permanent home 
for the last sixteen years of her life was at 
Nutfield, Surrey, where she died 16 Oct. 1880, 
aged 61. * The Female Visitor to the Poor, by a 
Clergyman's Daughter,' 1846, a book in which 
she embodied her own experiences among the 
poor, ran to several editions, and was trans- 
lated into foreign languages. 'Ministering 
Children,' first published by Miss Charles- 
worth in 1854, had an enormous circulation ; 
many portions of it were issued as distinct 
works. The following is a list of her writings : 
1. ' The FemaleVisitor to the Poor,' 1846. 2. *A 
Book for the Cottage,' 1848. 3. * A Letter to 
a Child,' 1849. 4. * Letters to a Friend under 
Affliction,' 1849. 5. * The Light of Life,' 1850. 

6. * Sunday Afternoons in the Nursery,' 1853. 

7. * Ministering Children,' 1854. 8. * Africa's 
Mountain VaUey,' 1856. 9. 'The Sabbath 
given, the Sabbath lost,' 1856. 10. ' The Mi- 
nistry of Life,' 1858. 11.' India and the East, 
or a Voice from the Zenana,' 1860. 12. * Eng- 
land's Yeomen from Life in the Nineteenth 
Century,' 1861. 13. ' Ministering Children, 
a Sequel,' 1867. 14. 'The Last Command of 
Jesus Christ,' 1869. 15. ' Where dwellest 
thou? or the Inner Home,' 1871. 16. 'Eden 
and Heaven,' 1872. 17. ' Oliver of the Mill,' 
1876. 18. ' The Old Looking-glass,' 1878. 

19. ' The Broken Looking-glass,' 1880. 

20. ' Heavenly Counsel in dauy portions : 
Readings on the Gospel of St. Matthew. 
Being notes from the bible classes of M. L. 
Charlesworth. Edited by H. Maria Barclay,' 

[Men of the Time (1879), p. 243 ; Woman's 
Work in the great Harvest Field, February 1881, 
pp. 45-7 ; Brief Memoir, * written for insertion 
in Ministering Children,* privately printed.] 

G. C. B. 

CHARLETON. [See also Charlton.] 

1789), physician, was educated at Oxford, 
where he took the degrees of M.A., M.B., and 


Charleton ii6 Charleton 

^f .D. lie paid some attention to chemistry, | large British school in Redcross Street, Bris- 
and was elected F.U.S. 3 Nov. 1747. He j tol. The Peace Society was another institu- 
setth'd in practice at Bath, and in 1750 pub- tion which engaged his attention; andinl854, 
lished* A Chemical Analysis of Bath Waters.' j on the prospect of a war with Russia, he was 
T\io. hook describes a series of experiments to I a member of a deputation of three persons 
determine the mineral constituents of the " ' "^ '■ 
thermal springs at Bath. The chemical sys- 
tem of Bo<»rhaave is followed, and the inquiry 
is carefully conducted on scientific principles, 
('harleton was elected physician to the Bath 
General Hospital 2 June 1757, and then lived 
in Alfred Street. He published a second tract, presented to the northern powers of Europe 

sent from London to present an adareas to 
the Emperor Nicholas at St. Petersburg 
against tne war. This address was graciously 
received by the emperor on 10 Feb. (^liliisf. 
London New^, 4 ana 11 March 1854). Again 
in 1858, in company with Robert Forster, he 

* An Inquiry into the Efficacy of Bath Waters 
in Palsies/ and reprinted it in 1774, with his 
first publication and * Tract the Third, con- 
taining Cases of Patients admitted into the 
Hospital at Bath under the care of the late 
Dr. Oliver, with some additional Cases and 
Notes,* the whole making an octavo of 258 

Sages. The volume is dedicated to Thomas, 
uke of Leeds, who was one of the editor's pa- 
tients. It contains some interesting cases, and 
demonstrates that part of the reputation of the 

the plea for liberty of conscience issued bv 
the Society of Friends. At the commence- 
ment of 1860 he was unanimoiisly recorded 
by the monthly meeting of Bristol 'as an ap- 

E roved minister of the Gospel.' Henceforth 
is time was chieflv occupied in lecturing^ 
throughout England and Ireland. He was 
i an advocate of the Permissive Bill, and much 
averse to the Contagious Diseases Acts. He 
died at his residence, Ashley Down, near 
Bristol, on 5 Dec. 1872. He married, on 

Hath waters as a cure for palsy was due to the 13 Dec. 1849, Catherine Brewster, the eldest 
large nunilwr of cases of paralysis from lead daughter of Thomas Fox of Ipswich. He 
poisoning who arrived witii useless limbs, and ' was the author of: 1. * Opposition to the 
were cured by abstinence from cyder having War;' an address, 1855. 2. * A Lecture on 

He belonged to the London College of Phy- ' ^ ^„^^ ^ ^^^.^ y^^^^.^ ^^ j^,^^^^ Charleton. 
sieians and retm>d from the Koyal Society ,373 ^j^j^ portrait; Times, 7 Dec. 1872, p. 12.T 
m 1754. He seems to liave ffiven up his q q g^ 

chemical pursuits and to have devoted him- ' 

self to prart ice. 1 le resigntnl his post at the CHARLETON, WALTER, M.D. (1 619- 
hospital 1 May 1781, and ditnl in 1780. . 1707), physician, was the son of the rector of 

[Works; Siranpi'rV (liiido to Bath, 1773; Shepton Mallett in Somerset, where he wa« 
ThomnonV llistorv of Rinnl Sooioty. 1812: MS. bom 2 Feb. 1619. He received his early edii- 
LVconls of l^ith Minoml Water Hospital.] cation from his father, and when sixteen en- 

N. M. : tered at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, under the 

CHARLETON, ROBERT (1800-1872), tuition of Dr. AVilkins. Tlie influence of the 
a Frienil, the eldest son of .lames Charleton, author of the essay towards a real character 
wliodit^l at Ashlev Hill, Bristol, in 1847, was and a philosophical lanffuajre may probablv 

until his n^tiriMiieut in 1S.VJ. He wa-* one of an undenrmduate, and had alri»ady formed 
thi» earliest of the ndvoentes of total absti- the Wautifulhandwritinir which he preserved 
nenee. lleleetun-di^nthatsuhjeet inEnpland in all itsdearnes? to theend of his days. At 
in IS06, anil in lSJi> with his* friend Samuel theearlv aire of twentv-twodlUHhe received 
(^^P|HT in In^land. At the same time he ad- the dejrnv of M.P.. and in the same year was 
voeatinl the doctrines of the Friends, and in ap|»<MnttHl physician to the kinpr. who was then 
IS IJ) aoeonipanit^d (\*i]»]ht in his tent-mivtinp at CXxfonl. As Harvey wa< in aetual attend- 
tour in (>\fordshin» and the neijrhbiMirinp anciMW thennal |vr?nm. Charleton'sappoint- 
c^Minties, His philanthn^pio laKnirs wen^ ment must Ih» n^iTJir^hnl a< an act of favour to 
ver>' numerous. The si^hoids at Kinp*woi>d a pn>misinir memb*^r of the h>yal university, 
and Oldland Common wen^ mainly dept^ndent rather than a pnx>f of the younjr dt'ictor's pro- 
on his supjvm and suiHTintendeneo, alst> the fessional skill. In U*wH> Charleton settled in 




London, and was on 8 April admitted a can- 
•didate of the College of Physiciant}. He was 
appointed physician to the exiled king, an 
omce certainly without emolument and with- 
out duty, for Charleton's works show him to 
have remained in London. He published two 
books in 1650, was prevented from writing by 
An attack of dysentery in 1651, and between 
1652 and the Restoration brought out eight 
more books. During this period he lived in 
Russell Street, Covent Garden (Preface to 
Physiologia), and was true to the royal cause, 
receiving no favour from the Commonwealth, 
4ind complying with the times no further than 
by suppressing the word *king* on the title- 
page of his ' Physiologia' (1654), where he de- 
scribes himself as physician to the late Charles, 
monarch of Great Britain. He was continued 
in his office of physician at the Restoration, and 
published in 1661 a eulo^ium on Charles II, 
which describes the profligate king as one to 
whom no interest is so dear as religion ; a man 
in whom clemency, justice, piety, fortitude, 
and magnanimity are found in perfect union. 
Charleton was one of the first elected fellows 
of the Royal Society in 1002 (Thomson, His- 
tory of Royal Society y 1812, p.3), and on 23 Jan. 
1076 was admitted a fellow of the College of 
Physicians (MuNK, Coll.ofPhys, 1878, i. 390). 
lie gave the first lectures delivered in the 
Outlerian Theatre in Warwick Lane, in 1680 
delivered the Harveian oration, and was pre- 
sident in 1(589, 1690, and 1691. Between 
1660 and 1692, in which year straitened cir- 
cumstances compelled him to leave London, 
he published, ]>esides the king's * Character' 
and the Harveian oration, six separat-e books 
in Latin, and seven in English. The one 
which attract^^d most general attention was 

* Chorea Gigantum* (1603), a treatise intended 
to prove that Stonehenge was made by the 
Danes, and used by them as a T)lace of as- 
sembly, and of the inauguration of kings. The 
only argument is that similar stone works 
exist in Denmark, and this had been supplied 
to Charleton by the Danish antiquary, Wor- 
mius, with whom he had corresponded on the 
book of Inigo Jones, in which Stonehenge is 
said to be a Roman temple. The ' Chorea 
(rigantum* will always be kept in memory 
by the fine epistle (Derrick, nryden, 1760, 
ii. 154) which Dryden wrote in its praise, the 
noblest poem in which English science has 
been celebrated by an English ])oet. The 

* Epistle to Dr. Charleton' is prefixed to wliat 
was probably tlie first published copy of the 
' Chorea,* that presented to the king, which, 
bound in red morocco, with a double crowned 
C on the sides, is preserved in the British 
Museum. After his last year of presidency 
at the College of Physicians, Charleton left 

London for a time. He had been the phy- 
sician of many of the old royaUsts, and as his 
patients disappeared had no modem views to 
attract new ones, nor enough purely medical 
repute to retain his practice. He retired to 
Nantwich (Wood, Hist, etAntiq. Oxon.), but 
soon returned to London, and was senior 
censor in the College of Physicians from 1698 
to 1706, and delivered Harveian orations in 
1702 and 1706, and in the latter year was a})- 
pointed Harveian librarian. He died 24 April 
1707. Two portraits of Charleton are to be 
found in his works. The earlier {Immortality 
of the Human Soulf 1657^ represents him as 
a slim young man with a high forehead, large 
eves, flowing hair, a small moustache, and a 
shaven chin. The later portrait (Inquiries 
into Human Nature, 1680), of whicn the ori- 
ginal is at the College of Physicians, shows 
him as a stout, rather heavy-looking old man in 
gown and bands. Charleton*s printed works 
and manuscript remains (Shane MS, 3413 is 
his ' Commonplace Book') show him to have 
been a man 01 wide reading both in medicine 
and in classical literature. He was an exact 
scholar, critical of Latin (see manuscript notes 
by Charleton on a copy of * Needham de foetu' 
in British Museum, which once belonged to 
Charleton), but too difi'use in expression in 
both languages. His medical books are hard 
reading, and contain no new observations of 
his own, but they show the transition from 
the old scholastic way of writing on medicine 
to the new method of stating observations and 
drawing conclusions from them. Charleton 
valued all the discoveries of his time, but in 
setting them forth he could not free himself 
from the scholastic forms in which he had 
been bre<l. He had in early life read too much 
in Van Helmont, and his academic success 
was probably injurious to him as a physician 
by encouraging him to spend too much time 
in reading and composition, and too little at 
the bedside of patients. He nowhere shows 
any genius for medicine, and, though he some- 
times relates cases, exhibits no a(mtencss of 
observation. Ilobbes and Lord Dorchest^^r, 
Prujean and Ent were his friends, and all that 
is known of his character is in his favour. He 
mentions (Immortality of the Human Sml, 
1657, p. 13) that he was subject to fits of de- 
pression, which is probably what Wood (Hist, 
et Antiq. Oxon.) menus by calling him an un- 
happy man. In 1653 he had already learned 
(Im?nortalityofSouly]). 1 1 ) Hhat sapere domi, 
to endeavour the acquisition of science in pri- 
vate, ouglit to be the principal scope of a wise 
man,* and his voluminous works prove that 
he was consistent in this opinion throughout 
life ; and though enough of personal vanity is 
to be found in his writings to show that he 




must have sometimes thought he deserved 
more success than he obtained, he nowhere 
r-omphiins, and seems to have found perma- 
nent pleasure in the exercise and increase of 
his accumulations of learning. In religion he 
was a high churchman, in pnilosophy an epi- 
curean, and in politics one of the last of tne 
old royalists. In the British Museum copy 
of his * Three Anatomic Lectures* (1683) is a 
list by himself, headed * Scripta jam in lucem 
emissa,' which names twenty-one works, but 
it is not without mistakes. His works are : 

1. 'Spiritus Gorgonicus,' Leyden, 1650, a 
treatise in which the formation of calculi in 
the human body is attributed to a definite 
stone-forming spirit. The College of Phy- 
sicians' copy has notes in his own handwriting. 

2. * Ternary of Paradoxes/ 1650, a translation 
from Van Helmont. The British Museum 
copy was presented by Charleton to a Mr. 
Kim. 3. * Deliramenta Catarrhi, or the in- 
congruities couched under the vulgar opinion 
of Defluxions,* London, 1660. A translation 
from Van Helmont. 4. * The Darkness of 
Atheism expelled by the Light of Nature,* 
I-K)ndon, 1652. 5. 'PhysiologiaEpicuro-Gas- 
sendo-Charltoniana, or a Fabrick of Science 
natural upon the Hypothesis of Atoms,* Lon- 
don, 1664. The microscoi)e, he says, demon- 
strates the divisibility of matter (p. 117); 
atoms are the first and universal matter (p. 
99) ; since the letters of the alphabet permit 
of 295,232,790,039,604,140,847,618,609,643, 
520,000,000 combinations, it is obvious that 
the combinations of numerous atoms may 

?roduce all known bodies. The College of 
^hysicians* copy was presented by Charle- 
ton. 6. * Epicurus, his Morals,* London, 1 656. 
7. ' The Immortality of the Human Soul de- 
monstrated by the Light of Nature,* London, 
1657. Two dialogues between Athanasius 
(Charleton) and Lucretius in the garden and 
presence of Iso-dicastes (Marquis of Dor- 
chester). 8. * The Ephesian and Cimmerian 
Matrons,' London, 1658. Another edition, 
1668, translated into J^atin by Bartholomew 
Harris, 1665. 9. * GOconomia Animalis,* Lon- 
don, 1669. A general treatise on physio- 
logy. A fourth edition was published, 
Ijondon, 1669, and editions abroad, Amster- 
dam 1654, Leyden 1678, Hague 1681. 
10. * Disscrtatio epistolica de ortu animte hu- 
manoe,* 1669. Addressed to Dr. Henry Yer- 
burie [q. v.] To this is appended a short 
letter of advice to a patient, tne Genoese am- 
bassador. 11. * Natural History of Nutrition,* 
London, 1669. An English version of 9. 
12. * ExercitationesPhysico-anatomicsB,* Am- 
sterdam, 1659. A slightly altered reprint of 
9. 13. * A Character of his most Sacred Ma- 
jesty Charles the Second/ London, 1661. 

14. ' Exercitationes Pathologicse/ London, 
1661 . A collection of hypotheses on the causes 
of disease ; for example, that hatred causes epi- 
lepsy and the gout, and that surprise causes 
catalepsy. No autopsies are described, and no 
cases observed by tne author. 15. 'Chorea 
Gigantum, or the most famous Antiquity of 
Great Britain, Stonehenge, standing on Salis- 
bury Plain, restored to the Danes,* London, 
1663, 2nd edition, 1725. 16. < Inquisitiones 
duse Anatomico-physicffi : prior de fulmine : 
altera de proprietatibus cerebri humani,* Lon- 
don, 1665. 17. 'Gulielmi Ducis Novocas- 
trensis Vita,* London, 1668. A translation 
into Latin of Margaret Cavendish's life of her 
husband. 18. *OnomasticonZoicon/ London, 
1668, 2nd edition, 1671, and 3rd, Oxford, 
1 677. A list, with English, Latin, and Greek 
names, of all known animals, including an ac- 
count of the contents of Charles IFs mena- 
gerie in St. James*s Park, followed by an 
original description of the anatomy of io- 
phius piscatorius and of Galeus, both of which 
Charleton had dissected himself, and by a 
general description of fossils. 19. I. 'Con- 
cerning different Wits of Men.* II. * Of the 
Mysterie of Vintners/ London, 1669. I. is 
a very trivial essay. H. A series of notes on 
preventing putrefaction in wines, originally 
read at the Royal Society in 1662. 20. ' De 
Scorbuto,* London, 1672. The British Mu- 
seum copy has manuscript notes bv author. 
21. * Natural History of the Passions/ London, 
1674. A translation from the French of Se- 
nault. 22. * Socrates Triumphant, or Plato's 
Apology for Socrates,* London, 1675. 23. * In- 
quiries into Human Nature,* London, 1080. 
Six lectures on human anatomy and physio- 
logy. 24. 'Oratioanniversaria* (Harveiana), 
6 Aug. 1680. 25. < The Harmony of Natural 
and Positive Divine Laws/ London, 1682. 
2Q. * Three Anatomic Lectures,* Ix)ndony 
1 683. ( 1 ) On the motion of t he blood through 
the arteries and veins. (2) On the organic 
structure of the heart. (3) On the efficient 
causes of the heart*s pulsation. 27. * Inqui- 
sitio physica de causis catameniomm et uteri 
rheumatismo/ I-*ondon. 1685. 28. * Life of 
Marcellus in Dryden*8 Plutarch,* London, 
1700. 29. 'Oratioanniversaria* (Harveiana), 
London, 16 Aug. 1705. In manuscript : 1. *De 
Symptomatibus' (Sloane MS. 2082), a gene- 
ral summary of the sym])toms of dise^ises. 
2. * Tables of Materia Medica* (ih.) Both 
these were written before or in 1642. 3. * Ge- 
neral Notes on Diseases,* with many tables 
iib, 2084). 4. Charleton*s * Commonplace 
Book' (j6. 3413), containing many quotations 
from the classical medical authors, and from 
Tacitus, Lucian, Democritus, Palladius, Pos- 
sidonius, Vulpius : an abstract of De Graaf 

Charlett no Charlett 

on reproduction, and of Bernard Swabe's j Charlett took ^eat interest in the work of 
treatise on the pancreas ; a catalogue of Sir T. the Clarendon Tress, and each year caused 
Browne's museum and ofhis pictures, a Latin some classical work to be published or re-- 
version of Marvell's poem on Colonel Blood, printed, and presented a copy of it to each 
a tabulation of names of colours, a classifica- ' of the students of his college. For example,. 
tionoftrees, and a collection of ^formulselau- he paid Dr. Hudson 10/. for preparing an 
datorise,' chiefly from George Buchanan. edition of * M. Velleii Paterculi quse super- 

[Charleton's Works ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. ^F*^/ and distributed copies of it m Univer- 
1878. i. 390; Wood's Athen» Oxon. (Bliss), iv. I si^J- On the other hand, he was vain and 
762 ; Wood's Antiq. et Ilist. Oxon.] N. M. given to gossip, and Heame says was * com- 

j monly called the Gazzeteer or Oxford Intel- 

CHARLETT, ARTHUR (16r>5-1722), i ligencer, and by some (I know not for what 
master of University College, Oxford, son of reason) Troderam ' (ib, 214). He delighted 
Arthur Charlett, rector of Collingboum in carrying on an extensive correspondence^ 
Ducis, "Wiltshire, by Judith, dauc^hter of and was ever meddling in matters that did 
Mr. Cratford, a merchant of London, was not concern him. These weaknesses are ridi- 
bom at Shipton, near Cheltenham, on 4 Jan. culed in No. 43 of the * Spectator,' where 
1C65. After receiving his earlv education : Charlett, under the name of Abraham Frothy 
at the free school at Salisbury, ho matricu- , is made to write a letter describing the 
lated at Trinity College, Oxford, on 13 Jan. business transacted at the meetings of the 
1669, having just completed his fourteenth hebdomadal council. He was held to be 
year. He obtained a scholarship at that insincere, and the Christ Church men believed 
college and proceeded B.A. on 17 April 1673, ; that he acted in a double part with respect 
and M.A. 23 Nov. 1676. He was chosen to their feud with Richard Bentley (1662- 
fellow at the election of 1680, and the same 1742) [q. v.] 

year received deacon's orders from Dr. Fell, Through the influence of Archbishop Teni- 
bishop of Oxford. In 1683 he was chosen son, Charlett was appointed chaplain to the 
junior proctor, and spent the long vacation in king on 17 Nov. 1697, and held that office 
taking a tour in Scotland, where he was hospi- until he, in common with certain other of 
tably entertained by Sir George Mackenzie of , the royal chaplains, was removed in March 
Rosehaugh, in the county of Ross, and by ■ 1716-17. In the spring of 1706 he was in 
other men of learning. He was noted for his some trouble, being sent for to London to 
love of society, and ior his expensive way of ' give an account of a paper he had shown 
living, and when he was appointed tutor to , about, asserting that Burnet, bishop of Sarum 
Lord Guilford in 1688 HicKes wrote to ad- I [q. v.], was to receive a large sum of money 
vise him * to keep college constantly ' and give i when presby terianism was established. On 
fewer invitations to his chambers, because the i his return Ilearne perceived that he was afraid 
Norths were lovers of frugality. On 17 Dec. : he would be prosecuted. On 28 June 1707 
1684 he took the degree of B.D., and when ' he was instituted to the rectory of Hamble- 
in 1692 the mastership of University College den, Buckinghamshire. He was anxious to 
was refused by certain members of the society I obtain a bishopric, but is said to have ruined 
on account of the expense and trouble it en- , his chance ofpreferment by his double dealing 
tailed, he was chosen master on 7 July, chiefly | in the matter of the dedication of Thwaites's 
throuffli the influence of Dr. Hudson, and the , * Saxon Heptateuch' to Dean Hickes. Lords 
next day proceeded D.D. He at once laid I Somers and Oxford were both friends of the 
out 200/. or 300/. on the master s lodgings, | dean and resented Charlett*s underliand in- 
and effected a considerable reform in the ' terference. He did Hearne much injury both 
discipline of the college, which had of late ! in the matter of the offices the antiquary held, 
fallen into great disorder. Charlett must , and again in 1714, when he used his influence 
have had private means, for his income as | with thevice-chancellor to get him prosecuted 
masterinl699wasnotmorethanll0/.10*.4</., for his preface to Camden's* Elizabeth,' and so 
with a load of hay and other perquisites : put a stop to his printing. Charlett died at his 
(Hearne, Collections^ ed. Doble, i. 300). His lodgings in I'niversity, on 18 Nov. 1722, and 
activity was not of long duration, and the j is buried in the college chapel. Ho published 
college again declined, partly through his re- 'A Discourse of the Holy Eucharist,' 1686, 
missness. He was a scholar and a patron j in answer to Abraham Woodhead's *Two 
of learning and of learned men. In a letter ! Discourses concerning . . . the Eucharist,' 
to Archbishop Tenison he gives a touching ' published by Obadiah Walker in 1(586. He 
account of his visit to Anthony 4 Wood in his wrote the chief ]>art of the life of Sir George 
last sickness; it was at his recommendation | Mackenzie in Wood's * Fasti' (ii. 414), and 
that Wood entrusted his papers to Tanner, set on foot the first attempt at a university 

rhfUli'Woiul I20 Charlotte 

■ji.;vhi. 4«wi<M»Unvl III r/i)7, witli the title , and Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xii. 4). 

i M, », \\\\\\* »Unnii»u«iB, tir the Oxford In- ' This is the earliest entir of any playbills 
».J*»M.u, . I ' hilianii, III ih« preface to his in the Reffisters. After Charlewooa^s death 
, \\\\\\\ A \ \\\s\\\\'\\*n ' Mrilimnia/ 1(^5, says : | William Jaggard endeavouied to obtain the 

l»Mil.«i I'liuilnli, ihii worthy Mast«rof Uni- right, which, however, fell to James Ro- 
t ••( •!( \ I 'tillitHi>inlurnnl,haHl>een ourgeneral berts (the printer of several Shakespearean 
lihhflMi'hii I whom Huh Work (as all other quartos), who may have married Charle- 
inililltli HiiiliirliikiiigH) has from beginning . wood's widow (see below), and who in 1694 
iiiMii>i liiiMnI Hn KnmU'ht Promoter.* Oharlett ' purchased many of Charle wood's copyrights, 
oitiihlliiihiil li \m\H*T on a fatal coll ienr fire including * The Billes for Plaiers.* Charle- 
iit'fti NnwrtMtli) to the * Philosophical Trans- ■ wood apparently came from Surrey, as on 

Niillonii of Ihu lCf>val fcjijciety* in 1708(7Va»^. 
Ahr. V. IM)). JsH had a hne library, which 
wiM HoM to an Oxford bookseller for five 
hiiiMlriid guin<;as. His correspondence now 

12 Jan. 1591 we find him taking as an ap- 
prentice * Gefl^y Charlwood, son of Richard 
Charlwood of Lye [Leigh], in the county of 
Surrey.' Charlewood is a Surrey parish, and 

III thit liodlman is among the Uallard MSS. j is not an uncommon county surname. There 
( WimM'h Ath(?nflf»Oxon.(Blis8),iii. 1161, Fasti. ' are several entries to him on 22 Sept. 1592, 
II !SH<i, 414 ; h\\w*H Heliquia' Hearninnse (1869), I but nothing afterwards, and he probably died 
1. 21H 24 and passim; Hoarne's Collections ' before the end of the year. In some imprints 
n)ol>le), i. pii««im ; Heiirne'sLife, 21 ; Luttrell's he describes himself as 'dwelling in Barbycan 
lirief Jt*jUtion, ir. 142; Evelyn's Correspondence, t ^t the signe of the halfe Eagle and the Key.' 
iii. 369. There i8 a curious account of him in These are the arms of the citv and canton of 
Hawlinson MSS. at the Bodleian.] W. H. Geneva, and were occasionally used by him 
OHARLEWOOD, CHARLWOOD, or ^ a woodcut device, with the motto, 'Post 
OHERLWOD, JOHN (d, 1592), stationer tenebras lux. Martm Marprelato [John 
and printer, ' seems to have printed so early , -Penry] refers to him as a * printer that had 
as Queen Mary's reign, in a temporary part- V^^ ?nd letter in a i)lace called Charter- 
fiersliip with John Tysdale at the Saracen's ^^^^^ >J» London m anno 1587, and as 'I. C. 
Head, near Ilolboum Conduit ' (Ames, Ty- ^1^\ earl of Arundels man (Oh read ow^D. 
pagr. Antiq, ed. Herbert, ii. 1093). In 1559 j John Bridges , , . the Epistle, repr. 1843, 
lie and two a])prentices were summoned be- P* !^})' 

^tyled * A Diolige of the Rufull burrrnlynge ^^^e" married a person of the name of Roberts, 
of Powles.' During the next thirty years as on 18 Aug. 159o we find the entry * to 

])opular pieces. 

Grocers' Company down to about 1574 {ib. ^ [ A rber'8 Transcript of the Stationers' Registers, 

ii. 85). Between 1578 and 1580 he was ' i. and ii. ; the litcmry history of the numerous 

fined on several occasions for unlicensed balLids issued by Charlewood is illustrate<l in 

imnting. On 31 Aug. 1579 he and Richard Collier s Extracts from the Registers of the Sta- 

Jones had transferred to them the rights of . tioners' Company (Shakespeare Society). 1848-9, 

Henry Denham in fifteen works (ib. ii. 359), ' ?".*?. ^'^^« f^^^^^T'!!' -"** ^7* "^"^ ^"^i^^^^y- 

and in 1581-2 he himself is recorded as the !r'\';.i'rfJ'ri^?;?^!.^^J?u??::i°!'.^^^^^^^ 


and ballads, 

«on Awdel^ay 


tersy ii. 155-8). In May 1583 he is reported 
to possess two presses (Arber, i. 248). He 
always seems to have been somewhat a dis- 
orderly person, as in the same year the war- 
dens of the Stationers* Company unite him 
with the notorious John Woolfe and others 
as being a persistent pointer of * priviledged 
copies ' (ib, ii. 19). On 30 Oct. 1587 we find 
' Lycenced to him by the whole consent of 
Th[e]a8si8tentes, the onelye ympnrntinge of 
all manner of Billes for players (ib. ii. 477, 

Account of English Stag*' (variorum Shakespeare, 
vol. iii.), 1821, 154.] H. R. T. 

(1796-1817), was born at Carlton House, 
London, on 7 Jan. 1796. She was the only 
daughter of George, prince of Wales, after- 
wards George IV, and Caroline of Bruns- 
wick. Before her birth differences between 
her parents had widened to an irreparable 
breach, and a formal separation was agreed 

Charlotte 121 Charlotte 

upon when she was but a few months | return from exile to the throne, became a 
old. The effect of this was to consign her necessity ; and this fact, though it attracted 
in childhood to the care of governesses, the the prince regent to the match, was not 
chief superintendent being Lady Elgin, who, , equally welcome to the princess herself. Her 
until 1804, watched over her, and acted as sympathy for her mother was distasteful to 
the medium of communication between her her father, and he was anxious to get rid of 
and her parents. According to the report of her ; she, on the other hand, desired to live 
those who knew her as a girl, she was bright among, and endear herself to, the people she 
and intelligent, very merry, but * pepper-hot, ; might be called upon to govern. She did not 
too.* * Princess Charlotte,' says Miss Hay- hesitate to express her desire that the mar- 
man, her sub-governess, * is very delightful, riage treaty should contain a clause to the 
and tears her caps with showing me how i effect that she should never be obliged to leave 
Mr. Canning takes off his hat as ne rides in England against her will. ' My reasons,' she 
the park.* ller home at this time was Carl- | wrote to the Duke of York, * arise not less 
ton House, the then town residence of the from personal feelings than from a sense of 
Prince of Wales. Letters from the Duchess |)er80ual duty. Both impose on me the obli- 
of Wiirtemberg, formerly princess royal, not Ration to form my first connexions and habits 
only bear witness to her own high principle, m the country at the head of which I may 
but also disclose the plan of education adopted one day be placed.* To Prince William she 
for her niece. Among other things. Lady stated even yet more plainly that the sense 
Elgin was to show her bible pictures, and of duty which attached her to England was 
hopes are expressed that her English master * such as to make even a short absence in- 
has, * by dint of pains and patience, got the convenient and painful,' and finding that she 
better ofthe hesitation in her speech, which is could not carry her jwint, she broke off her 
unfortunately very common on all sides in the engagement. It was renewed under fresh 
Brunswick family.' The child, the duchess i conditions, but a want of real sympathy be- 
trusted, might ultimately be the means of a , tween the pair ultimately put an end to it in 
reconciliation between her father and mother. 1814. When the princess, to whose act this 
But, as time wore on, things grew worse in- result was due, announced it to her father, 
stead of better. In 1805 she was removed to she was met by an abrupt order for the dis- 
the Lower Lodge, Windsor. For reasons pro- , missal of every member of her household, 
bably connected with his alienation from his i Thereupon she rushed from the house, threw 
wife, the Prince of Wales avoided acknow- : herself into a hackney coach, and sought re- 
ledging his daughter as heir presumptive ; fuge with her mother in Connaught Place, 
and Queen Charlotte sided with him in con- But the Princess of Wales, long goaded by 
eluding tliat the best training for a girl of indignities, had by this time g^own callous, 
the princess's high spirit was seclusion. Her ' and when Charlotte's friend Miss Mercer, 
mother she met for two hours a week at the Miss Elnight, Lord Livei*pool, the Bishop of 
house of the Duchess of Brunswick, mother I Salisbury, Lonl Eldon, and the Duke of York, 
of the Princess of Wales. The establishment ' all in turn arrived and tried to persuade her 
of the regency in 1811 confirmed the regent's to return, her mother also joined her voice to 
estrangement from his daughter, and offered theirs. She consequently returned to Carl- 
further opportunity for ignoring her. On the j ton House, whence, in a few days, she was 
resignation of her governess, Lady de Clif- transferred to Cranbourn Lodge at Windsor, 
ford, when the princess was nearly seven- j Here, surrounded by a new set of attendants, 
teen, a petition that a lady ofthe bedchamber ! she was kept in the strictest retirement, al- 
should take her place resulted in her being , lowed to receive visits from none of her 
transferred to the care of Miss Cornelia friends, forced to send her letters under cover 
Knight, and her position at tliis juncture to her new lady in waiting, Lady Ilchester, 
may be said to have been that of a naughty and, as a passage in one of her letters seems 
child in disgrace. But neither her loneliness to imply, even deprived of jwcket -money, 
nor tlie constraints of cerenionv seem to have 
eifttced lier native simplicity or her personal 
charm, and some of her letters to her few 
friends are delightfully fresh and genuine. In 
Decem))er 1818 Princess Charlotte became 
engaged to William, hereditarv prince of 
Orange. Having served under ^Vellington, 
and been educated in England, he was os- 
tensibly a not ineligible husband. But his 
residence in Holland, owing to his father's 

ler health suftered is scarcely to be 
wondered at, or that she herself should con- 
sider * six months got over of the dreadful 
life she led, six months gained.* 

The STiring of 1816 brought another suitor, 
Prince Leojjold of Saxe-Coburg, who pro- 
posed and was accepted. He had many good 
qualities in addition to good looks, and 
tJie wedding, which took place on 2 May 
1816, at Carlton House, seemed to promise a 

Charlotte 122 Charlotte 

future of unmixed happiness. Claremont was 
bought for a country residence, and Marl- 
borough House was prepared as their home 
in town. At the former the princess spent 
most of her brief but cloudless w^edded life. 

her father 8 court, and to have behaved as a 
dutiful daughter to the king himself, whose 
com])anion she was during a drive on the 
morning (5 Nov. 1788) when his delirium 
declared its(»lf. When in July 1790 Madame 

On 6 Nov. 1817 she gave birth to a stillborn d'Arblay (as i*he now was) paid a visit to the 

son, dying herself a few hours later. Some . royal family at Windsor, she learned that the 

strictures were made u^wn the management I princess was betrothed to the hereditary 

of the case by the accoucheur, Sir Richard ' prince of Wiirtemberg. Madame d'Arblay's 

Croft [q. v.] The nation received the intel- * Diary ' furnishes a lively though respectfid 

ligence of her death with an outburst of grief account of the wooing, and subsequently of 

which is well expressed in the school-book the wedding, which took place 18 May 1797 

jingle at the Cliapel lloyal St. James's. The prin- 

*v«««« «„^ o^,.^« r^r^y^ t,\r^nalHi I cess TOval was uot altogether unwilling to 

Never was sorrow more smcere , ,•- ■•» -i ^ i» * -li x -^ 

Than that which flowed round Charlotte's bier. , l^^ve home; as Madame dArblay puts it, 

, . - . ci ^ , ^, , «r- 1 * s"^* adored the king, honoured the queen, 

She was buried in St. George s Chapel, W ind- . ^,^^^ j^^.^^ ,^^,^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^luch kindness 

'^^^^^^ ir . ®^'' \.}\ ., 1. I ^OT her brothers; but her stvle of life was 

The rrmcess C.harlott43 was rather above I ^^^^ adapted to the rovaltv of her nature anv 
middle height, and, although slightlv pitted ^^^^ ^j/^^^ of her birth; and though she onlV 
with small-iK,x, posstvKsed considerable per- . ^.j^,^^^^ f^^^ ^^,^^ ^^ j^ ^^ ^^ ^^^f^^ 
sonal attractions. Iler pale complexion and favours, she thought herself out of her pLice 
fair eyebrows and hishes, however, gave a ^^ „^^ possessing it.' 

want of <x>loiir to her face. In her later j^.^,^^, ^^^^j^ ^^^ gj^. ^t w. Wraxall is in 
i)ortraits the likeness t.) George I\ ^^^^Y , anv degit>e to be trusted, the negotiations as 
aiscoverable. bhe had many fine and noble ; ^^,- ^l^j^ ^^^. ^^^^ ^^^ been altogether 
»iualities, to which her warmth ot lieart and pj^^oth. He relates that when in 1796 over- 
enthusiastic temi>erament lent an additional ^^^^.^ ^^.^,^, ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^y^^^^^ y^^ ^^ 

charm. Wiirtemberg court, George III was so pre- 

[Tlie chief authority for the lifo of the Prin- pissesst^l against the prince, who was sus- 

ce»H Charlotto is the excellent Brief Memoir jKH»ted of having \yeen privy to the death 

puhli^hed in 1874 by Liuly Rose Weignll, wliich ^^f \^\^ f^^^f ^vift>, a Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel 
Wiisreprintedfrom the Quarterly Keview by the I ^,yj„j.^,^^ ^l^^^^ ^^^^ previouslv in Russia, 

queens desire, and extended by nmtenul 8ui>- ^j^^^^ ht^ would not listen to the proposal, 
phed by her niuje.ty herself. In 1885 an illus- • ^y^j^^^^n ^.^ds, howtner, that the pnncesent 
trntod monogniph supplemontin|r this was pb- ^^^^ London to disprove the ac- 

lished bv Mrs. Herbert Jones. It contains, inter ^. '^ i *i ^ -^ r * i * ^.u i • • 

alia. reimHlnotions of a hcries of miniatures of ciisati(>ii,and that it was refuted to the kings 

the prinooss by Miss (Mmrloite Jones, a pupil of «»» t-^tHOtum. A few months after his mar- 

roswa3*.l A. 1). nag*', lu Decembt^r 1/9/, Irmce Frederick 

William Charles siicctHH.ledtothe government 
CHARLOTTE AUGUSTA MATIL- of WiirtemlnTg on the death of his father. 
DA, PRixOhys l{ov\i. OK (i KK.VT IluiTAiN AND Dukt' FrtMh»rick Kugene. lie wa.s a prince of 
lRKLANnandC^rKKN0KWuKTKMiiKKU(l7(M^ considerable ability and tact, strengthened 
18:?8), the eldest daughter of (}tM>rgi» III by ex|H»rience in b<>th the Prussian and the 
and Quern I 'harlot t«», was lH>ni at I^ueking- Russian s<>rvice; and he showed extraordinary 
ham House. Umdon, on 29 Sei>t. \7i^\ — li skill in apprehending the signs of the times, 
* Michat^lmas gotwe/aeeonling toliennotluT's avtTting dithculties, and seizing opportunities 
homely wit. The • Diary ' of Madame d*.\r- Ih'fon* it was ttx> late. A fugitive at Vienna 
blay contains many nMuiiiisci'UiM's Ix^sides this ( l7V>i>-l8(U), an elector of the empire (1808), 
of the prine«»ss n\val in her t»«rly woman- king by the grace of Napoleon (ISOll), and a 
IuhhI fnuu 178<< to 1791 : and all are ti» tln» ineiulhTof the Conftnlerationofthe Rhine,he 
criHlit of luT teiujHT and disposition. She ultimately contrivinl to make his peace with 
is destTilH'^l as writing (ItTinan with ]MTf(HM tlu» allies soon aftiT the bjittle of I^ipzig. 
facility, and dniwing is nuMitioiu'il as luie t»f At home he ruUHl fn>m ISOO as an absolute 
her tKVU]wt ions, whili' music apju'ars ti> havo nionan'h. having abolished the ancient Wiir- 
been an art •which sho even pn»Ii»ss»»s xo havt» tendn'rg constitution, of which in 1771 Great 
no ta^te for. and to hi»ar almost with iMiin.* Hritain had virtually lKHX)me a guarantee- 
To Miss Humey she was always kind and in^r innvtT. The new constitution which he 
condesoiMiding, and \\\t Mrs. Delaiiy she ch»»- i>ffcn»d in lSI5wa8rejt»cted by his estates and 
rished a warm alTtHJtion. She st»«mi8 to havt* . pntple, and while the discussions on the sub- 
been loved in the quiet domivtic cin*le of jject were in progress he died, 30 Oct. 1816. 




There is no evidence that Charlotte Augusta 
played a part in any of these transactions, 
which musty however, have largely added to 
the anxieties of her life. Her marriage with 
Frederick, who had had three children by his 
first wife, remained childless, with the excep- 
tion of a stillborn daughter. During her later 
years the Dowager Queen of Wiirtemberg 
was much afflicted by dropsy, and her size 
increased abnormally. In lo27 she visited 
England, to obtain, if possible, relief from the 
skill of Sir Astley^ Cooper and other physi- 
cians. But her journey was made in vain, 
for on 6 Oct. 182o she died, rather suddenly, 
at Ludwigsburg, near Stuttgart. 

[Annual Register for 1828. For reminiscences 
of the early life of Charlotte Augusta see the 
Diary and Letters of Madame d'Arblay, vols, iii- 
vi. (7 vol. edition, London, 1854). Of the career 
of her husband a good account is given in 
PfafiTs Oeschichte des Fiirstenhauses tind Landes 
Wirtemberg (Stuttgart, 1839), vol. iii. pt. 2, and 
in Allgemeine Deutt^he Biographie, vol. viii. For 
the gossip concerning the fate of his first wife see 
Wraxairs Memoirs of my own Time, i. 203-15 ; 
cf. Preface to his Posthimious Memoirs (2nd ed. 
1836), v-viii.] A. W. W. 

CHARLOTTE SOPHIA (1744-1818), 
queen of George III, king of England, was 
Wie youngest daughter of Charles Lewis, 
brother of Frederic, third duke of Mecklen- 
burg-Strelitz. When a young girl she was 
so distressed ac the ravages of tne IVussian 
troops on a relative's territory, that she wrote 
a letter to their king bege^ing him to restrain 
them. This letter found its way to England, 
and is said to have done something to direct 
the attention of the English court to her as 
a suitable consort for George (Mahon, His- 
tory of EngUiJid, iv. 331, 1846). The in- 
quiries made resulted in a formal proposal, 
which was accepted, and the princess set off 
for England. The voyage from Cuxhaven to 
Harwich took ten days, for the ship was de- 
layed by contrary winds. Charlotte beguiled 
the time by practising English tunes on the 
harpsichord. On 7 Sept. 1761 she landed in 
England. The next day she saw George for 
the first time at St. James's. From that mo- 
ment till the king's illness she said that she 
never knew real sorrow. They were married 
late that same evening. Their coronation 
took place on 22 Sept. of that year Ta mi- 
nute description is given in Richard Thom- 
son's Faithful Account y &c., 1820). Iler ap- 
pearance at this time is briefly described by 
Horace Walpole: *She is not tall nor a 
beauty. Pale and very thin ; but looks sen- 
sible and ffenteel. Her hair is darkish and 
fine ; her forehead low, her nose very well, 
except the nofitrik spreading too wide. The 

mouth has the same fault, but her teeth are 
good. She talks a great deal, and French 
tolerably' {Letters, iii. 434). The records 
of Charlotte's life are entirely of a domestic 
nature. She was merely a la^ figure in the 
numerous state pageants in which her position 
obliged her to take part, and she had no in- 
terest in nor influence over Ene^lish politics, 
which she probably scarcely understood. The 
king, though a devoted husband, never dis- 
cussed affairs of stat« with her. She was a 
woman of little ability, but she certainly 
acted up to her own standard of duty. Court 
life during this long reig^ was perfectly 
decorous, and it must be added very dull 
and colourless. Scandal could only say of 
her that she was somewhat mean in money 
matters ; but this was probably from early 
training (the story of an intrigue with the Che- 
valier d'Eon hardly requires serious mention ; 
see Thom, Queen Charlotte and the Cheva- 
lier cPJEknif reprinted from Notes and Queries^ 
1867). In 1788, when the king became ill, 
the care of his person and the disposition of 
his household were placed in her nands, and 
in 1810, when, on the death of the Princess 
Amelia, George became permanently insane, 
much the same arrangements were made. 
The queen died at Kew 17 Nov. 1818, and 
was buried in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. 
Of the fifteen children bom of ner marria^, 
the last three, Octavius, Alfred, and Amelia, 
predeceased their mother. 

[There are Lives of Queen Charlotte (with por- 
traits) by W. C. Oulton, 1819, and T. Williams, 
IS 19, but they are merely external. In the 
numerous memoirs of the period there is much 
information about the queen's private life. 
Walpole's Letters, Miss Burney's Memoirs, and 
Mrs. Delany's Autobiography are the chief of 
these; others will be found quoted in Jesse's 
Memoirs of Life and Reign of George III, 3 vols. 
1867. In Brit. Mus. Cat. under this heading is a 
list of funeral sermons, satires, &e., relating to 
the queen, and among the manuscripts are a num- 
ber of her ofiScial papers.] F. W-t. 

CHARLTON. [See also Charleton.] 

WARD, fifth and last Lord Charlton of 
Powys (1370-1421), was the younger son of 
John Charlton, the third baron, and his wife, 
Joan, daughter of Lord Stafford. During the 
lifetime of his elder brother John, the fourth 
lord [see Charlton, John, adfin,], Edward 
married, very soon after her husband's death 
in Ireland (20 July 1398), the widowed 
Countess of March. Her lordships and 
castles of Usk and Caerleon thus fell into his 
hands. This brought him into relations with 
the chronicler Adam of Usk, who speaks of 




him as ' juvenis elegantisslmus/ and is loud 
in his praises. Charlton's relationship to the 
Mortimers involved him, however, in hosti- 
lity to Henry of Bolingbroke, who, in July 
1399, was al>out to proceed from Bristol to 
ravage his lands ; but the chronicler Adam, 
who combined Lancastrian politics with at- 
tachment to the house of Mortimer, claims 
to have negotiated peace, and to have per- 
suaded Ilenry to take Charlton among his 
followers (Adam of Usk, p. 25). Charlton 
then accompanied Henry to Chester in his 
march against Richard II, and was after- 
wards in high favour with him. About this 
time Charlton showed his personal severity 
and the extent of the franchises of a lord 
marcher by condemning to death the sene- 
schal of Usk for an intrigue with his natural 
sister, probably prioress of that town (tb, 
p. 60). 

On 19 Oct. 1401 (i*. p. 68) the death of 
John Charlton without issue involved Ed- 
ward's succession to the peerage and estates 
of Powys. It was a critical period in the 
historv of the Welsh marches. Owen of 
Glyndwfrdwy had already risen in revolt, and 
had ravaged the neighbourhood of Webhpool, 
the centre of the Charltons' power, whence 
he had been driven by John Charlton just 
before his death. Edward Charlton was pos- 
sessed of but inadequate resources to contend 
with so dangerous a neighbour ; yet no bor- 
der lord took a more prominent part in the 
Welsh war than he. In 1402 Owen over- 
threw his castles of Usk and Caerleon {Adam. 
OF Usk, p. 76), though next year Charlton 
seems to liave again got possession of them. 
In 1403 he urgently besought the council to 
reinforce the scanty garrisons of the border 
fortresses. In 1404 he was reduced to such 
straits that the council very unwillingly 
allowed him to make a private truce with 
the Welsh. In 1406 his new charter to 
Welshpool shows in its minute and curious 
provisions the extreme care taken to preserve 
that town as a centre of English influence, 
and exclude the * foreign Welsh' from its 
government, its courts, and even its soil. 
Some time before 1408 Charlton was made a 
knight of the Garter. In 1409 he procured 
a royal pardon for those of his vassals who 
had submitted to Owen, but in 1409 Owen 
and John, the claimant to the bishopric of 
St. Asaph, renewed their attack on his terri- 
tories. Strict orders were sent from London 
that Charlton was not to leave the district, 
but keep all his fortresses well garrisoned 
against the invader. The growing prepon- 
derance of the English side may be marked 
in the injunction of the council not in any 
case to renew his old private truce with the 

Welsh. Finally Charlton succeeded in main- 
taining himseli against the waning influence 
of Owen. In January 1414 Sir John Old- 
castle, after his great failure, escaped to 
those Welsh marches, where he had first 
won renown as a warrior, and ultimately 
took refuge in the Powys estates of Charlton. 
There he lurked for some time until the pro- 
mise of a great reward and the exhortations 
of the bishops to capture the common enemy 
of religion and society induced Charlton to 
take active steps for his apprehension. At 
last, in 1417, the heretic was tracked to a 
remote farm at Broniarth, and, after a severe 
struggle, was captured by the servants of the 
lord of Powys. He was first imprisoned in 
Powys Castle, and thence sent to London. 
For this service Charlton received the special 
thanks of parliament. The charters are still 
extant in which he rewarded the brothers 
leuan and Grufiydd, sons of Qruflfydd, for 
their share in Oldcastle's capture (1419). In 
1420 Charlton conferred a new charter on the 
Cistercian abbey of Strata Marcella, of which 
his house was patron. He died on 14 March 
1421. He first married Eleanor, daughter 
of Thomas and sister and coheiress of Edmund 
Holland, earl of Kent, and widow of the 
Earl of March. His second wife was Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir J. Berklay of Bever- 
stone. He left no sons, but two daughters 
by his first wife, of which the elder, Joan, 
married Sir John Grey, and the younger, 
Joyce, Sir John Tiptoft, both powerful mar- 
cher chieftains. The estates were divided 
between the coheiresses, and the peerage fell 
into an abeyance from which it has probably 
never emerged, the later creation in favour 
of the Greys being more probably a new 
l)eerage than a revival of the old one. 

[Adam of Usk, ed. Tliompson ; Cole's Memo- 
rials of Henry V (Rolls Ser.) ; Eymer's Fcedera ; 
Nicolas's Proceedings and Ordinances of Privy 
Council; liolls of Parliament; Dugdale's Baron- 
age, ii.72 ; Nicobus's Historic Peerage (Courthope), 
pp. 101-3. Most of the materials for Charlton's 
life are collected in the article by Mr. M. C. 
Jones, on the Feudal Barons of Powys, with ap- 
pendix of documents and extracts, in the Collec- 
tions Historical and Archaeological relating to 
Montgomer}'shire, published by the Powysland 
Club, i. 302-26.] T. F. T. 

CHARLTON, Sir JOB (1614-1697), 
chief justice of Chester and speaker of the 
Uouse of Commons, was descended from a 
family which had held a position of impor- 
tance in Shropshire from the thirteenth cen- 
tury, and had numbered among its members 
many persons of distinction. He was the 
eldest son of Robert Charlton, goldsmith, of 
London, and of Whitton, Shropsnirey referred 




to by Blakeway (Sheriffs of Shropshire, 153) 
as * an eminent sufferer in the royal cause/ 
bv his first wife, Emma, daughter of Thomas 
itarby of Adston, Northamptonshire, also a 
^Idsmith of London. lie was bom in Lon- 
don in 1614, and educated at Magdalen Hall, 
Oxford, where he cn^aduated B.A. in 1632. 
On 14 Nov. of the ibllowing year he entered 
Lincoln's Inn, and was called in due time 
to the bar. He was returned as member 
for Ludlow to Richard Cromwell's parlia- 
ment in 1659, and to the first two parlia- 
ments of Charles TI in 1660 and 1661. Al- 
though he took little part in the debates, 
except on points of form, he was in 1661 ap- 
pointed chairman of the committee on elec- 
tions. At the Restoration he was included in 
the first batch of new serjeants-at-law, and 
in 1062 obtained a grant of 3,700/. for ser- 
vices rendered by his father to Charles 11 
(Cal. State Papers, 1662, p. 376). The same 
year he was appointed chief justice of Chester 
in succession to Sir Geoffrey Palmer, receiv- 
ing on this occasion the honour of knighthood. 
Ho became king's Serjeant 20 May 1668. On 
4 Feb. 1672-3 he was unanimously chosen 
speaker of the House of Commons, but the 
exciting debates which took place at this time 
rendered his duties so arduous that his health 
became affected, and after the house had ad- 
journed on account of his indisposition from 
15 Feb. to the 18th he, on its reassembling, 
desired * leave to resign and retire into the 
country' (Pari. Hist, iv. 535). In a pamph- 
let entitled * A Seasonable Argument,' &c., 
published in 1677, it is asserted that he gave 
up the speakership for a grant of 500/., but 
this grant was in realitv made two years be- 
fore, on 28 March 1671. In 1680 he was 
compelled to resign the chief justiceship of 
Chester in favour of Jeffreys, who had * laid 
his eye on it,' because he was bom at Acton, 
near Wrexham. Roger North, who refers to 
Charlton as * an old cavalier, loyal, learned, 
grave, and wise,' states that he desired to die 
in that employment. * But Jeffries, with his 
interest on the side of the Duke of York, 
pressed the king so hard that he could not 
stand it' {Life of Lord Guilford, ii. 10, 11). 
In lieu of that office Charlton was, 26 April 
1680, made chief justice of the common pleas ; 
but having given his opinion in opposition to 
the king's dispensing power (State Trials, ix. 
592), he was removed from office 26 April 
1680 (Bramston, Autobiography, 223). He 
was, however, restored to the chief justiceship 
of Chester, and on 12 May was created a 
baronet. He died at his seat at Ludford, 
Herefordshire, 29 May 1697. By his first 
wife, Dorothy, daughter and heiress of Wil- 
liam Blundell of Bishop's Castle, he had four 

sons and three daughters, and by his second 
wife, Lettice, daughter of Walter Waring of 
Oldbury, he had one son and one daughter. 
The baronetcy became extinct with the fourth 
holder in 1784. 

[Wood's Fasti (Bliss), i. 464-5 ; Wotton's 
Baronetage, ii. 490-1 ; Blakeway's Sheriffs of 
Shropsliire ; Manning's Lives Of the Speakers ; 
Foss's Judges, vii. 214-17.] T. F. H. 

DE, first LoBD Charlton of Powys (d. 
1353), sprang from a family that for several 
generations before his time had held of the 
abbey of Shrewsbury the manor of Charlton, 
in the parish of Wrockwardine, Shropshire. 
He was the son of Robert Charlton. Of his 
brothers, one, Alan, became the founder of 
the familv of the Charltons of Apley, and 
another, "iThomas [q. v.], was subsequently 
bishop of Hereford. His father's name dis- 
appearing from all records after 1300, it was 
probably then that John succeeded to the 
estates he is mentioned as possessing in 1306. 
In 1307 he was proxy for the men of Salop in 
the Carlisle parliament. Before 1308 he had 
become a knight. When he first attached 
himself to the court is unknown, but within 
three months of Edward II's accession he is 
spoken of by that king as * dilectus valettus 
noster ' in a charter that gave him the right of 
free warren on his demesne lands at Charlton 
and Pontesbury (18 Sept. 1307). In 1309 the 
dating of a power of attorney at Dublin sug- 
gests that he was serving in some Irish oflice. 
But on 25 June the death without issue of 
Gruffudd ap Owain, the representative of the 
old line of princes of Upper Powys (Powys 
Gwenwynwen), must have recalled him to 
the Welsh marches. He quickly obtained 
permission from Edward to many Hawyse, 
the sister and heiress of Gruffudd, and on 
26 Aug. received livery of the castle of Welsh- 
pool (Powys Castle) and of the extensive 
domains of the Welsh chieftain. These had 
for several generations assumed, even under 
their Welsh rulers, the character of the adja- 
cent lordships marcher, possessing, as Charl- 
ton himself claimed, every regalian right 
within their jurisdiction (*omnem regalem 
libertatem,' i?of. Pari. i. 355). Thus provided 
with rich estates, Charlton became one of Ed- 
ward's most prominent and, for a time, faith- 
ful supporters. In 1310 he raised four hun- 
dred men for the abortive Scottish campaign 
of that year. In 131 1 he was excluded from 
office and court by the lords ordainers, and 
his sharing in the misfortunes of his sovereign 
probably led Gruffudd de la Pole, the uncle 
of Hawyse, to refuse to acquiesce any longer 
in holding as subtenant part of an estate the 




whole of which he regarded as his own. In 
lf312 Gruffudd, with the assistance of his 
kinsfolk the L' Estranges, raised a great force 
of Welshmen and regularly besieged Charl- 
ton and his wife in the castle of Pool. 
Ilawyse's energy in the defence gave her 
amon^ the Welsh the epithet of 'Qtidarn/ 
or * mighty.' But the siege was only raised by 
the intervention of Roger Mortimer of Wig- 
more, the justice of Wales, and in a few 
months later Gruffudd again broke the peace 
by taking forcible possession of Mercneyn 
Iscoed. The general pacification after Gaves- 
ton's death in 1313 included, however, both 
Gruffudd and Charlton ; but the latter now 
received royal charters confirming him in the 
possession of his lands in North Wales, South 
Wales, and Powys. His confirmation of his 
predecessor's charters to Welshpool, and ob- 
taining from the crown license to hold markets 
there and at Machynlleth, may show a desire 
to gain the support of his subjects against his 

In 1313 Charlton's position as one of the 
magnates of the middle marches was perma- 
nently secured by a writ of summons to par- 
liament. Though frequently loosely spoken 
of as * lord of Powys ' and * lord of Pool,' the 
writ summoned him as * J. de Charlton,' so 
that the barony thus created more properly 
bears the name of Charlton than Powys 
(CouBTHOPE, Historic Peerage, 101). 

The chronic confusion of the marches soon 
j^ave Gruffudd fresh opportunities of attack- 
ing Charlton. In 1315 the peace was again 
disturbed by their feuds, and at the parliament 
of Lincoln both parties were enjoined to keep 
the peace and attend before king and council 
to justify their claims. The non-appearance 
of Gruffudd led to a decision in Charlton's 
favour; but many years later the Welsh- 
man's complaints fill the rolls of parliament. 
After Edward Ill's accession he sent in a 
fresh petition, and in 1330 both parties were 
solemnly forbidden by the king in parliament 
to violate the peace. This is the last heard 
of Gruffudd, whose death without heirs trans- 
ferred such title as he had to his niece. Be- 
sides his Welsh estates, Charlton acquired 
extensive properties in Shropshire, and re- 
ceived in 1316 license to crenellate and sur- 
round with a wall his castle at Charlton, 
though its condition at his death suggests that 
he took little pains to make it really a strong 
place. In 1325 he received leave to fortify 
his house in Shrewsbury. 

During the whole of Edward II's reign 
Charlton was occupied in affairs of state. Be- 
sides sending or accompanying his feudal 
levies to the Scotch war, he constantly busied 
himself in raising large bodies of Welsh mer- 

cenaries for the king's service in Scotland. 
In 1316 he commanaed the troops raised by 
the justice of Chester to put down a Welsh re- 
volt, and in the same year was present at the 
siege of Bristol ( Vita Ed. II auct Malmesb, 
in Stubbs, Chron. Ed, I and 11, ii. 222). 
About the same time he became governor of 
Builth Castle. His appointment as chamber- 
lain must have kept nim a good deal about 
the court. It is somewhat startling to find 
him wavering in his allegiance to Edward in 
1321, being ordered in vain to keep the peace 
in his lordships, quarrelling with the king 
about the right of presentation to the church 
of Welshpool, attending on 29 Nov. the meet- 
ing of the * good peers summoned by Lan- 
caster at Doncaster, and ultimately fighting 
under Lancaster's banner at Boroughbridge 
(1322^. After the battle he surrendered to 
the kin^, and his immediate restoration to 
favour IS even more mysterious than his 
former disloyalty. A week after he was 
summoned to serve against the Scots in per- 
son, and his recognisances for the good be- 
haviour of several Lancastrian partisans were 
accepted. He made a bad return for Ed- 
ward's clemency by holding intercourse with 
his old ally Roger Mortimer as early as the 
time of the latter's escape from the Tower, 
and by materially assisting in the king's over- 
throw by the capture of his faithful partisan 
Arundel at Shrewsbury in 1326 (Stubbs, 
Chron. Ed. I and II, ii. 87). For the rest 
of his life Charlton kept on good terms with 
the government. The marriage of his son to 
a daughter of Mortimer's did not prevent liim 
continuing in the favour of Edward III after 
Mortimer's fall. In the new reign he served 
and levied troops for the French and Scottish 
wars as diligently as he had done in the pre- 
vious period. He soon got over the renewed 
difficulties with Grufiudd de la Pole, and a 
feud in 1330 with Arundel on account of his 
father's death. At last in 1337 he was ap- 
pointed viceroy or * custos ' of Ireland. That 
country was then in more than its chronic 
state of anarchy. The death of William de 
Burgh had lost Connaught and Ulster to the 
colonists. The corruption of the officials made 
the government of Dublin as contemptible as 
it was weak. The despatch of Charlton, ac- 
companied by his brother Bishop Thomas of 
Hereford as chancellor, a Welsh * doctor in 
decretals ' named John ap Rhys as treasurer, 
and with a force of two hundred Welsh foot- 
men, suggests a definite attempt to apply to 
Ireland through experienced Welsh onicials 
the system of government which had at least 
part ially pacified Wales. Charlton landed on 
13 Oct. 1337. But within six months of his 
arrival he was deposed from office on an accu- 

Charlton 127 Charlton 

sat Ion of misgovemment raised by his brother 
Thomas, who, on 15 May 1338, became * cus- 
tos ' in his stead. But despite this disgrace, 
and despite advancing years, Charlton con- 
tinued employed in active service. In 1341 
he and his brother were amon<r the auditors 

Jones, both containing valuable appendixes of 
original documents.] T. F. T. 

CHARLTON, JOHN (^. 1671). [See 
Chardox, John.] 


of petitions from Gascony, Wales, and Ire- LEWIb (rf. 1369), bishop of Hereford, was 
land in the Easter parliament at Westmin- o- member of the family of the Charltons of 
stor. Since his return from Ireland he was I'owys, as is proved by his early preferments 
summoned to parliament as John de Charlton ^ ^anaily benefices and by his bearing the 
senior, his son John perhaps taking his place ^^^^ o^ i^^^^® ®" *r arms inscribed on his 
in more active work. His last summons was i ^omb. The exact relationship which he bore 
in 1346. In 1343 he made an indenture to to the known membere of the family is not 
marry his grandson, John, to the daughter of I ^^sy to determine. He was educated, it is 
Ralph, lord Stafford. In 1344 he incorporated said, at both Oxford and Cambridge, but was 
the town of Llanidloes. His obtaining in , the more closely connected with Oxford, of 
1341 a license to have divine worship cele- i ^^"ch he became a doctor of civil law and 
brated at Charlton, his zeal for the refor- I a licentiate, if not also a doctor, in theology, 
mation of the corrupt Cistercians of Strata . In 1336 he became prebendary of Hereford, of 
Marcella, and his interest in the Grey Friars ^^^ch see his kinsman Thomas Charlton [q. v.] 

of Shrewsbury, which his wife had greatly 

was then bishop. He next appears, with his 

benefited, and where she lay buried, sbow brother Humphrey, as holding prebends in the 
that with declining years he took an increas- i collegiate church of Pontesbury, of which 
ing interest in religion. At last he died in De- Lord Charlton was natron. In 1340 Adam of 
cember 1353 at an unusually advanced age for Coverton petitioned to the kin^ against him 
his period, and was buried beside Hawyse in ?» the ground of obstructing bun in collect- 
the church of the Grey Friars of Shrewsbury, i ing tithes belonging to St. Michael s, bhrews- 
The fourteenth-century stained glass now ^^^y- -^ royal commission was appointed to 
preserved at St. Mary's Church in that town, inquire into the case, which in 1345 was 
and bearing the figure of a knight wearing , still pending (Etton, Shropshire, vn. 142). 
the arms of Powys, is probably his effigy, | Lewis had apparently succeeded Thomas the 
originally set up in the church where he was bishop to this prebend, and on his resigna- 

buried (Owen and Blakeway, Shrewsbury, 
ii. 318). 

tion in 1359 was succeeded bv Humphrey, 
who held all three prebends m succession. 

Charlton's son, John II, often mentioned in . ^^ 1348 he appears as signmg, as doctor of 
Rymera8JohndeCharltonjunior,succeeded|Civil law, an mdenture between the town 
him in the title. He married Maud Morti- , and university of Oxford that they should 
mer and died in 1360. He was succeeded ^»^ve a common assize and assay of weights 
by John lU, his son, whose marriage with a I and measures (Anstey, Munimenta Acade- 
daughter of Lord Stafford had already been ^'*<^«» P- l^^f 1^^^ Series). He was probablv 
arranged by John I. Some writers confuse , continuously resident as a teacher at Oxford, 
John II and John III, but it is quite clear I of which university his brother became chan- 
that they were different persons. The latter , cellor some tune before 1354. It is some- 
was in turn succeeded by his two sons John IV I times, but without authority, asserted that 
and Edward [see Charlton, Edward], with ! Lewis himself was chancellor. He constantly 
the latter of whom the peerage fell into ^ted, however, m important business m 


[Parliamentary Writs, Rolls of Parliament, 

conjunction with his brother. In 1354 a 
great feud broke out between town and uni- 
versity, and at the brothers* petition tbe king 

Ryraor's Foedera, Rotuli Scotiae, Stubbs's Chro- conditionally liberated some townsmen from 
nicies of Edward I and Edward II. The facts prison and granted his protection for a year 

connected with Charlton's Shropshire estates are 
collected in Eyton's Shropshire, especially ix. 

to the scholars. For these and other services 
they were enrolled in the album of benefac- 

32-3 ; his Irish yiceroyalty is describ^ in Gil- ■ ^ ^^^ -^^ ^35^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
berts History of the Viceroys of Ireland, p. 186 ; ^^g'airected to be henceforth celebrated on 
Sl?rJ^riT3rVL^^^^^^^ St. Edmund^s day^O.. p,. 187; Wood_says 

and archaeological, relating to Montgomeryshire, 
published by the Powysland Club, especially the 

erroneously on St. Edward's day, Fasti Oxon. 
ed. Gutch, p. 25). William of Wykeham is 

articles in vol. i. on the Princes of Upper Powys, | said to have been among Charlton's pupils 
by the Hon. and Rev. G. T. 0. Bridgman, ■ in mathematics (Wood, Colleges and Halls, 
and on the Feudal Barons of Powys by Mr. M. C. p. 173). Charlton's Inn took its name from 

Charlton 128 Charlton 

one of the brothers or from some others of the imprisoned by Richard HI for his attach- 

name about the same time connected with ment to the Lancastrian cause. 

the university. At last Lewis was raised by j Hard/s Le Neve, i. 462 ; Wood's Annals of 

provision of Innocent VI to the bishopric of Oxford, i^ 55 sq.; Wood's Fasti, p. 25.ed.Gntch; 

Hereford (1361 ), having already been elected Bale's Scriptorum lUustrium Catalogns Cent. Sex. 

by a part of the chapter, although the pre- xxxviii. 475, repeated in Pits, i. 503 ; Rolls of 

ference of another part for John Bamet, arch- Parliament; Eyton's Shropshire; MS. Cole, x. 

deacon of London, had probably necessitated 114 ; Havergal's Fasti Herefordenses.l 

the reference to Avignon. Charlton was T. F. T. 

ZL7T^(i:.^Z:TJ:iJ:i: S:LiZ chaklton lionel drso-iras), tp- 

fflicanum from aarlton's BeffUter). His V^^V^^l; Ti^™ t Upper Stobbilee m 

presence there rather su^pests some mission the pansh of Belln^ham.'Northumberland, 

or office at the papal Curia. On 3 Nov. he °" ^ ^- "?0. After having been for some 

made the professfon of obedience and received Jf"^ »* » ^ ^^Tl "^w " ''"«"^***' 

his spiritualities of Archbishop Islip at Ox- ^^^ university of Minburgh for one or two 

ford, and on 14 Nov. his tem^ralitles were *^«*''"*- ^^^""^^^f ^^ "^"^"^ lr*^"V 

restored. Little is recorded of his acts as ",,• iT^^' ?"'*>"^nTT""- "w school, 

bishop. His attention to his parliamentary ^l"ch he kept in the toll-booth or town-house, 

dutieS is shown by his appearing as trier ^./^' """y ^^^ ^j"* Pnncipal schoo in 

of petitions in 1362, L363, 1365, 1306, and 
1368 {Rot. Pari, ii. 268 b, 275 b, 283 ^, 289 b, 
294 b). He died on 23 May 1369, and 
was buried in the south-east transept of his 
cathedral, where his mutilated monument 
still remains. He left by his will his mitre 
and some vestments, together with 40/., to 
the cathedral (Willis, Cathedrals, ii. 517). 
He is traditionally said to have built the 

Whitby, and produced a number of excellent 
scholars. Charlton published * The History 
of Whitby and of WTiitby Abbey, coUectecI 
from the original records of the Abbey, and 
other authentic memoirs, never before made 
public,' York, 1 779, 4to. He died on 1 6 May 
1788, and was buried in Whitby churchyard, 
where there is a tombstone thus inscribed : 
* Erected to the Memorv of Lionel Charlton, 
Philomath, who died the 10th of May 1788, 

larity of name and pursuits, and the fact of ^ * 

both coming from the Welsh border, caused T^ent. Mae:. Iviii. (ii.) 93.3 ; Nichols's Lit. 

Charlton to be confused with an ol)Scure Anccd. viii. 737 ; Nichols's lllustr. of Lit. iii. 

fifteenth-century scholar, Lewis of Caer- 783-8, vii. 412, viii. 188-9; Sykes's Local 

LEON, who is said to have been a distin- RecordB (1833), i 346; Goughs Bntish Topo- 

guished mathematician, theologian, medical ^TS^V \ m- \ ^J^^^'\'^\««^ « ^""^1 ^*"*°"^° « 

writer, and teacher at Oxford. Bale (p. Table-book (Hist. Div.), n. 316.] T. C. 

475) gives a list of his works, of which CHARLTON or CHERLETON, 

nothing else seems to be known. They in- THOMAS (d. 1344), bishop of Hereford, 

elude four books : 1. * Super Magistrum Sen- was the son of Robert Charlton of Charlton, 

tentiarum * (lectures on theology). 2. *De Shropshire, and the younger brother of John, 

Eclipsi Sol is et Luna?.' 3. * Tabulro Eclip- first lord Charlton [q. v.l Having become a 

sium Richardi Wnllingfordi.' 4. * Canones doctor of civil law, he devoted himself, like 

Eclipsium.* 5. * Tabulae Umbrarum,' and his brother John, to the service of the court, 

0. *Fragmenta Astronomica.' Inland {De and was soon rewarded with various eccle- 

Script. Brit. p. 471 ) calls him John of Caer- siastical preferments. He became prebendary 
leon, and specially emphasises his excellence | of St. Paul's, archdeacon of Northumberland, 
as a physician. Leland also says that his *Ta- ' archdeacon of Wells (1 304, Le Neve, i. 159), 

bulaj de Rebus Astronomicis' were published and, in his own neighbourhood, dean of the 

in 1482 and in his time extant in the library 
of Clare College, Cambridge, but that college 
has since twice suflfered from fire, and there 
is no trace or evidence to be found at present 
of their ever having been there (communica- 
tion from the librarian). Wood, however, 
asserts that this Lewis or John of Caerleon 
flourished in 1482, was a different person 
from Lewis C!harlton, and was despoiled and 

collegiate church of St. Mary's, Stafford, and 
prebendary of the college of Pontesbury on 
his brother's estates. When he received the 
latter appointment in 131 6, he was still onlv 
in deacon's orders (Etton, Shropshire, vii. 
142). Like his brother, Thomas closely at- 
tached himself to Edward II, whose clerk he 
had become, and ultimately received the ap- 
pointment of privy seal. In 1316 the death 

Charlton 129 Charnock 

of Bishop Richard of Kellaw left the valu- 
able see of Durham vacant. Edward at once 
sought to elevate his privy seal to this bishop- 

commission with him to open parliament. 
In April of the same year he was one ot 
three ambassadors sent to the king of France 

ric, but the powerful Earl Thomas of Jjan- i to negotiate about the performance of the 
caster urged on the chapter the election of homage due for Guienne. About 1831 he 
one of his clerks ; the monks tried to secure j was engaged in visiting his diocese (Eyton, 
the office for one of themselves ; and the . passim), in 1335 he was specially appointed 
stronger will of the queen had selected the il- ' to look after the precarious peace of the 
literate Louis de Beaumont [q.vj for the rich ' southern marches, and ordered to repress 
preferment {Anglia Sacra, i.i6T). Edward ' the wild disorders of the Welsh, both by 
pivo way to his wife's pertinacity, and con- 1 spiritual and, if need be, by other weapons, 
tented himself by writing to the pope, who , Ihe experience thus gained in the govem- 
had appointed Beaumont by provision, in 1 ment oi a border district may well have led 
favour of Charlton, urging that his blameless , to his selection as chancellor of Ireland under 
life, his industry, his learning, his noble | his brother John, appointed govenior in 1337, 
birth, and his devotion to the royal interests , though it is remarkable that he should have 
gave him strong claims for a dispensation accepted the post. Next year, however, he 
for holding pluralities and for still further obtained his brother's dismissal on a charge 
advancement (Rtmer, Record edition, ii. of incompetence, and became himself * cus- 
310). Two months later Edward put in a ' tos Hibemiae' (15 May 1338) as well as 

¥lea for Charlton's appointment as bishop of chancellor, with a salarv of 500/. a year. For 
lereford. The disturoed state of the Welsh i nearly three years he ad^ministered the affairs 
border made it very important that strong ' of Ireland with a vigour that extorted warm 
men should hold the great offices on the , praises from Edward III. He organised and 
marches, and Charlton, by personal gifts, no himself commanded the army ; repaired, gar- 
h^sn than by his important local connections , risoned, and victualled the royal castles ; ar- 
- -his brother was now lord of Powys — was ; rested dangerous nobles, and led expeditions 
pre-eminently qualified for the position. But in person against the natives. He captured 
again Charlton was unsuccessful, and Adam near Carlow the largest booty of cattle that 
of Orleton managed to secure the preferment, had ever been known to have b(»en secured 
Thomas even failed to obtain the prebend of from the Irish of that neighbourhood. He 
Church W^ithington to which he had been lavished his private means on these objects 
collated. Next year (1318) he accompanied until Edward in gratitude ordered the Irish 
(Meton, his successful rival, on a mission to treasurytopayhim his salarv before sot isiying 
the papal court to obtain the see of Lincoln any other claims. He received specially full 
for Henry Burfjhersh j]q. v.] For the next few powers of pardoning offenders, and the right 
years Charlton 18 butlittle mentioned in the re- of appointing and removing officers, sheriffs, 
cords. It is most probable that he followed his and justices in his government. One of his 
brother in deserting Edward for the party of last acts was to publish in Ireland impres- 
Mortimer, his powerful neighbour and eonnec- sions of the new seal which was issued in 
tion. He was also engaged for eight years in 1340 with the title of king of France added 
u tiresome lawsuit with another royal officer, to those of the English king. 
Henry de Cliff, which was ultimately decided , In 1340 Charlton returned to England, 
against him in the papal court, though he held , During his absence his see had been governed 
outas long ashe could and disregarded two de- , by a vicar-general. In 1341 he was one of 
eisions in Henry's favour on the ground that , the auditors of petitions from Ireland, Wales, 
Henry had incurred excommunication during (iascony, and other foreign parts. He died 
the last reign. He was at Aviprnon — ^pro- on 11 Jan. 1344, and was buried in the nor- 
bably on some business connected with his them part of the transept of his cathedral. 
Huitl->yhcn the astute Adam of Orleton se- [Rymer's Fccdera ; Anglia Sjicm ; Adnni Mu- 
cured his transference to the richer see of nmuth ; Hjiidy's Le Neve ; Godwin, Do Prsesu- 
Worcester, and John XXII at once atoned ; li^us ; Eytons Shropshire ; Gilbert's History of 
for past neglect by appointing him by proyi- ' the Viceroys of Ireland.] T. F. t. 

sion bishop of Hereford (Murimuth, p. 58, , 

Kng. Hist. Soc. ; W^ilkixs, Covciiia, ii. 54(5). CHARNOCK, JOB {d. 1(393), founder of 
He was consecrated at Avignon on 18 Oct. , Calcutta, arrived m India m 1655 or l()5t), 
1327 by the cardinal bishop of Palestrina, , "Ot, it would seem, in the service of the East 
and received the temporalities on '21 Dec. India Company, which, however, he joined 
He was soon after (20 May 1328) appointed shortly afterwards, and in which he passed 
treasurer, and, abandoning his suit against the remainder of his life. In 1<^8 he was a 
Henry de CliiF, was appointed in 1329 on a ' junior member of the council of the bay, as 
VOL. X. K 

Chamock 130 Charaock 

■"J: 'x.-.zyrll la B^i^fel was then fitrled, and companies of soldiers, i»-ith instnictions to 
V u i^JL'.l'.r^ %*. Ki-imUzar ('Co^Aimbazar), take on board the chief and principal members 
\r. \':jt'. -.ri*: '.L* hi'.*: of one of the company's of the council of the bay, to sciie all vessels 
rry*". iap^.runt fac?ori*-«. Alxmt lft<U he belon^jring to the mughal pendinfr an answer 
w« tj^^ir.*.*:dchi«rfof th*;Patna factor\',but to a letter which was to be despatched to 
^ftt^v^rd- r»-TijnH^l to Kisimbazar as chief, the nawabof Bengal, and, in the event of no 
*:ii 7ftttxin*A there apparently until 1686, satisfactory- settlement being come to with 
wLen be wa«i tranijferrea to Hugli, effecting the nawab, to proceed to Chittagong, *wheK», 
J.« rertoval to the latter place not without after summons, if the fort, town, and tern- 
<iif&cuhy; for, owing to a dispute with the tory thereunto belonging be not forthwith 
nawab of IVrn^ral regarding claims preferred delivered to our lieutenant- colonel JobChar- 
by nativ"* employed in the Kiisimbazar fac- nock, we would have our forces land, seize, 
tory againfit Cham«'ick and hiit colleagues, and take the said town, fort, and territorv 
that fairtorj' was watched by the nawaVs by force of arms.' At that time troops sent 
trxjjw to prevent Chamock from leaving it. out to the company's factories wei« not ac- 
Cliamfick by thi.« time had bw^ome chief of companied by any officers of higher rank than 
the council of the >jav, his predecessor, Mr. lieutenant, the posts of colonel, lieutenant- 
Beard, having died in the previous year, colonel, major, and captain being filled by the 
Shortly after his arrival at Hugli, which he members of the council on the spot, 
reached on 16 or 17 April 1686, Chamock In regard to the details of Chamock*s 
Ijecamc involved in hostilities with the fouj- exodus from Hugli some uncertaintv exists, 
dar of tliat place, over whom, with the aid According to Orme, * Chamock on the 16th 
of troops lately sent out by the court of December took the field, and, marchingdown 
directors for a different purpose, he gained the western bank of the river, burned and 
a very decisive victory. A truce was nmde destroyed all the magazines of salt and gra- 
through the mediation of the Dutch residents naries of rice which he found in hia wav 
at Hugli; but before the end of the year, between Ilughley (Hugli) and the island 
owing to the threatening attitude of the of Ingelee (Hijili), which lies at the mouth 
nawab of I^ngal, Chamock deemed it neces- of the river on the western shore ' (Orxe, 

Htructions which some time before had been apparently in the beginning of the present 

received from the court of directors, order- century, Chamock is described as havmgleft; 

ing that their establishment at Hugli should Hugli by water, and, taking his vessel out 

be moved to a place more accessible by sea, to sea, * proceeded towards die Dakhen,' Le. 

and th<*n»fore more defensible. It had been Southern India (Elliot, History of India tu 

suggested that they should seize for this pur- told by iU oim HUtorimm, viii. 378 seq.) In 

pose one of the islands at the mouth of the this account Chamock is credited with the 

Ganges ; but to this, for various reasons, the possession ofsujpematural powers, which were 

court objected, deeming that their object exhibited by his buming, by means of a 

would be best attained by the seizure of Chit- burning-glass, the whole of the river face 

tagong, and by the erection of a fort at that 

of the city of Hugli as far as Chandemagore, 

place. * We,' they wrote, * have examined se- and by his cutting through with his sword 
riousljr the opinion of the most pmdent and a heavy iron chain which had been stretched 
experienced of our commanders, all which doe across the river for the purpose of intercept- 
concenter in this one opinion (and to us seem- ing his vessel. Both these accounts are 
ing pregnant tmth), viz. that since those go- I silent regarding the fact, which has been re- 
vemors (i e. the native mlers) have by that : vealcd by some old official correspondence 
unfortunate accident and the audacity of the recently discovered ( 1 886) at the Inoia Office, 
interlopers, got the knack of trampling upon | that the place to which Chamock repaired 
us, ana extorting what they please of our ■ after leaving Hugli was Sutanati, one of 
est ate from us, by the besieging of our fact orys ' three villages which then stood on the site 
and stopping of our boats upon the Ganges, I of the present city of Calcutta, and that there 
they will never forbear doing so till we have | he entered into an agreement with an agent 
made them as sensible of our power as we of the nawab for the security of the com- 
have of our tmth and justice, and we, after pany's trade, which, however,' waa not rati- 
manv deliberations, are firmly of the same fied by the nawab. Failing to obtain a 
opinion, and resolve, with God's blessing, to ' ratification of the treaty, Chamock proceeded 
pursue it.' In conformity with this decision ' to Hijili, the island at the mouth ot the river 
they sent out a squadron and six complete | already referred to, where he and hia party 




remained for three months, exposed to oc- 
casional attacks from the troops o? the nawab, 
but suffering far more from fever, which 
carried off two-thirds of Chamock's force. 
Eventually the emperor of Delhi, finding 
that his revenues were suffering from the hin- 
drance to trade caused by the naval opera- 
tions of the company on the western coast, 
•decided to redress the grievances of the com- 
pany's agents on both sides of India, and sent 
orders to the nawab of Bengal, which re- 
sulted in a discontinuance 01 hostilities at 
Hijili, and in the execution of a treaty under 
wmch the English were permitted to return 
to all their factories in ^Bengal, and likewise 
to erect docks and magazines at Ulabarea, a 
village on the western bank of the Hugli, 
about fifbv miles from the mouth of the 
river. After a short stay at Ulabarea, Char- 
nock returned to Sutanati, where he ob- 
tained leave to establish himself ; but owing 
to a fresh outbreak of hostilities between the 
company and the emperor on the western 
coast, tne treaty made at Hijili was set aside 
by the nawdb, who again assumed a hostile 
attitude. At this juncture Charnock, who 
had disappointed the expectations of the court 
of directors by delaying to give effect to their 
instructions for the seizure of Chittagong,was 
temporarily superseded by a Captain Heath, 
who, after a series of extraordinary proceed- 
ings, including a futile demonstration against 
Cmttagong, carried Charnock and the rest 
of the company's agents in Bengal to Madras, 
at that time tne chief settlement of the com- 
pany on the eastern coast of India. After a 
stay of some fifteen months at Madras, Char- 
nock, again through the intervention of the 
■emperor, returned in July 1690 for the third 
And last time to Sutanati, where he obtained 
from Arangzib a grant of the tract of country 
on which Calcutta now stands. This he 
cleared of jungle and fortified; confirming, it 
is said, the emperor's favourable disposition 
by sending to Delhi an English physician, 
who cured the emperor of a carbuncle. There 
is a tradition that fourteen years before his 
death Charnock married a young and beaut if ul 
Hindu widow, whom he had rescued by force 
from the funeral pile, and had several children 
by her. On her death he enclosed in the 
suburbs of Calcutta a large piece of ground, 
which now forms the site of St. John's Church, 
and erected there, over his wife's remains, a 
mausoleum, in which he was himself buried 
on his death in January 1693. There is also 
a legend that Charnock, after the death of 
his wife, every year sacrificed a cock to her 
memory in the mausoleum. 

Charnock appears to have enjoyed in an 
unusual degree the confidence of the directors 

of the East India Companv. In the official 
despatches of the time he is constantly men- 
tioned in very laudatory terms. He is de- 
scribed as having rendered * good and faith- 
full service;' as *one of our most ancient 
and beat servants ; ' as * one of whose fidelity 
and care in our service we have had long and 
great experience ; ' as * honest Mr. Charnock ; ' 
as * a person that has served us faithfully 
above twenty years, and hath never, as we 
understand, been a prowler for himself beyond 
what was just and modest ; ' &c. &c. The only 
occasions on which the court adopted a dif- 
ferent tone towards Charnock were when he 
failed to carry out their instructions to seize 
Chittaffong, a project which Charnock justly 
deemed to be, m the circumstances, imprac- 
ticable, and when, in their opinion, he was 
not sufficiently firm in demanding the execu- 
tion of the terms of the agreement made 
with the nawab's agent at Sutanati ; but 
even in these cases the unfavourable remarks 
were qualified by expressions of confidence 
in Charnock ana by allusions to the per- 
plexities occasioned to him by the machina- 
tions of his enemies in the council. The 
despatch relating to the second of these 
matters ends with the following remark: 
* The experience we have of Mr. Charnock 
for tliirty-four years past, and finding all that 
hate us to be enemies to him, have wrouglit 
such a confidence in our mind concerning 
him, that we shall not upon any ordinary 
suggestions against him change our ancient 
and constant opinion of his fidelity to our 
interest.' The court's treatment of Char- 
nock certainly contrasts very favourably with 
that which in those days they meted out to 
most of their governors and agents, whom, 
as a general rule, after appointing them with 
every expression of confidence, they treated 
with a capricious harshness altogether un- 
worthy of wise administrators. The high 
opinion which the court entertained of Char- 
nock was not shared by Sir John Golds- 
borough, their captain-general in succession 
to Sir John Child, who viaited Sutanati 
shortly after Chamock's death. In a report 
written by that functionary in 1693 anim- 
adversions are made upon Charnock, which 
reflect alike upon his administrative capacity 
and upon his private character. He is there 
charged with indolence and dilatoriness in 
the performance of his public duties and with 
duplicity in his relations with his colleagues 
ana subordinates. 

[This account of Charnock is based chiefly 
upon a collection of the official correspondence 
of the time, imperfect in parts, which has been 
recently compiled by Colonel Yule, and printed 
for the Hakluyt Society. Beference has also been 





made to Mill's History of British India, i. 84-6, 
edit, of 1868; Onne's History of Hindostan, ii. 
12-15, Madras edit, of 1861 ; Marshman's His- 
tory of India, i. 211-14, edit, of 1867; Gent. 
Mag. 1824, part i. p. 196 ; Men whom India 
has known, pp. 33-4, Madras, 1871.] A. J. A. 

CHARNOCK, JOHN (1756-1807), au- 
thor, son of a barrister of some eminence, 
bom on 28 Nov. 1756, was educated at 
Winchester and 3Ierton College, Oxford. 
While at the university he began to write 

Eolitical essays in the periodicals of the day, 
ut afterwards devoted himself entirely to 
the ^itudy of naval affairs, and served in tlie 
navv for some time as a volunteer. Par- 
ticulars of his career at this time are entirely 
wanting; but it appears that his eccentric 
mode of life, and possibly also his marriage, 
occasioned a serious bi-each between him and 
his father, and threw him on his own re- 
sources, so that the studies which he had 
undertaken as a pastime became, in the end, 
his principal means of livelihood. A friend- 
ship which he had c(mtracted with Captain 
L(xjker,the correspondent of Nelson and lieu- 
tenant-governor of Greenwich Hospital, gave 
a definite direction to his work, and led to 
the publication of his * Biographia Navalis ' 
(6 vols. 8vo, 1794-8), or * Impartial Me- 
moirs of the Lives and Characters of Officers 
of the Navy of Great Britain from the year 
16(K),* in which he wa.« largely aided by the 
collections of Captain LocKer. As Locker 
was personally acquainted with many of the 
officers whose lives are related, and had for 
years made himself the storehouse of naval 
tradition, his assistance ffave the book a pecu- 
liar value ; but the author had little access 
to original authorities, and, though painstak- 
ing to a degree, he had very hazy ideas as to 
the credibility of evidence. The book is use- 
ful, but it should be used with caution. 

On the completion of the * Biographia Na- 
valis,' Charnock devoted himself to the com- 
pilation of a * History of Marine Architec- 
ture' (a vols. 4to, 1801-2), a work which, 
especially in its more modem part, has a 
deservedly high rei)utation. In 1806 he pub- 
lished a * Life of Lord Nelson,' which, he 
says in the preface, was suggested, * almost 
in the form of a rec^uest,' by Captain Locker, 
* even during the life of his lordship.' llie 
information and the letters communicated 
by Locker gave the book, at the time, a value 
far above that of the numerous catchpenny 
memoirs which crowded into light ; but as 
the letters, which Charnock had robbed of 
their personal interest by translating them 
into more genteel language, have been since 
correctly printed in Sir Harris Nicolas's 
great collection^ the book has become obso- 

lete. Chamock died on 16 May 1807, and was 
buned in the old churchyard at Lee, where 
a plain slab marks his grave. He left no 
famdy ; but his widow, Mary, daughter of 
Peregrine Jones of Philadelphia— « whose 
exemplary conduct in the vicissitudes of her 
husband's fortune secured to her the lasting^ 
respect of his friends '—survived to a ripe 
old age, and died on 26 May 1836, in her 
eighty-fourth year. She lies under the same 
stone as her husband. 

I Besides the works already named, Charnock 

i was also the author of * The Rights of a Free 

i People,' 8vo, 1792 ; ' A Letter on Finance 

and on National Defence,' 8vo, 1798, and 

many smaller pieces. 

[Brydges's Censura Lit. v. 332. This memoir, 
. contributed by a familiar friend of Charnock, 
is extremely vague in all matters of personal 
interest, and obscures the narrative with a sepia- 
. like cloud of words, leaving us in doubt whether 
Charnock did not die in a madhouse or in a 
debtors* prison. All that appears certain is that 
he was in misery and in want, though the picturo 
may be exaggerated.] J. K. L. 

BERT (1663 P-1096), vice-president of Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, and Jacobite conspi- 
rator, bom about 1663, was the son of Robert 
Chemock of the county of Warwick, and 
matriculated at Magdalen College, Oxford, 
27 May 1680. He proceeded B.A. on 4 Feb. 
1682-3 and M.A. on 26 Oct. 1686. In 1(>8(^ 
he was elected fellow of liis college by roval 
mandate, and soon aftervs-ards declared him- 
self a Roman catholic. That Charnock be- 
came a priest about the same time is proved 
by the fact that on 26 Sept. in the following 
year he assisted in the celebration of mass- 
and of other rites in the chantry of St. Amand 
in the parish of East Hendred, Buckingham- 

On the death (24 March 168&-7) of the 
president of Magdalen, Dr. Henry Clarke, 
Charnock vigorously aided James II in his 
attempt to force on the college a president of 
his own choosing. lie delivered (11 April 
1687) to Dr. Charles Aid worth, the vice- 
president, the royal mandate directing the 
fellows to appoint Anthony Farmer, whose 
academic standing and scandalous life legally 
, disqualified him for the post; and he oppose<l 
I the suggestion of his colleagues to deter the 
election till the king had answered their 
petition praying for a free exercise of their 
rights. On 15 April, when a college meeting 
was held and John Hough was elected presi- 
dent by the fellows, Chamock alone abstained 
from taking the sacrament, and persisted, 
with one other fellow, in declaring for Far- 
mer. After the king had abandoned Far- 

Charnock 13.^ Charnock 

luer's claim and put up a new nominee, 
Samuel Parker, bisiiop of Oxford, Charnock 
wholly separated himself from his colleagues, 
supported the ecclesiastical commission sent 
to Oxford to punish the fellows' insubordi- 
nation, and on 26 Oct. was present when Par- 
ker's proxy and chaplain, William Wickens, 
was installed, after a forced entrance, in the 
president's lodgings. On 16 Nov. all the 
tellows, except Charnock, whose * dutiful ' 
conduct was commended by the authorities, 

and on the same day in the following wet^k, 
but on )x)th days ^Villiam stayed in London, 
and on the latter day Charnock, with seve- 
ral of the conspirators, was suddenly arrested. 
Charnock, witn two associates, Edward King 
and Thomas Keyes, was tried at the Old 
Bailey on 11 March ; his friend Porter turned 
kind's evidence. The prosecuting counst^ 
sp)ke of him as ' Captain ' Charnock, which 
suggests that he had abandoned his clerical 
orders and had received a titular commission 

were expelled on refusing to make full sub- ; in the French army. At the trial Charnock 
mission and retractation ; the college was | showed great presence of mind, temper, and 
tilled with Roman catholic nominees, and , judgment, and confined his defence to a 
the Roman communion definitely adopted. | searching examination of the evidence ad- 
■Chamock assumed the office of dean, and ! duced by the crown. The jury, however, 
took part in disgraceful wrangles in the hall \ found him guilty of compassing the king's 
with the demies who espoused the cause of ' death ; capital sentence was passed, and rw 
the exiles. On 11 Jan. 1687-8 a royal man- : was drawn, lianged, and quartered at Tyburn 
date constituted him vice-president of Mag- ' on 18 March 1695-6. On the scaffold he 
dalen, and six days later he expelled fourteen handed a paper to the slierifi^ in which he ac- 
demies. The Bishop of Oxford, the presi- knowledged his guilt, but exculpated .fames II 
dent, died on 21 March, and on 31 March and the English Roman catholics from any 
Charnock admitted in his place, under orders share in the conspiracy. This jwiper was 
from the crown, Bonaventura Giflford, the published in French ana Dutch translations. 
Roman catholic bishop of Madaura. In the In another paper still unpublished, and now 
following October the failure of the trial of lying in manuscript among the Naime M8S. 
the seven bishops opened James II's eyes to at the Bodleian, Charnock defends himself 
his errors, and he entrusted the Bishop of at great er length, compares himself to Mucins 
AVinchester with the task of restoring Mag- Scievola, ana denies that the killing of a 
<lalen to its old condition. On 25 Oct. Char- monster of iniquity like William is other- 
nock was expelled. wise than an hcmourable act which would 
Little is Known of Charnock for seven merit the appn)val of James II and all right- 
years after his departure from Oxford. lie minded men. Mr. Vernon, writing of the 
apparently soon made his way to James II's trial to Lord l-.exington (1:5 March 1695-6), 
court at St. Gennains, and his enthusiasm describes (^hamock's undaunted demeanour, 
for the Jacobite cause led him to adopt the and adds: * His conversation was easy, gene- 
desperate device of attempting the assassi- rous, and insinuating, and one that even made 
nation of William III. After 1692 he was his pleasures and debaucheries subservient to 
frequently in England negotiating the con- ^ his ends. He is but of indifferent extraction, 
6pinicy,and in 1695 had lodgings in Norfolk and therefoni his practising could be but 
Street, Strand, with another Jacobite, Cap- among an inferior rank of people, or else he 
tain Porter. There Sir George Barclay [q. v.] might hav«! been anotherCatiline' (2>.rtW(7^o« 
sought him out early in 1696 and gave him Pnpern, 187). Burnet gives two accounts of 
a commission from James II, the terms of Chaniock's oehaviour while in prison under 
which are much disputed, to assist in a rising sentence. According to the first, Chamock's 
^igainst William in which the exiled king and brother was sent to the prison to entreat 
A French army were to take part. Charnock the prisoner, under promise of relaxat ion of 
•confessed later that the assassination, or at punishment, to make a full confession of his 
^ny rate the seizure of the person, of Wil- i recent conduct, but Charnock declined the 
liam III was in his eyes a necessary prelimi- invitation on the ground that his confession 
nary to the success of the plot. He accordingly would jeopardise the lives of too many of his 
arranged with Barclay and a few intimate friends, l^ord Somers told Burnet, on the 
friends, at meetings held at his lodgings and other hand, that Charnock ofiertni a fidhron- 
at taverns in the neighbourhood, to collect | fession to William III in exchange tor a 
forty men, eight of whom he was to supply ' commutation of his sentence to an * easy ' 
himself, for the ]>urpose of stopping and Kill- imprisonment for life, and that William re- 
ing William near Tumham Green one Satur- fused it on hearing that it would implicate* 
•day on the king's return from hunting in so manv persons as to disturb all sense of 

T^ • 1 1 "W^ 1 £t% 11111 1 ^l»*'». A1..J "jI T* 1 1 • T ^ 

Richmond Park. Charnock had oil prepared 

for the attempt on Saturday, 15 Feb. 1695-6, cord Office, written by Charnock shortly 

public security. A letter in the Public Re- 

Charnock 134 Charnock 

Ix'tore his death, iiwists with such obvious phen's, Walbrook, a well-known pniritandi- 
sincerity on the justice of his cause that we , vine, joint pastor of a large and important 
are inclined to accept Burnet's first account , presbyteriancongr^^tion assembling atOos- 
as the true one. < ^J Hall, Bishopsgate Street. Wood says that 

[Bloxam's Kcffister of Magdalen College, vi. * '^ ^^^^'''^ last years of hU life he became 
27-JJ6 ; Woxam's Ma^ulen College and James U, "^ore known by his constant prewlung in pn- 

Tiines (1848); Kanke'» Hist, of Kngland, v. presbyterian plot, changed his name to Clark^ 
122-38.] S. L. L. and died in 1683. But the date is certainly 

wrong. Wood writes : ' He died in the house 

CHARNOCK, STEPHEN (162^ie$80), ' ofoneRichardTymm8,a fflazier,intheparish 
puritan theologian, was bom in 1628 in the of White Chapel, near London, on 2/ July 
parish of St. Catherine Creochurch, London, ' 1680, being then 52 years, or thereabouts/ 
wlierc his father, Kichard ( Mianiock (a relation | The body was first taken to Crosby Hall, and 
of the Lancashire family of Charnock of Char- ' then to St. MichaeFs, Comhill, where it was 
nock), was a solicitor. At an early period buried on 30 July, after his college friend 
he entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, ' John Johnson had preached the funeral ser- 
where lie had for his tutor Dr. Bancroft, ' mon. 

afterwards archbihhop of C anterbury, and i As a preacher Charnock was grave and 
graduated in art. While at the university he | calm, and his valuable thoughts, his in- 
waH profoundly impressed with the puritan , tense earnestness, his lively imagination, and 
viewsof religion, and ever after was intensely the practical turn towards present duty 
moved by tucm. Devoting himself to the ' which he gave to his discourses made him 
christian ministry, he appears at a very early ■ at first very acceptable. Later in life, when 
age to have begun to exercise it somewhere he read his sermons, and through failing 
in Southwark, and with encouraging results, i sight had to read them through a glass, he 
In 1649 he n^moved to (Oxford, and obtained \ was less popular. During his lifetime he pub- 
in 1650 a fellowship in New Colleffe. In ' lished but a single volume, *The Sinfulness 
hN)2 he was incorixirated M.A. In the con- ; and Cure of Evil Thoughts.' It was after 
flict then going on between the high church his death that his works were published. Two 
and the puritan party for the control of the of his great admirers, Kichard Adams and 
university, Charnock very cordially went ' Edward Veal, transcribed and issued in 1680 
with the latter. Oliver Cromwell was chan- i *A Discourse on Divine Providence' (another 
cellorof the university, and. lohn Owen vice- j edit. 168o), and in 1681-2 his chief work, 
chancellor. As proctor in 1604 he had great * On the Excellence and Attributes of God,' 
opportunities of mtluenee, and he used them I followed in 1683 by a volume of * Discourses 
with conscient ions earnestness. Leaving ( )x- \ on Kegeneration, the Lord*s Supper, and other 
ford he wont to Ireland in the capacity of subjects.' In 1699 a smaller volume appeared 
chaplain to llenrj' ( 'romwell, who had been ! on * Man's Enmity to God,' and * Mercy for 
appointed lord deputy by his father. Char- the Chief of Sinners.' 

nock preached £re<iuently in St. Werburgh s The writings of Charnock show a well- 
Church, and also in Cfirist Church, llis trained laborious mind that took an exhaus- 
calm, grave manner, ^reat learning, and fer- ' tive view of his subject, and discussed it in 
vent piety procured for him hijfh esteem, even all its aspects, but especially in its practical 
from some who did not f^hare his sentiments, bearings, with great orderliness of manner,, 
and made a great impression. ' fulness of matter, and power of application. 

Soon after the death of Oliver, Henry The faults of his school and of the age are 
C-n)mwell ceased to be lord deputy of Ire- manifest in them. In establishing the being 
land, and Charnock had to leave the scene of of God he had to handle, among other argu- 
inucli successful labour. For some time he ; ments, that from design ; but though the 
remained in obscurity in London, and for j Coi)emican theorv* had been adopted by scien- 
iifteen years he hatl no regular charge. De- ; tific men, and though Sir Isaac Newton had 
votetl to study, he spent much of his lime i just propounded his theory of gravitation, 
among his books, but he had the misfortune i Charnock kept rather to the popular idea of 
to lose them all in the great fire of London. , astronomy and science, so that many of his 
He pr^^ached here and there, occasionally j illustrations are in a setting not adapted to 
spending some time in France and Holland. ' the present state of knowledge. His theo- 
In 1(575 he was appointed, with the Rev. i logy was Calvinistic, conceiving as he did 
Thomas Watson, formerly rector of St. Ste- I tlmt the infinite foreknowledge of God in~ 




Tolyed divine foreordination, but assiffnin^ 
to man a power of distinguishing good and 
evil which threw on him the responsibility 
of his actions. The life of Charnock presents 
a fair picture, for no one has ever questioned 
the calmness^ consistency, and elevation of 
character which it shows throughout. The 
esteem of his editors, Messrs. Adams and 
Veal, was shown in their long labour of love, i 
involved in copying and editing from his 
manuscripts two great folio volumes. More 
modem editions of his writings are those 
published in 1816 in 9 vols. 8vo, with pre- 
face, &c., by the Rev. Edward Parsons of 
Leeds, and that of 1860 in Nichols's * Puritan 
Divines,' with life of the author, and introduc- 
tion by Professor James McCosh, LL.D., now 
president of Princeton College, New Jersey. 

[Oalamy*s NoncoDformisUi' Memorial, vol. i. ; 
Neal's History of the Puritans, vol. iv. ; McCosh's 
edition of Charnock 's Works; Wood's Athense 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 1234-6.] W. G. B. 

CHARNOCK, THOMAS (1524 .?»-168I), 
alchemist, was bom in the Isle of Thanet, 
Kent, in 1524 or 1525, one of his fragments 
being dated 1574, * the 50 yeare of my age.' 
After travelling all over England in quest of 
knowledge, he fixed his residence at Oxford, 
and there fell in with a noted chemist named 
' James S., a spiritual man living ' at Salis- 
bury, who made him his operator, and dying 
about 1554 bequeathed to him the secret of 
' the philosopher's stone. Through the firing, 
however, of his apparatus on 1 Jan. 1555 (* the 
omen worse than the accident,' remarks Ful- 
ler), the fruit of his labours perished ; and his 
renewed operations were again frustrated by 
being interrupted w^ithin one month of their 
(computed) success, when in 1557 he was 
impressed lor the relief of Calais ; whereupon 
he took a hatchet (as he tells us) and 

With my worke made such a furious faire, 
That the Quintessence flew forth in the aire. 

Charnock married, in 1562, one A^es 
Norden, and settled at Stockland-Bristol 
in Somersetshire, whence he removed to Co- 
madge in the same county. There he fitted 
up a laboratory, and pursued his experiments 
until his death in April 1 58 1 . Charnock was 
buried in Otterhampton Church, near Bridg- 
water. He wrote * The Breviary of Naturall 
Philosophy,' a fantastic little treatise on 
alchemy, composed in old English verse in 
1557, and included in Ashmole^s * Thea- 
trum Chemicum.' He styles himself in the 
title an * unlettered Scholar,' and * Student in 
the most worthy Scyence of Astronomy and 
Philosophy.' In the same collection are 
contained ' Enigma ad Alchimiam' (1572), 

' ^niffma de Alchimia,' with a few fragments 
copied from Chamock's handwriting on the 
flyleaves of his books. Several others of his 
works enumerated by Wood {Athen€B Oxon. 
iii. 1236, ed. Bliss) have remained inedited, 
among them <A Booke of Philosophie, dedi* 
cated to Queen Elizabeth in 1506. 

[Fuller's Worthies (1811), i. 507; Anglorum 
Speculum, p. 413 ; Black's Cat. Ashmol. MSS.l 

A. M. C. 

and Cabpentiebs.] 

1875), miniature and oil painter, was bom 
at Vauxhall on 5 May 1819. Her father, 
Mr. Kenwell, was an architect and sur- 
veyor. At the age of thirteen, on quitting 
school, she began to study drawing under 
Valentine Bartholomew [q. v.J Her earliest 
effort in art was in flower-pamting, and she 
exhibited for the first time at uie Koyal 
Academy in 1843. In 1841 Miss Kenwell 
married Captain John Charretie, of the Hon. 
East India Company's service. She had at 
the Koyal Academy in 1852 two portraits 
in oil-colours, which were named * Emily' 
and ^ Sara.' In 1868 her husband died, when 
Mrs. Charretie, thrown entirely on her own 
resources, took to the serious study of oil- 
painting, and made copies of severalpictures 
in the National Gallery, London. She died 
suddenly from heart disease at her residence, 
Horton Cottage, Campden Hill, Kensington, 
on 5 Oct. 1875. In the course of her artistic 
career Mrs. Charretie sent to the Royal Aca- 
demy forty miniatures, &c. ; to the British 
Institution four ; and thirty-two to Suffolk 
Street. She was also a constant exhibitor 
at the Dudley Gallery and frequently in 
the provinces. In 1870 appeared 'tady 
Betty ' and ' A Stone in her Shoe : ' in 1871, 

* Lady Teazle, behind the Screen ; ' in 1878, 

* Lady Betty's Maid j ' and * Mistress of her- 
self tho' Chma fall,' her last work, in 1875. 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878; Clay- 
ton's English Female Artists, 1876 ; Graves's 
Dictionary of Artists, 1884.] L. F. 

CHARTERIS, FRANCIS (1675-1732), 
colonel, notorious criminal, son of John, 
second son of Sir John C'harteris of Amis- 
field, was bom in 1675. On the death of 
his uncle without male issue he became male 
representative of the family of Amisfield, 
but the estate passed to his cousin Elizabeth, 
sole heiress of his uncle. Her son, Thomas 
Hogg, assumed the name of Charteris, and 
became the ancestor of the family of Aimis- 
field in Dumfriesshire, but Colonel Charteris 
also gave the name of Amisfield to the property 

Charteris 136 Charteris 

J rjA' 

of Newmills, near Haddington, which he had mentinNewgate, and some con fiscations, wem 

purchased. At an early age Charteris entered pardo ned by the ting. He died at his seat 

the army, but while an ensign was drummed of Ston^yhiil, near Musselburgh, in February 

out of his regiment for cheating at cards. 1731-2, in his fifty-seventh year. When 

After serving for some time in a Dutch regi- 
ment of foot, ne was again expelled, this time, 
it is said, for stealing a large piece of beef 
from a butcher*s shambles at Bruges. On 
his return to Scotland his father purchased 
for him a pair of colours in the 8rd regiment 

he knew that he was dying, he is said to 
have left off* swearing, and to have ordered, 
*with a great roar, that on his dissolu- 
tion his just debts should be j^aid. He also 
expressed his willingness to give 30,000/. to 
be assured that there was no hell, remark- 


of foot guards, then commanded by Major- ing at the same time that the existence of 
general Ramsajr, but the officers refusea to | heaven was to him a matter of indifference. , 
enrol him. While in command of a company ' Unrit^y th*^ lig^*" of ^MR ^'^'vt^ th* ^ 4^^^".^^ ! 
in the 1 st regiment of foot guards a charge • wasvisited by a drea dful tempest, which tl ie/ 
was brought against him in 1/11 of receiving ' •pgpulmjgTlTterpreied as a tok en o i divlAe 
large sums of money from tradesmen for en- '; v en^wiircer"'"^ ^ his fiinerar they rft-Lw d H, 
listing them in his company to save them great riotj"almo3t tore^ the JMMJ Lyfout of the ) 
from arrest, and the charge having been in- ' coflhi, and cast dead dogs and offal into t he 
vestigated by a committee of the House of grav e along with it. In the loiiowing April 
Commons, he was on 20 May reported guilty, ! mnnber oi the ^ (Jentleman^s Magazine * (ii. 
whereupon he received a severe reprimand ; 718) there appeared the pungent epitaph ou 
on his knees at the bar of the house bv the I him, under the name of Don Francisco, by 
speaker. His career in the army not being \ Dr. Arbuthnot, often reprinted in the notes 
a remarkable success, Charteris ceased at to Pope's works. He married Helen, daughter 
last to persevere in it, and devoted all his ] of Sir Alexander Swinton, lord Momington, 
serious attention to gambling. By a combi- ! of the College of Justice, by whom he had 
nation of skill, trickery, and effrontery he | onedaughtcr,Janet,maiTied to James, fourth 
managed to acxjuire large sums of money earl of vVemyss. The bulk of his property 
from nearly every one whom he selected to be and estates was left to her second son, the 
his victim. The money thus obtained he lent Hon. Francis Wemyss, afterwards fifth earl, 
out at exorbitant interest to the spendthrifts j who in consequence assumed the name and 
of his acquaintance, and, by distraining re- , arms of Charteris. To the countess, his 
morselessly as soon as the payments became ' daugliter, he left 1,200/., and to her husband, 
due, he acquired in a short time an immense | the Earl of Wemyss, 10,000/. The manor 
fortune, the value of his estates in various house of Stoneyhill, with 1,000/., was be- 
counties ultimately amounting to about queathed to liis law agent, the well-known 
7,000/. a year, in addition to 100,000/. in the Duncan Forbes of CuUoden, of whom he said 
stocks. He was equally eagerinthe ^atifi- that hi8 honesty was so whimsical that it was 
^tion of his lowe /acpetites/ahd^pereisted,'^" 45 per cent, above that of Don Quixote. 
Tn the words ol "SSutlmoC* in spite of age [Works of Pope ; Case of Colonel Charteris, 
and infirmities, m the pursuit of every human 1711, and various other pamphlets on the same . 
vice excepting prodigality and hypocrisy.' subject; Proceedings at the Sessions of the Pea^rt* 
Pope frequently introduces his name in his iind Ojer and Terminer for tlie City of London 
verses, as in the phrase *Chartres and the and county of Middlesex held at Justice Hall in 
devil ' {Moral Essays, Ep. iii.), or the caustic the Old Bailey, on Friday the 17th February hist 
lines : — . . • upon a bill of indictment found against 

. .. i, „ I Fmncis Charteris, esq., for committing a rape ' 

[Shall 1 some old temple, nodding to its fall. <,n ^^iq Ixxly of Anne Bond, of which he was found , 

For Chartres' heml reserve the hanging wall ? ^uij^y^ London 1730; Scotch gal lantrj-di splay e«l. 1 

Esfay on Man, Ep. iv. 130. ^j. ^h^. L^f^ and Adventures of the unparalleled ^ 

_. • V /» 1 #1 Col. Fr-nc^s Ch-rt-s im]>artiallv related, 1730; 

He also appears in -the first plate of the f^^^ Lif^ ^ml Actions of CK)loDel Ch-s, 1739; 

llake s Progress^ bj?JI ogarth. As Charteris ' Life of Colonel Don Francisco, with a woo<lout 

was utterly lieedlessorEisrePutation, he did , of Colonel Charteris or Chartres. 1730 ; Political 
not scruple to decline a challenge to a duel I Stat^ of (freat Britain, i. 241. xxxix. 321, 431. 
when for any reason he preferred not to fight ; , xliii. 301 ; London Magazine, i. 39 ; Gent. Mag. 
but that personal cowardice was at least not ii. 677-8, 718.] T. F. II. 

one of his constant characteristics is proved I 

by the fact that he would occasionally accept I CHARTERIS, HEXKY, the elder 
' the challenge and kill his man. In 1730. he I (d. 1599), Scottish printer, was originally a 

was convicted at the Old Bailey for ra^ on 

his maid-servant, but after a short imprison- of Sir David Lyndsay's works was printed 

bookseller in Edinburgh. The first edition 

Charteris 137 Charteris 

nt the expense of Chartws by John Scot, in inventory were published by him. Some of 
black letter, 1 568. In an interesting preface them are definitely stated to have been printed 
Charteris mentions that he had seen * the elsewhere or by other printers. The value 
pleasant Satyre of the Three Estates when it of his stock was estimated at 5,872/. 12«., 
was playit besyde Edinburgh in 1544, and and of the debts due to him 1,387/. 12s. Sd., 
1 hat he sat for nine hours on the bank at ^ of course Scots money, but still showing that 
Oreenside ' to witness what was the last per- ; the business of a bookseller and printer was 
formance of that and probably of any play a profitable one. 

in Scotland prior to the Reformation. He [Chart^ris's edition of Sir D. Lyndaa/s Works ; 
printed hmiself other editions of Lyndsay in Bannatyne Miscellany, ii. 235.1 M. M. 

1582, 1588, 1592, and 1597, and the * Histone , "^ 

ofane Xobil and Wailze and Squyre W.Mel- CHARTERIS, HENRY, the younger 
drum,' by the same author, in 1594. In 1582 (1565-1628), minister and principal of the 
he was one of the bailies of Edinburgh, and m university of Edinburgh, eldest son of Henry 
1589 one ofthirteen commissioners appointed Charteris, Scottish prmter [q. v.], was edu- 
by the convention to meet weekly to consult cated at the university and graduated asM.A. 

ofthe Whole Catechisme,* 1581 ; *Ane Fruit- Ten years after, on the death of Rollock, 
full Meditatioun conteining ane plane and Charteris was appointed principal, havinfi^ 
facill expositioun of ye 7, 8, 9 and 10 versis been recommended to the office by Rollock 
of the 20 chap, of the Revelatioun, in forme on his deathbed. To the principalship was 
of ane Sermone ' (b. 1.), 1688 ; * James I. | then attached the professorship of divinity, 
Ane Meditatioun upon the xxv. xxvi. xxvii. and the salary, which had been four hun- 
xxviii. and xxix. verses of the xv. chapt. of dred, was increased in 1601 to six hundrud 
the first buke of the Chronicles of the Kmgis ' , marks. In 1617, when James I visited Scot- 
(b. 1.), 1589 (both of these works were by land, a disputation was held before him at 
James VI); * Prayers vsed commonlie in the Stirling Castle by the professors of the uni- 
Kirk of Scotland . . . The Psalmes of David ' versity, but the modesty of Charteris led 
in metre . . . The Catechisme, made by J. , him to decline to take part in it. Among the 
Caluine ... A Treatise of Fasting . . . The royal puns on this occasion upon the names 
Odour of Excommunicatioun,* 5 jmrts, 1595- of the professors that on Charteris is said to 
1596, 8vo ; * Robertsoni (Georgii) Vita3 et have been, * His name agreeth very well unto 
Mortis D. Roberti Rolloci . . . Narratio,' his nature, for charters contain much matter 
1599; * Acts of the Scots Parliament, 24 Oct. | yet say nothing, but put great purposes in 
1581 ' (b. 1.), H. Charteris, Edinburgh, 1582. men's mouths.' On 20 March 1620 Charteris 
His curious will, in which he is designated n>ftigned his office, having been called to be 

appears that he leit the i and a house. He died in July 
option of carrying on his business to his eldest described as a man of much learning, but the 
son, Henry [q. v. J, and, if he declined, to his , game modesty which prevented him from 
,son Robert. Henry, who had been a regent | disputing before the king led him to >\Titt» 
of the university since 1589, declined, and Ro- [ nothing except a revision of the Latin life by 
bert took up the business, in which he does not j R()l)ertson, one of the ministers of Edinburgh, 
appear to have been successful, for he lost, in of his master and friend. Principal Rollock, 
1012, the putent of king's printer on account ^ published by the Wodrow Society in 1826. 
of his ha>nng been put tx) the horn for debt ; rj^^^^^y^ ^^j Grj^nt'n Histories of the Univer- 
The testament dative of his wife, Margaret ^j^!^. ^^ Edinburgh; Hew Scott's Fasti Eccl. Scot. 
Wallace, in 1603, is m the same collection of j 93 . ^Vodrow edition of Rollock's Works.] 
wills, and the bibles and psalm-books, as well , ^, M. 

as the editions of the treatise of Rollock, the 

first principal of the university, mentioned CHARTERIS, LAWRENCE (1625- 
in both inventories, were no doubt printed | 1700), Scottish divine, the grandson of Henry 
by the] --.-•«• ^ 1 « /-.i___^ ^x ij__r- - j 

«s well 
the other 

Charteris ij* Charteris 

:ri':'>4^. Ir^^'l :•> l'>>:i L* w^s L^Lz^- ^rl^i.:- 11:-. 'Bi:?hi:-p S.i;«irii *f Aberdeen 
t'.t'c^.c 'Cjk '•yy.nd.* of ".Le prwhy-rrrr ■::' Inl- jji-i =i>-5 .c Ll* ■:I»irz7 aiao obj^ccei lo the- 
k.=' ■:.:., x.r.:. •,? E»-*f to chit *air.:> Lit;x=.:*:-Q. itr**, ba- ".ir-T irrrt jtaenLLlT sAziitud with 

T.'c^Ti si,.n.AT.Kr 'A X*-wh(ArT:Lir. wbj LA«i >>e^c. i in. ripLini^iv-a it i". ChirtijriA, howeTer, 

p'.p-.l ■-.!? '",r*Anr:r--% ii"Lrr. la .Srp"rz:fc«rr tt** f:-li'>-3i-T»i 'bj abjac cix^cv ^^ the most 

i'^^A ChA*'^'=:n.- '•■Aft 'allrd :•: rie mlaii^irr i-f I-etim-ni And p jj-l* ■.f ili-r cI^rzT." who rerered 

ytrj^c. '.i fti:hAc» I n-^x- Y-wtr-r -. in tL»? h::r j^* thfeir :tHurai*r A&i zTii& and ' left all 

ai-:j'-,ir..r.i' pr-r-hjrrrr -jf Hi.i.i-n^oc- TL- rtkih-er thjji CjinplT wirh the terms of that«: oV TV:r.r.A£ii Tr^now ilrM»=i-i Ln^orwo law.* "Hirhtr j-eitr? later he ruited Aigrll. 

f*rvr.»r,tL». •.f.r: 7»r^/..i:.on^r* And pro'.«r:i:-rr*. ani pravr^i with him "-n the daj of hi* exe- 

rV^rAr..*. iipr.n ii-* ordlnari-jn, dctLir»e*i "La: o-i:lon. In 1»)S?7 James II dispensed wiili 

\jt ijui Z.CA t^rftn a p*^J ^'i th^ protf:*!. He the test. an«i in Sepceziber l^fes? Charteris 

0-x»'\ .<\ :tjl£^. *. hU di^UnLt ion * incerrLv. f i-r he was In?: it vited to t he parish ■ >i Dirletoa in Elasr 

»^;.T.p*irh..*rd wl'.h thr- r*nioIation'-r?.«jr moii-r- LrLLin. where. «}n taking the inath <^i allt^ 

n^'^piif.?- Hft hate*-! strlf-r. and. likr l>-u:h- fiance :•> WLLliam and Slary. he remaint*d 

'.■,r.,.v; probaWTpr»rfrrredirpL*o"jpacj. If-'n ;I11 I»jy7. But he showisd himself a» inde- 

r,Kt? f»^rof*t[6n of *fpL*copa/ry in IWJ Charteris p^rnd-^nt a* bef-fre. A\'hen in ld5^!> the privy 

ror.f.'<r7nirri. a^ did I>7i;:nton and the bulk of ojuncil ifave civil sanction to the fast ap- 

r.r>- ?5ry>*f i*h '^Irfsrjr. He wa* in pre*b\terian p:>int»r<i by the revived general assembly on 

o:"iKr-«, h'it.rXiW^pt in a fewca^rs in the di-xese aoci>imt y>i such • national sins* as the late 

',i \ t^rrU^iti. rhfrre was no r^^rdination of the establishment of prelaev, Charteris. while bf 

paf;.4hmiaMr^r«whohadl^:enappointfr«lLnthe obeyed the council ani read the act of as- 

f.:ra<^of pT*:J•^>yt^rT: only, to *ave the rij2rht> of sembly fr«jm his pulpit, added a defence «»f 

par '^iH-f.^.h^rt^ who had been admitted tu b«rne- epLscupacy : said plainly that * he did not see 

tfu^ ♦tnc*r \^M were nir^iuire*! to obtain pre- that the continuance of pastors toser\-eGotl 

A»:ri ration fr^>m ?he lawful patron, and olla- and the church under the late settlement was 

tor. from th^ bishop. Charteris had such coUa- to be looked upon as a defection for which 

Jo " 

T I'* 

n in IW2. and for thirteen ytrars lon^trr he they were to repent : ' and even retorted on 

r»-Eiiaiftftrl rftini.-t*rr of Yester. Charten^j was the n<iw triumphant presbyterians for their 

infMnat^ nnd Iia/i (rreat influence with R«jbert * factious temper * and * bitter leal.' In 1697 

Ihiiith'^j yn'/tw jral, (iiAbop of Aberdeen in 1664, he ret ired on an allowance from his benefice. 

.V>iirTi^j 9Lf%*\ iSuniet. He disapproved of much and died in Eldinburgh in 1700, alter endur- 

ir. th^ stt'Aion of the bihhopA, and of more in inir ereat sudferiug (rom stone, which he bore 

that of f he jrovemment. In 1(>>4 he joined *wiih the most perfect patience and sub- 

with Naime in a protest a^in^t his diocesan's mission/ Charteris was never married ; he 

tUr\wr^ityj[ a in in inter without the consent of was of ascetic and studious habits, and dis- 

hi* h\u*A ; «nd in \W3, when the Sc«>tiL<h tinguished for patristic and historical leam- 

bi'hofrf were o/^rced into voting for u verj- ing. Wodrow describes him as a man of 

l;,rwtian fi/.'t.ofj«iipr*;nia/;y, Charteris was 'one great worth and gravity. Burnet's ascrip- 

of the epi^ropitl clergj' who thought/ says t ion to him of 'composed serene gravity/ the 

\'nin\*'.l, 'that it marie th** king our pope/ meekness of wisdom, and earnest practical 

Nor in .••pit*; of ••trong pressure from his friend religion, is justified by every line of the small 

l>-ii(hton, now binhop of Dunblane, would but weighty works, * On the DitFerence be- 

he Hiu:f]it a bishopric. In 1070, however, tween True and False Christianity' (170^$^,. 

when I>;ighton became bishop of Glasgow, un<l *Un the Corruption of this Age' (1704), 

T'liart-erirt eon -Jointed to be one of six preachers whicli were published after his death. In 

whom f/*;ighton wjnt to preach among the the latter work (republished by Foulis, Glas- 

w#r>»tern whig-s in supjKirt of an accommoda- gow, 1761) Charteris condemns the preach- 

lion U'.iwi:*-u presbyterians andepi.sco]>alians. ing at the celebration of the Lord's Supper,. 

In 167.'; (Jliarteri.s was choKen bv the town which Bums more etlectuallv satirised in 

council proffH.ior of divinity in the university * Tlie Holy Fair,' and strongly pleads for the 

of Kdinbiirgh,at u hularj' of 1,<KX) marks and restoration of the public reading of holy 

11 houMi! in t!i»! college. In that oftice * he scripture in the services of the church of 

fornii-d/ MftVK Hiirnet, * the minds of many of Scotland. The catalogue of Scottish divines 


|H>!^;d whieh ])rfu;tically made the king the History of the University of Edinburgh; Wod- 
filirtolute master of the church of Scotland, row; Blair's Autobiography.] J. C. 

Char)' 139 Chastillon 

CHARY, CHINTAMANKV KAGOO- I CHASE, JOHN (1810-1879), landscape 
NATIIA {d. 1880), astronomer, was at- water-colour painter, was bom in John Street, 
tached to the Madras observatory nearly forty Fitzroy Square, on 26 Feb. 1810. When a 
years, during seventeen of whicn he occupied child he received some instruction from John 
the position of first assistant. He took a Constable, K.A.[(}. v.], and afterwards studied 
chief share in making observations with the architecture. His earliest attempts in art 
transit-circle (to the number of 88,000) for were elaborate interiors, such as those of 
the star catalogue in progress from 1862, and Henry VIFs Chapel in Westminster Abbey ^ 
was a prominent ana useful member of ex- and St. George's Chapel, Windsor. In 1826- 
peditions fitted out to observe total eclipses he exhibited (for the first time) in Suffolk 
of the sun, 18 Au^. 1868 and 11 Dec. 1871. Street * A View of the Kaves of Westminster 
On the first occasion he was in independent Abbey.' Chase was elected a member of the 
command of a party stationed at Vunpurthy, New Society of Painters in Water-colours- 
in the nizam's dominions ; on the second (now the Koyal Institute, Piccadilly) in 
the post assigned him was at Avenaski in 1835, and died at his residence, 113 Char- 
the Coimbatore district. He was zealous for lotte Street, Fitzroy Square, on 8 Jan. 1879. 
the difiusion among his countrymen of en- His later works combined chiefly landscape- 
lightened ideas about astronomy, and of lat€ and architecture, such as terraced gardens^ 
delivered frequent lectures on the subject ruined abbeys, castles, manorhouses, and 
before native audiences. But a manual of churches, lie frequently exhibited views 
astronomv for Hindu readers, to the prepa- of Haddon Hall, which had a special charm 
ration 01 which he devoted much labour, for him. His drawings were generally of 
failed of completion, probably through defi- rather small dimensions. The following 

inff, rendered his astronomical services of high the Cathedral at Chart res, France,' and * Lud- 

value. He discovered two new variable stars, low Castle * in 1878. Chase was the author 

and edited, during twelve years, besides a of a work entitled * A Practical Treatise on 

native calendar, the astronomical portion of Landscape Painting and Sketching from 

the * Asylum Press Almanac' He published Nature in Water-colours,' edited by the Rev. 

ill 1874 a pamphlet on the * Transit of Venus,' James Harris, M.A, London, 1861, 8vo. 
which appeared in six Indian languages as [ottle/s Dictionary of Recent and Living 

well as in hnglish, and was laijgely subscribed p^jni^rs and Engnivers, 1866 ; Athenteum, 1 879, 

for. Appended to it was an address delivered ji 95 1 X^ F. 

bv him 13 April 1874, with the object of * 

securing support for his intended work, in CHASTILLON or CASTILLUN, 
which he proposed the foimdation of a native HENRY DE (Jl. 1196), archdeacon of Can- 
observatory, ottering his own instruments as tcrbury, is first mentioned as a judge of the 
the nucleus of its equipment. He contri- king's court in 1195. In the records of fines 
buted three pajiers to the * Monthly No- for that year he is mentioned as Henry de 
t ices' of the Royal Astronomical Society, Chastilon or Castilliun, but in those of 1196 

Observations of the Projected Image of the 1195 or the beginning of 1190. He may 

Sun ' (xix. 337) ; * Occultations visible in the possibly be the same person as the Henrj- de 

month of August 18(58 at Madras, and along Casteillun who in 1 197 rendennl an account 

the Shadow-Path of the Total Kclipse of the of receipts and payments of the oftice of 

Sun in India' (xxviii. 193): and* On the chamberlain of London for the two years 

Total Eclipse of the Sun on 11 Dec. 1871, beginning Whitsuntide 1195; but in that 

as visible m the Madras Presidency' (xxxi. case it is singular that he is mentioned with- 

137). Extracts from his observations during out the title of archdeaccm. In 1198 and 

[Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical vent of Christ Church (Canterbury), and in 
Society, xli. 180; Madrjis Mail, 7 Feb. 1880 ; , connection with the same matter he appears^ 
Athen8eum(1880),i. 382.] A. M. C. as the bearer of a letter from the arch- 

Chatelain 140 Chatclain 

liiNliop to Kiclianl 1. In the following vt>ar Willinni Harrison Ains worth in the AV hid- 
In* was a witness to the agn^'incnt in which mill Field, Dunmow [8t»e AiSSWORTH, AViL- 
ihr archhiHhop and the monks ))ound them- LIAM IIakkison]; hIic then stated that during 
si'lvt's to Hiihmit their ease to arbitration, nion* than twelve years her husband and her- 
In 1 MK> he instaHed Savaricus, bishop of si*lf had never had the leattt disagreement. 
Ihitli and WiOls, as abbot of Glostonburv. They were energetic pedestriana, wolkinff 
l>iirin^r his tenure of th*^ archdeaconry two thirtv miles u day, and m their tours visited 
ditli'ii'iit iH»rsims, Uadulf and E., an- men- the S'ew Fr)rcst for thirtv-three consecutive 
t ioni'd an having acte<l as * viet^arehili 'aeons * years. While staying in Jersey and Guernsey 
in \\x\^ and I MM». they tM'f-ame intimate with Victor Hugo and 
In IJOl*, during the eontest U'tween King his family. During the earlier part of her 
John and the nioTiks of St. Augustine's mamed life Madame de Chatelain wroteyCom- 
nionastcry at Canterljurj- respecting tin* pa- posted, and sang many beautiful ballads. In 
tninage of the ehun-h at hav»'rshani, the I KV) she publisbnl* A Handbook of the Four 
arehdt^acon i*\eoniinunieated the monks on Klemcnts of Vocalisation/ a work whicli was 
account of tin- scenes t»f violence which had highly commended by (xiulia Grisi. Among 
taken j»hu'e in the saert'd building, and took her pn)s«» writings are *The Silver Swon,' a 
])ossessitui t»f the clnin'h. The monks ap- fairy tale, 1^47: *Th»* Sedan Chair,* 1866; 
iK'aled tt> tlie ])oih% who dirwttHl an iiu|uirv and * Truly Noble,* 1S70. She also produced 
into till' «'as<». How the matter was dtH*idi>d in * IJeynolds's Miscellany/ under the signa- 
ls not known: but in the meantime the tun* of L^itpold AVray, * The Man of many 
nuuiks luid made lln'ir jH^act* with the king, Dauffhters.* For the musical houses of WVs- 
and it s«»ems that the an*hdeacon availed ?»ell,Myers,S<*hott, and others she translated 
himself of the opjxirt unity to s<vun» for him- upwanis of four hundred songs, and her name 
>elf a shan' of the n*vemies of the church. and her assumed namc^arv attached to a hun- 

The date of Cliastil Ion's di'ath is unknown, dnd and forty original tales, fifty fairy tales, 

nor (h»i>s It ap]HMir whether he continutM to and oi\t< 'en handbooks. Oneof her last works 

hold the otiice t>f andideacon during hi** lifr. wastlu* iranslatitm intoKnglish of the Italian 

The name of his succe>s«)r is variously givi'U libn»tto of ' Lucia di I^mmermonr ' for the 

as Henry de Stanfonl, Santonl. and Statfonl. Knglisli *itag*». KxiN'>>ive literary' la Unir af- 

lS,mnu.r*> Omtorbiirv. 0.1. rKiiiolv. i. l.V,; ftv ted her brain. She died insane in I^mdon 

M.iMihU Kriii. u. M\{: MavloxV KxihiNjurr. on :ttKIune ISiln and was buried at Lynd- 

. ::.*»; Huitrrs Kitu>. i. 1. 3, i»l, l-VJ: Kj-i- '»»rst, Hamp-hin', on 7 July. She left nu- 

-u«;;i' 'amuiriiJiM-., c*\. StiiM^s ^K.ilU S rit-V nieMU" unpublished wi»rks, including a novel 

j'p. iiWK 410, 44(i. Ill: 1V^> l-ive> t.f tlu- eallfd 'The Qmvn .»f the S^m/ and a tale, 

Jud^rcs. i. ;HS ] H. 15. *(»ur New tiov^nior^.* 

J i:\N-H\rrisTL' Fr\>\o is Ernest di: Cii.\- 

OHATELAIN, CLAKA i»i:, /uv lu: rt»\- ii:i vin. hi-r husband, was bom in Paris on 

ilnNY (lSi)7 isrm. mu<ic«l coniiHwer and 1?» Jan. 1^> Land etlucated at the College des 

:iuthor. was N»ni in London on :U .luly iSiC, IVo><aix and at th»» Lycee Charlemagne, 

lying ihi- daui:ht«'r i^i M. de l*ontii:ny. a « hie.miinirtoKiiirlandhecimimemvda woeklv 

Knnch iTfUthMuan. deMi-ndani of the C.Mure yMi\MT in LondtMi, calhil • I-e Petit Mercun\' 

.le Ponii:;nv. \\ Ijo martied an rnirlishwoman. ihe naiij.- 'f which \w chaui^l to ' Le Mer- 

While n'<id'.i\ir in Krance in iSiNi she pulw our*^ dr- L.»ndn>' in lSl»t\ In the following 

lished, on ihr de.iih of" the famous painter \ear he w.'ut on t\.vit fmm Paris to Home, to 

lhi\id,an elr;:y elUltl^^l ■ LeTomU'au du IVw "..n.h the <avin*:van.l doin;^* of PopoI..eoXlL 

:pr;*- _ . . 

in l'i\*;hsh Ua^xMine iVrui '.le de H.. ll»vs«lia L:»lN» tr.nv- .n ■"> Mav 1<U. Between InW 

S.nita CT>ve. aiii L.s'p.»Kl:n.' /i-ka :i!>' :iU.« i.-d 1<N \u- i-.:ll-*V./d !i:anv works in Paris. 

i:;i'.i-.» > i!:.u!:,'d T.» h.- w -it uc^ Siu- w :4h .v.n- a^d \\ a- r»'waT\:-.\i bv :n\- iving the IVussian 

v..•!.d\\■.•.^.•l^■\n.^d^^ M»Mv:i.iv.\;'LvV'.,i .M ..■>!.- .;• ^'ix-', M-ri-" in ISvS/ He retunird 

S v:.'r\.* ■ ri'.e v^'./'Ch.isnK-rv's J.Mi-ia'..* :.' V*!-::iv..» •.•.• ]s«-J . whtr^- hewa^naturalis^sl 

' I , C.".:"uv de ^^,:•^'lv.' \\:t!5 v.; »h' .-t" ,.,•. ii J-.;;'., l'^^^ ■. —d -tsid-Ai vvntinuouslv in 

'. '-.v' IS -usi-.M^ AX \yx\\ x.;xx I !:,. l^h: artr* W^i^ • ho v.. :4;V.1» -.irV.v- V. o:' London lor nearlv fortv 

Ot! l.i Vi.'.vl iNj.'i J,!-,. marri.M. :» I »»Md,»v..^. d-.-.r.v,: wh-., h ^vr. vl he p'tblishW nii- 

J H I Lrmx' de CV.aTf'l.Hm ^v Mow wstxU ,»! r.t>:v wo-ks. His Us: known boi>k 

V*:e m:i-. •. J ijjv pi>»x .si luo-T h.'ippx \ h. L» J i-.'.x i^ .xv. \\ \.\\ • IVdv.:* s le :* Pvy^^ie Anglaise/ 

InV» O.,- mxv'.\..s» ,.. rt'.i.-h oi l«»vv '•^...r. :v.:. xXh WV "i\ / rT.V.r.-.Gc -^ver one thou- 

Chatelaine 14 ' Chatfield 

* View of Fulham Bridge and Putney/ in 
IToO. In 1737 J. Rocque published * A New 
Book of Landskips Pleasant and Useful for 

siiud translations of selections from Chaucer 

to Tennyson. His' Rambles through Kome,' 

brought out in 1852, also attracted some 

attention. His opinions were entirely repub- to learn to draw without a jVIaster, by Cha- 

lican: and in *Ronces et Chardons/ 1869, he , telin.* There are in the department of printa 

stn>ngly denounced the ICmperor Napoleon , and drawings in the British Museum four 

under the title of Chenapan III. He died at drawings by him, in pen and bistre, and in 

( 'astelnau Lodge, '20 Warwick CJrescent, lie- black chalk. 

gnit\«* Park, London, on 15 Aug. 1881, and was [R^lgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878 : Ott- 

l)uried m Lyndhurst churchyard on 22 Aug. iQy\ Dictionary of Recent and Living Painters 

I In Momoriam of Clara de Chatelain, with a ""d Engravers, 1866 ; manuscript notes in the 

( 'atalogiie of her Works. 1 876 ; Fleiirs et Fruits. British Museum.] L. F. 

sonvenin* de fou Madunie C. de Chatelain, 1877, a ,^^ 

with portrait ; Andrews's Hibtory of the Dun- CHATELHERAULT, Duke op (d, 

mow Mitch, 1877. pp. 18, 27-31 ; Catalogue des 1576). [See Hamilton, Jambs.] 

Oii\ niges da Chevalier do Chatelain, 1875.] 

G. C. B. CHATFIELD, EDWARD (1800-1839), 

painter, helonged to an old English family, 

CHATELAINE, JOHN BAPTIST and was son of John Chattiold, a distiller 

CJiAKDE (1710-1771), draughtsman and at Croydon, and Anne Humfrey, his wife, 

t^ngraver, whose real name was Philippe, He Avas originally destined for the East 

was l)om in London of Frtmch protostant India House ; but having an innate predi- 

parents in 1710. According to Dussieux in ' lection for art, and there being no immediate 

* Les Artistes Fran^ais a TC'tranger ' (Paris, ' ])ro8])ect offered in a dist^steml business, ho 
1S.')<), 8vo) and E. B. de la Chavignerie in decided to attempt to earn his living as a 

* l)ictionuaireG6ni'ral des Artistes der£cole painter. In April 1818 he visited the ex- 
Franvaise' (Paris, 1882, 8vo), he was bom hibition at Spring Gardens, and there for 
and died in Paris, (-hatelaine held a com- the first time encountered Benjamin Kobert 
mission in the FVench army, but, endowed Haydon, in whom he was already deeply in- 
with great capacity for drawing, he took to terested, and who was destined to have an 
art. He was employed by Alderman Boydell overmastering influence on his life. Through 
[q. v.], who paid him by the hour on account Fllmes, the editor of * Annals of the Fine 
ot his idle and dissolute habits. He resided Arts,* he obtained an introduction to Haydon, 
near Chelsea, in a house which had formerly was warmly received, and shortly afterwards 
Iw^loiiged to Oliver Cromwell, and which became a pupil in his studio, where he found 
Chatelaine took from having drt»amed that he the Landseers, William Bewick, Lance, 
would find in it a hidden trea.<*ure. He died Christmas, and others already working. Un- 
at the White B<»ar Inn, Piccadilly, in 1771 ; der Haydon's teaching he went through a 
his friends raised a subscription to defray the full course of practical anatomy, and was 
cost of the funeral. He exhibited as an en- occupied in close study, both in practice and 

mixed style, i.e. etching and mezzotint ") ; of execuition. Nature was his ideal, the old 

two landscapes, after his own designs; eignt masters — Phidias, Raphael, Michael Angelo^ 

views of the lakes in Cumberland and West- llubens, &c. — the objects of his reverence, 

moreland, after William Bellers (these views He commenced his artistic career with some 

wen* engraved in conjunction with llavenet, ])ort rait studies. In 1821 he started upon 

(Irignion, Canot, and Mason) ; eleven views, his first ambitious picture, * Moses viewiug 

after Marco Hicci ; three landscapes after the l*romised I^and. This was exiiibited in 

rietro Berrettini da Cortona, Nicholas Pous- January 1823 at the British Gpallery, and was 

sin, and Francesco Orimaldi, * il Bolognose ; ' received with approbation fi-om the public, 

a landscape after F. Mielly ; and a * View besides warm commendation on the part of 

of the liondon Hospital in WhitechapelKoad. Haydon. Chatfield, however, at tliis point in 

l)e>igned by Boulton Mainwaringana painted his career sustained a rude shock ; for in June 

by William Bellers, etched and engraved by 1823 Haydon was arrested for debt, and his 

Chatelaine and W. H. Toms ; ' a * View of effects sold. Some of hia pupils had put their 

the lliver Thames from Chiswick/ and a names to bills at his ntjiiest^ and suffered 

Chatfield m^ Chatterley 

. ■ .=.- ': ir rab! r p-^c a n i iry !>«.•. Chat Qr M w.ia .:•: t - - F-"- z-.- A :r « ; A n jI i * Xjabu* of t he Fid e 

..!]!: -nzr'r.r niml^T. *#i: wa.*'un»t-rly aV-l^ At:^; 'ten:. Mij. 'n-sw wr.V'xi. 438; Taylors 

- I :.r«v:ir •.h-j 131 -in", di-. and. thvij:h :m- L'ff vf Hayijn . £xAm'.z»r. 27 Jan. 1839; 

:-fV-rr:-f>-r-l tni iTind-ed on •>*■? world bv Cari*r. -23 Jai. 1S39: 3forniiig Adrerti«>er, 

Hav :.-:** i^pr vilrn.v.did nr. midje ir. as 2 M^v 1«2«>: Rnval Aawiemv. &o., Qitalogues; 

''- i'-I* h •-*■ '-T-:4* 1 i-V hr wa* und-s-r to his n^E^i**rir-* ii::*ry a-d other inforaiation coi:i- 

iriWrr.V- I^ ir>:r": -: n hid always b^n ™^=5«*** " 7 '^ » Coapcoa.] L. C. 

j.v-n iT4":T. Ft 'ZiL 'hi^ j*-!nt Chartield wa« 

"hr-wn -.a h- o'-m r-s irc-r-. and was C'>m- CHATHAM. EiRT^ or. 'See Pttt.' 

zr:llr*l "' • ^ IT pl-rr.rr.t hi* ^Irnd-irr incom-- l>v 

p.-ir.r^*--p^:n->.j. Amonv hi* si^vr* w^r- CHATTERLEY, WILLL\M SIM- 
-^Trrkl i-^mVr* o: 'hr FJii-yrll fasillv. ao'i MOXDS i ir'*r-lS±J», actor, was bom in 
h^ p.tinT'rd 4 '..aTT^fiscily .-TOnpofrh^Cimp- I/>n-.V.»n on '2\ Man;h ITS?. Hi« father, ori- 
Wl!? ■ f I-I iv .i" an o-'.-r hun*. which he -?\- finally a sursrical instrument maker in Can- 
h:b:r»fd \' '::•? Hrtvul Ai^drmy in 1<V4. Hv nonStrevt, !iUr*d sub«e-.)uenrlT a p>8t in con- 
did r. .'t.hvw-rVr:--. nrrrl-*:* historical piiia'iiij. n->ct:on with Drury Lane Theatr^e. at which 

• he br^r-cr: 'A 4r* to wh ich hi* ^du- -a' ion an 1 al I hoM<e Chattrrlr v made his appearance in in- 
Li* r:r.rr2~-r- hft.1 l»-n dir-i?:ei. H--xhibi:el fanrin-^ parts. He is said to nave played in 
a" th* Rvva! Aoridrrrav. in IsW, 'Th^r D^ath his th:ra vear the Kin^of the Fairies in the 

if lyxrkr.* a pic.urv of iTvat p t*h is. an 1 v-rry * JubiW, and Cii]»id in ' Arthur and Emme- 

favot 1 ra bl y crl : : c: sr^L In 1 S;V5 h*:- a: t empt •.■d line." a piece which rec»."»rds show t o ha ve been 

an amb':t:'»-i* - ibj-^rcr. ' The Battl*:- of Killie- played at Drurv I^ae on 5 Xov. 17>9. Wlien, 

crankie/ This pi«nure r^pres^nxs a fi^ht hr- m 1791. Th»» Drury Lane cv^mp^ny mi^rrated 

•we^n m-'in'ed drazoms and two hijh- to the Kind's Theatre <Opera IIou^') in the 

landers. The latter are stripped to the waist, Haymarket. Chatterley accompanied it, but 

:ind '■'f rxtr^.-me muscular dewlopment ; one played no char.ieter sufficiently important 

has fallen, b'lt th»- oth^i-r with a tremen-l-Mis to have his name mentioned. On 1 Feb. 

;.Tip is drajifinz down a drajoon from his 1795. after the return of the company, be is 

saddle, and rais*^ his rijht arm in the act of first publicly heard of playinff Carlos in an 

dealinjT a d-aihblow. This picture, which ill-starred traje-ly by Bertie Great heed, en- 

•ixcite'l m'ich att«^ntion at th»* tim**. was sub- titled the * Recent. ' On 24 Sept. 1796 he 

seqjientiv s^»ld at Liveni^ol for4-V. In In37 pkyed the Child in * Isabella,* a version by 

he •'•xhibltwl • Ophelia.* but his health, which Garriok *>( S^Mitheme's * Fatal Marriafre,' to 

had nevvr b— ?n stmnj. had then Iv-^run to the Isabella of Mrs. Siddons. Through the 

fail hira. .Vfr-r a linjerinj illness he die^i, recommendation of Bannister he assumed 

'^►n 'J'2 Jan. I S'-)^. at 6*j.T udd Str^t . Brunswick youthful characters in Birmingham, and took 

Square, the hoas»r of his friend, Mr. Orrin part in private theatricals. His connection 

Smith, the w-'vi enjraver, with wh'ini he with Prury Lane was maintained until 1804, 

bad r*?sided f ^^r sora- ye^rs. and wh-^^e family when he accepted a country ensasrement. 

he had frequently iwrtray**.!. Fie was buricsi At Cheltenham he made a success in what is 

in Xorw-yjd c-m'irt'rrw Chatfield was p:»s- technically called leadinjr business. Palmer 

ses^-aed nf consid--r.ible lir.-rary powers, and andDimond secun>dhim inlSlOfor theBatli 

contribut'^'d articl*:-.* tn • Black w-kkI's Ma^ra- theatn\i^f which they were managers. Here 

/in-.' the ' Nvw Monthly Ma:razine.' Elmes's he marrit\l. 1 1 Aujt. IS13, Miss Louisa Simeon, 

• Annals t^( t \i*' Fine An?.' w^o. . usually under an act n*ss. whi>s»» reputation remained at least 
rlie siarnature of * Echi'»n.' At the time of on a levt»l with his own. He reappeared in 
hi'i d^-ath h-* wis enariijied on u lari:re picture* ISlti in l.iMulon at the Lyceum. Irrejnilanty 
of ' S'>ldi-r"s' Wiv»s drawinsr Lots for Em- of life interfered with his success, and after 
barkati'^nwiththvirllu^hnnils.' Thispictur^*, accept inc temp^^^rarv ensasrement^ at the 
n'»w in the pn<>.\s<ii»n of Mr. C. H. C-^mpti>u Adelphi, the l^lvmpic. the Surrey, and other 
at ( 'lapham. -hiws irreat -ikill of ccrap^sition, theatre's, he died at L^Tin in XorJFolk in 1822, 
and ^riv^^-smn-h promise lU what he miirht have a victim i»f mo<t forms of excess. In Bath 
atrain-d to had he livtsl lonsr enoudi to do he play ihI such characters as Sir Anthony Ab- 
•,u5ticf» t » rlie powers which he undoubtedly solute, Launctdot Gobbo, Foresieht in 'Love 
pois^^ss-*'!. Aimn^ other pictures from liis for Love." Sir S^ilomon Sadlips in the ' Double 
hand w^-r^ ' Pen»:'lo]»e's Crriff ovor the IVnv Gallant.' In London his ereat character was 
of riys-e<' (exhihii»\l 1824\ 'La Petite Justice W,Mvlc»vk. in which be came only 
E*piejl-' ilvJo), and 'Deep thouirht oft behind .Munden and Dowt on. He 'created,* 
s^-eme-l to fix his vouthful eve ' { l^i<^. 24 Mav 17v>v^. the nMe of the bov in * Pizarro.* 

[ R- . Ut- I re*s Di ot i I ) na ry of Art i st s : G nives's M rs. Chat t erley , who was an afnreeable actress 

Diction^ryof Artist !«. 17 60-1 8S0; Elmcs'sAunals in comedy, bad the reputation of being the 




best representative of a Frenchwoman on 
the English stage. 

[Gencst's Accf»uiit of the EDglish Stage ; The- 
atrioil Inquisitor, vol. xi.; Oxberrv's Dramatic 
Biography, vol. v. ; The Drama, or Theatrical ' 
l»ocket M^igazine, 1821-5.] J. K. 

(1806-1876), miscellaneous writer, was the 
only child of the Rev. Lascelles Iremonger, 
prebendary of Winchester, who died on 6 Jan. 
1830, by his second marriage, on 26 Oct. 
1 799, with Harriett, youngest sister of Ad- 
miral Lord Gambler. She was bom at 24 Arl- 
ington Street, Piccadilly, London, on 11 Nov. ' 
1806. On 3 Aug. 1824 she married Sir Wil- I 
liam Abraham Chatterton of Castle Mahon, 
CO. Cork, bart., who was bom on 5 Aug. 1794. 1 
In 1837 appeared anonymously her first book, 
^ Aunt Dorothy's Tales/ in two volumes, fol- i 
lowed two years afterwards by ' Rambles in 
the South of Ireland,' which was so successful 
that the first edition was exhausted in a few 
weeks. ' After this she wrot« many tales, 
novels, poems, and accounts of travels. Car- 
<linal Newman praised the refinement of 
thought in her later works of fiction. The 
Irish famine, 1845-61, deprived her husband 
of his rents. They ret ired to a small residence 
at Bloxworth in Dorsetshire, where they lived 
until 1852. They then removed to Rolls Park, 
Essex, and Sir William Chatterton died there 
on 5 Aug. 1855. On 1 June 1869 the widow 
married Mr. Edward Heneage Dering (b, 
1 827), youngest son of John Dering, rector of 
Pluckley, Kent, and prebendary of St. Paul's, 
who had retired from the army in 1851. 
"Within six years after their marriage Mr. 
Dering entered the church of Rome. She 
herself long wavered, but after a correspon- 
dence with Dr. Ullathome, bishop of Bir- 
mingham, respecting doctrinal points, she was 
received into the Roman church in August 

1 875. She died at Malvem Wells on 6 Feb. 

1876. She was the author or editor of the 
following works : 1. * Aunt Dorothy's Tales,* 
anonvmous, 1 837. 2. * Rambles in the South 
of Ireland,' 1839, 2nd edit. 1839. 3. ' A Good 
Match, The Heiress of Drosberg, and The 
Cathedral Chorister,* 1840; another edition, 
1868. 4. * Home Sketches and Foreign Re- 
collections,' 1841. 6. *The Pyrenees, with 
Excursions into Spain,' 1843. 6. *Allanston, 
or the Infidel,' 1843. 7. 'Lost Happiness, 
or the Effect* of a Lie,' a tale, 1845. 8. * Re- 
flections on the History of the Kings of 
Judah,' 1848. 9. * Extracta from Jean Paul 
F.Richter,'1851. 10. ' Compensation,* anony- 
mous, 1866. 11. * Life and its Realities,' 
1857. 12. *The Reigning Beauty,' 1868. 

13. 'Memorials of Admiral Lord Gambler,' 
1861. li 'Selections from the Works of 
Plato,' im-J. 15. 'The Heiress and her 
Lovers,' 1 863. 1 6. ' Leonore, a Tale, and other 
Poems, 1864. 17. 'Quagmire ahead,* pri- 
vat*«ly printed, 1864. 18. 'Grey's Court,' 
editecl by Lady Chatterton, 1866. 19. ' Os- 
wald of Deira,^ a drama, 1867. 20. ' A Plea 
for Happiness and Hope,' privately printed, 
1867. 21. 'CountryCoteries,'1868. 22. 'The 
Oak,' original tales and sketches by Sir J. 
Bowring,Lady Chatterton, and others, 1869. 

23. 'Lady May,' a pastoral poem, 1869. 

24. 'The Lost Bride,' 1872. 25. 'Won at 
last,' 1874. 26. ' Extracts from Aristotle's 
Work,* privately prints, 1876. 27. 'Mis- 
giving,' privately printed, 1876. 28. ' Con- 
victions, privately printed, 1876. 29. 'The 
Consolation of the Devout Soul,' by J. Fras- 
sinetti, translated by Lady Chatterton, 1870. 

[Dering's Memoirs of Lady Chatterton, 1878 ; 
Oillow's Bibliographical Dictionary of English 
Catholics (1885), 1. 478-80 ; information from 
E. H. Dering, esq.] G. C. B. 

(1802P-1871), harpist, was bom at Ports- 
mouth, where his father, John Chatterton, 
was professor of music. The exact date of 
his birth is uncertain. At the time of his 
death it was stated that he was in his sixty- 
seventh year, but according to the informa- 
tion of his relatives he was bom in 1802. He 
came to London, and studied the harp under 
Bochsa and Labarre, succeeding the former 
as professor at the Royal Academy of Music. 
His first aptpearance in London took place at 
a concert given by Aspull in 1824. In 1842 
he received the appointment of harpist to the 
queen. His last public performance at Windsor 
was on the occasion of the marriage of Prin- 
cess I^ouise. He died after two days' illness at 
32 Manchester Street 11 April 1871, and was 
buried at Kensal Green. Chatterton wrote 
a considerable amount of harp music, mostly 
consist ing of fantasias and arrangements. As 
a performer, his talents were overshadowed 
by those of his younger brother, Frederick. 

[Information from Mr. and Mrs. F. Chatterton ; 
Musical Examiner for 1844, 851 ; Musical Direc- 
tory for 1872; Orchestra, 14 and 21 April 1871 ; 
Time«, 11 April 1871.] W. B. S. 

CHATTERTON, THOMAS (1 752-1 770), 
pot»t, bom at Bristol on 20 Nov. 1752, was 
the posthumous son of a poor schoolmaster, 
who died on 7 Aug. 1752. His parents, 
Thomas Chatterton of Bristol and Sarah 
Young of Stapleton, were married on 26 Anril 
1748 at ChippiDg[-Sodbury in Gloucestershire, 
and had three children, Thomas, Mary (nearly 

Chatterton 144 Chatterton 

four years his st-mor), and a brother (Gile8 access. The sexton was the boj*6 uncle, 

Miilpas), who (YuA in infancy. Thomas was Richard Phillips, to whom Chatterton had 

Ixjm in a small tenement imme<liately behind peculiarly endeared himself. His sister has 

l*yle Stre«;t charity W'hrxil, of which his father relatt^ how, on a ])edUr promising to bring 

liad been master, and was baptisitd on 1 Jan. presents to herself and her brother. Chatter^ 

ITo'i at St. Mary K*^cliife. For nearly two ton answered, * Paint me an angel with wings 

litmdred years hla imternal ane<^tors had biK'n and a trumpet to trumpet my name over the 

hereditary wjxtons oft he church. Chatterton's world.* Though grave in manner he loved a 

father has be'.'nde.scribed by one of his pu])ils joke. Edward Smith's aunt Martha spoke 

m a roystering and rather* brutal fellow/ who of him years afterwards laughingly (Cfent. 

was remarkable for having so wide a mouth Maff. new ser.x. G03) as' a sad wag of a boy. *^ 

that he could put his clenched fist inside it. Though at times passionate, he was always 

He was, however, a man of ability. He was singularly winning in his manners. In his 

a skilled numismatist and c^jllected Si'Vr'ral eighth year he was nominated to ColstonV 

hundred Koman coins, afterwards in the Hospital, the bluecoat school of Bristol. 

mus«.'um of Sir John Smith, hart., of Ashttm He was admitted as a scholar on 3 Aug. 

Court. S^juthey has pre8«,-rv'ed * A Catch for 1700, on the recommendation of John Gar- 

Thn*e Voic»'S ' by him (iii. 495) in the 180.*> diner, vicar of Henbury. To his annoyance 

edition of the Works of Chatterton. He he was only taught reading, writing, arith- 

n-ad Cornelius Agrippa, affected a belief in metic, and the church catechism, lie told 

magic, and was fon(l of books. his foster-mother that he could have learned 

Chatterton's mother — who was boni in more at home. The junior usher, Thomas 

17^^! and dif.'d on 25 J)»rc. 17tn,aged fJO — Phillips, gave him encouragement. "WTien- 

»-nrly in l7o3removedto a houseon RedclilFe ever tlie boy was released from school he 

Hill, oj>ened a dame's sch<x>l, and took in locked himself up in his attic. There he was 

s*'\ving. Mrs. ('hatterton, the p«x't s grand- busily engaged, with a great piece of ochr*- 

mother, and Mrs. Kdkins, formerly Miss in a brown pin, a bottle of black lead, and 

.lames, who assisted Mrs. C'hatterton as a ]K)unee bags of cliarcoal, in making up he- 

:4einp.-4tn3ss, and who is usually s[Kjken of raldic designs and in teaching himself to draw 

as Chatterton's foster-mother, lived with the knights in armour, castles, and churches. 

family. They 8(X)n removed 1o a smaller From his earliest childhood Chatterton had 

house, uj) a court, at tin* back of Xo. oO, been familiar with the heraldic escutcheon Ji^ 

thenceforth memorable as Chatterton's home upon the tombs in St. Marj- Redclifie, and 

at Hristol. Chatterton was at first regarded intimately acquainted with the peculiarities 

as .«tu]»id. At four hv. knew but (mi' or two of various kinds of mediaeval ]>alieogrraphy. 

if'tters of the al])halx't. At five he was sent Karly in that century seven old oak chest;^ 

a^» a day scholar to Pyl»* Streitt school, of in the muniment room over the great north 

which Stephen J^)ve became master in 17r)7. porch of St. Mary Uedclifte had l>een broken 

He was soon returned as a dull boy. He open by the authorities in order to get at 

was reganled by his mother until the age of some important deeds. Conspicuous among 

six and a half as Mittle better than an ab- these chests was a huge one bound with 

solute f<^)l.' One day, seeing his mother iron, and secured with six keys, *cysta 

tearing uj» as wast** pa])er an old French serrata cum sex davibus,' known since the 

musical f<>lio of lu-r husband's, the boy, a< wars of the Hoses as Canvnge's cofli'er. The 

she said, * f«'ll in love' with the illuminated keys had been lost, the locks were force<l, 

capitals. From that moment his dormant and the documents were thenceforth left un- 

]K»wer.s seem to have be<'n awak»'ned. Hi* guarded. Gradually the whole of the contents 

mpidly learned to read, and was taujiht from of the seven receptacles had disappeared, the 

th»* Gothic characters of an old blaek-li'tier ]»oet's father carrying oil* the last sweepings 

Bible. At seven he was remarkabh- for his of the muniment room, llie boys' bibles 

bri^rhtness, and at ei^dit had becom«* an in- were covered by the schoolmaster with many 

.Pitiable if^ader. He sat for hours as if ht» of the parchments, while with the remainder 

\v»'re in a trance, and would break abni])tly his widow made thread papoi*s for herself and 

into passionate weeping. H»t even t lu'U systi'- dolls for her children. In the winter of 17iVJ 

niatienlly nep:lected both food and sleej). At Chatterton was confirmed by the Bishop of 

home his favourite haunt soon came to be a Bristol, and was greatly impressed by the 

dusty lumber-room, overlooking^ a little back ceremony. It happent^l at the same time to 

garden. He held this room before long under be his turn for the week to be doorkeeper at 

lock and k(*y as his own exclusively. Another Colston's. Then it was that he wrote his 

favourite haunt was the church of St. Mary first poem, ' On the Last Epiphany, or Christ 
I{».dclill'e, to which he had at all times ivady coming to Judgment.' It appea 

appeared in ' Felix 

M ( I 

Chatterton 145 Chatterton 

Farley's Bristol Joumar on 8 Jan. 170^^. i tionanr of Nathan Bailey, and from that of 
Soon afterwards he paraphrased the ninth John Kersey. With the help mainly of the 
chapter of Job and several chapters of Isaiah. I latter he compiled a glossary for his own 
He oecame more cheerful after he began to purpose in two parts: 1. Old words and 

write poetry. As a new year's gift Chat- 
terton's sister gave him at this time a pocket- 
book, which at the close of 176^3 he returned 

modem English ; 2. Modem English and old 
words. From the outset he never had any 
confidant as to his methods. His success 

to her filled with writings of his own, chiefly | with Phillips encouraged a new experiment, 
poetical. Two of them, * A Hymn for Christ- Henry Burgum was then carrying on business 
mas Day' and * Sly Dick,' both written when as a pewterer, in partnership with George 
he was eleven, have been preserved. He had | Catcott, at a house now known as 2 Brid^ 
begun to devote a good part of the few pence Parade. There Chatterton one day, early in 

given him weekly for pocket-money to bor- 
rowing books from the circulating libraries. 

1767, looked in upon him with the announce- 
ment that, among some old parchments from 

He hired among others a black-lc^tter copy Hedclifle Church, he had just discovered an 
of Speght's * Chaucer.' Between his elevent t ! emblazonment of the De Bergham arms with a 
and twelfth year he drew out a list of over j pedigree, show ingBurgum's relationship with 
seventy works read by him, chiefly in history ' some of the noblest houses in England, and 
and divinity. Meanwhile he ha j become in- | his direct descent from one of the Norman 
t^rested in the Canyn^s and other Bristol j knkrhts who came over with the Conqueror, 
celebrities associated with St. Mary Redclifl^e. | A few days afterwards Chatterton placed in 
His attention was one day awakened by i his hands, neatly written out in an ordinary 
coming upon one of his father s old fragments I boy*s copybook, * An Account of the Family 
of parchment then in use by his mother as a : of the De Bergham, from the Norman Con- 
silk winder. He exclaimed that he hadiBflnd ' quest to this time, collected, from original 
a treasure. He then collected all the re- | Ivecords, Tournament Rolls, and the Heralds 
maining morsels of parchment anywhere dis- of March and Garter's Records, by Thomas 
coverable in tlie house, and took them to his , Chatterton.' Elaborate references were made 
attic. On 7 Jan. 1764, in * Felix Farley's in it all down the margin to various authori- 
Bristol Journal,' appeared his satiric poem, ties. Burgum accepted this account of his 
a fable, entitled ' Tne Churchwarden and the high lineage as a thing proven, and with it 
Apparit ion.' It referred to the vandalism of a parchment eight inches square, on which 
one Joseph Thomas, then churchwarden of Chatterton had painted an heraldic blazon of 
St. Mary Redclifl^e. In another part of the ; the De Bergham coat of arms, and gave five 
same number appeared a letter signed ' Ful- shillings to the discoverer. For a second in- 
ford, the gravcdigger,' which has been sus- > stalment of the pedigree, brought to him a 

Sected to have been Chatterton's first literary few days later, continuing it to the reign of 
is^ise. On 14 April 1764 he wrote another James II, he gave another five shillings. On 
satiric poem on a religious dissembler, called some of the leaves of the first instalment were 
'Apostate Will.' In the summer of 1764 ' written two of Chatterton's spurious antiques, 
Chatterton first spoke about certain old ma- , ' The Tournament ' and * The Gouler's Re- 
nuscripts which he said had come into his quiem.' In the second instalment Chatterton 
possession throujjh his father from Canynge's introduced * The Romaunte of the Cnyghte,' 
cofier in the muniment room of St. Mwy Red- purporting it to have been written in 13^0 by 
clifle. He told a schoolfellow, James Thistle- ' John de Bergham, one of the pewt^rer's an- 
thwaite, that he had lent one of these old | cestors. Burgum went to London, a little 
manuscripts to the junior usher, Phillips, who | while afterwards, to have his pedigree duly 
a few days later showed a discoloured piece authenticated at the Heralds* College, ana 
of parchment on which was * Elinoure and learned that there was no record of a DeBerg- 
Juga,' the earliest produced of the so-called ' ham ever having borne arms. The whole 
ancient poems, though the latest printed of , aflair may be regarded as a schoolboy's prac- 
them all during Chatterton's lifetime. It ticaljoke. Chatterton's first conception of 

was first published five years afterguards in the 
May number for 1769 of Hamilton's ' Town 
and Country Magazine.' Chatterton had 
therefore written it when he was no more 
than in the middle of his twelfth year. Phil- 
lips was at once convinced of its antiquity. 
Cnatt^rton had already adopted an obsolete 
method of spelling, and adapted to his use 
a mass of words mm the old English dio- 

VOL. X. 

the * Rowley Romance ' dated from 1 765. Its 
central figure was an imaginary monk of the 
fifteenth century, Thomas llowley, after- 
wards spoken of as a secular priest at St. 
John's Church, the friend and confessor of 
the great merchant and mayor of Bristol, 
William Canynge the younger. It has been 
ingeniously soggested (Oent, Mao, new ser. 
August 1838) that a clue is readily discover- 

Chatterton 146 Chatterton 

able to Chattertoii*8 selection of the name rambles into the country, whence he seldom 

ley. An old epitaph in St.. In September 1768 a new bridfr< 
John's Church, Bristol, recording tlie death, ' opened for foot passengers, and it was gene- 

on '2'i Jan. 1478, of Thomas Kowley, a mer- rally known that in the following November 

chant of that seaport, might as readily have it Avould be publicly inaugurated. The whole 

guided him in his choice of the christ ian name city Avas startled by the appearance in * Felix 

and parish, in 1465, of his purely imaginary" FarleyVs Bristol Journal,' on 1 Oct. 1768, of 
Rowley, * prieste of St. Johan's, Bristowe.' ., an account of the mayor s first passing over 

What is most wonderful, however, about the the old bridge in 1 :?48. The description pur- 

* Kowl«y Romance ' is that Chatterton pro- jxorted to have been taken 'from an old ma- 

ducird with his lJoyi^^h hand the poetical nuscript,*and was transmitted to the printer 

workH not of one alone, but of twelve antique of the journal by one signing himself * Dunel- 

poifts. While he was preparing the earlier mus Bristoliensis.' Curiosity was at once 

of these elaborate fabrications, lie left the aAvakoned as to the source from wliich this 

school, on 1 July 1767, and on the same day curious document Jiad emanated, the original 

was apj>rentioed to John Lambert, an attor- of which is now at the British Museum (Ad^ 

ney ot Bristol, whose oilice at. the time was MS. 5766 B 8). Chatterton shortly after- 

on St. John's Steps. At the signinof of his wards appeared at the newsi)aper office, and 

indentures 10/. Avas paid over by Colston's Avas recognised as the l»earer of this singular 

trust eestof-^ambert. ( .'hat terton'soflice hours contribution. He said upon inquiry that he 

were worse even than his school hours, being AA^as employed by a gentleman in transcribing 

from 7 A.M. to 8 p.m. all the year round. He certain ancient manuscripts, and that he was 

Avas treated persistently as a mere ofiice at the same time writing complimentary A'ersos 

drudg'% r<^quired to sleep with the oilice boy, to a lady to Avhom the gentleman in question 

and to take his meals m the kitchen. lie Avas engaged. The description, he added, 

was allowed every day to spend an hour at was copied from a parchment ])rocured by his 

his own home, from 8 to 9 p.m. "He Avasonly father from the muniment room of St. Mary 

one*'— upon a Christmas eve — known to have Redcliffe. Yet Chatterton frankly admittetl 

exc»M,'ded the prescribed limit, till 10 p.m. to a friend of his own age, John Rudhall, 

Shortly after tlie commencement of Chatter- that * he was the author of it * (MiLLKs. 437), 

ton's a])prenticeship the attorney's oilice Avas showing liim afterwards how the a])peai-ance 

removed to the first fl(X)r of the house now of anlicjuity might be readily counterfeited, 

numbered 37 Corn Street, opposite the Ex- lie had meanwhile applied, under his noAV 

self ; ' William Smith, sailor and actor; John be gladly receiA'ed.' Three AA-eeks or a month 
liroughton, an attorney, Avho afterwards col- after the account of the procession over the 
lected his miscellanies, and many others. But old bridge had l>een published, George Cat- 
he confided his secret to no one. He Avorked cott, Burgum's partner, heard for the first 
reirularly at the olfice. His duties, which time, according to his own statement ((?<*/«f. 
were chieHy the co]»ying of precedents, en- Mag. 11 Sept. 1788), of certain anciont manu- 
gaired him upon an average no more than two scripts in the muniment n)(>m of St. Mary's, 
hours every day. But after two years and Klsewhere he says, less probably, that it Avas a 
nine months' occupation he had p<nmed three year earlier (see ib. xlviii. 347, 403). Catcott 
Isir^^'e vohimes: a folio of 334 clos«;ly Avritten Avas a bustling, A'ain, and ecc«mtric man, Avho 
pa'^n^s r)f laAv forms and precedents, another boasted that there were no books in his library 
containing thirty-six notarial acts, and the less than a hundred years old. HenoAvmade 
ordinary book filled Avith notices and letters; Chatterton's acquaintance, and recei\'ed from 
all of them in his symmetrical and clerkly him,asgifts, one after another of the Rowley 
han<lwriting. The rest of liis timcAvas given iM)ems. First among them in point of time 
up to self-education, and to the elaboration Avas the 'Bristowe Tragedie, or the Dethe 
of an extraordinary num])er of his ])seudo- of Syr Charlas Bawdin ' — four years aft^r- 
antiqjK'poems. His studies ranged, according Avards published in quarto, as the earliest of 
to Thistli'tliAvaite's account (MiLLES, p. 456), all the RoAA'ley iK>ems separately printed, 
from ht'raldry to metaphysics, from astronomy , On its being first issued from the press, in 
to medicine, from music to antiquities and ma- 177i^ Horace Walpole ascribed it to Dr. 
t hematics. On the Sundays he took solitary i Percy, the bishop of Dromore. When taxed 

Chatterton m7 Chatterton 

Avitli its authorship by his sister and mother, dmmatic poem, ' Goddwyii,' two scenes only 
(^hatterton from the first acknowledp^ed that . have been preserved. The subject of *Godd- 
he had written it. Soon after this * The Epi- wpi is continued in tlie * Battle of Hast- 
taph on Robert Canvnp> 'was placed in Cat- ings.' Duplicate copies of * No. 1 ' were given 
i'ott's hands, and a few days later the largest by Chatterton to (.'atcott and Barrett. On 
r)f all the so-called Rowley parchments, con- being pressed by Barrett to produce the *ori- 
taining, in sixty-six verses, Rowley's ' Chal- ginal ' from which it had apparently been 
lonpe to Lydgate,'the noble* Songe to-Klla, i co])ied out, Chatterton admitted that it was 
I^orde of the Castel of Brystowe, ynne daies , his own composition. But, on being further 
of yore,' and Lydgate's * Answer to Rowley.* j i)re8sed by Barrett, he produced as indubit- 
It was tliis dearly prized 'original' that Cat- ably Rowley's English version from the 
<*ott exultantly took to William ]^arrett[q. v.] ' Saxon of Turgot, *No. 2/ a still lengthier 
C'hatterton's first gift to Barrett Avas *Tur- ' instalment. It was for some time a matter 
got's Account of Bristol, translated by Row- I of bewilderment how Chatterton could have 
ley from Saxon into English,' in return for | contrived to make the names of the chiefs 
which Barrett lent the lx)y for a while correspond so exactly with the *Roll of 
Thomas B(jnson's * Vocabularium Anglo- Battle Abl)ey,' the fact being that he had 
Saxonicum ' and Stephen Skinner's * Etymo- ' only to turn for them to Ilolinshed's * Chro- 
logicon Lingufe Anglicana>.' Chatterton , nicies.' The * Battle of Hastings' is sur- 
knew no T^atin, however, though familiar i passe<l by the tragical interlude of *-Ella,* 


Oatcott, vicar of the Temple Church, Chat- i terton, on 21 ])ec. 1708, WTOte to James 
tertonobtaine<l access to the Bristol Library, j Dodsley, offering to procure for him several 

Thence he was enabled to borrow Geoffrey of 
Monmouth's * History of th*» Britons,' Fuller's 
•Church History,' and Holinshed's 'Chro- 

ancient poems, including * the oldest dramatic 
piece extant,' written by Rowley, a priest of 
Bristol, who lived in the reigns of Henry VI 

nicies.' Aid<>d by these later researches, | and Edward IV, and asking him to direct 
Chatterton gave the final touches to the an- j his answer to *1). B., care of Mr. Thomas 
tique poems that he had been secretly pre- | Chatterton.' Having waited in vain for 
])arin2'. He gave them to George Cat-^ott nearly two months, he wrote again to Dods- 
:ind William Barrett. A fort?shadowing of ley, on 15 Feb. 1769, under his own name, 
one of the earliest of these, written when he saying that on the receipt of a guinea he 
was fifteen, was the fragment of a so-called should be enabled to obtain a copy of the 
ancient poem entitled *The Unknown Knight, ! tragedy of *-Ella' already referred to in his 
or the Tournament,' enclosed in his letter of previous communication. It is uncertain 
H ^larch 1768 to his bedfellow at Colston's, , Avhether he ever received any answer from 
Baker, who had some time before emigrated Dodsley. Both these letters were turned up 
to Charlestown, South Carolina. He it was on the clearing out of Dodsley^s count ing- 
forwhom, in his explanation at Felix Farley's house, and were first published in I8I3 m 

other curious manuscripts, *The 
in a more highly elaborated poem, entitled Ryse of Peyncteynge in Englande,' as having 
• The Tournament,' was long supposed to possibly an especial interest for the author of 
have been wholly inaccessible to him save i * Anecdotes oi Painting.' The packet, which 
through an old Latin manuscript of William contained besides some verses about Richard 
of Worcester ; whereas it turned out that Coeur de Lion, was sent to Walpole under 
these particulars were readily derived by him , cover to his bookseller, Bathoe. Walpole an- 
from a printed record under William Half- : swered in a long and courteous letter dated 
penny's engraving of Redclifte Church, pub- , 28 March 1769. Walpole spoke of printing 

lished in 174(), a copy of which he must 
often have s»M»n hanging up in the parlour 

Rowley's poems, and mvited further corre- 
spondence. Chatterton answered without 

of his friend, Henry Kater, the sugar-baker. | delayon SOMarch, forwarding furtherparticu- 
Another longer poem, purporting to be writ- ! larsastoRowleyand Abbot John, and enclos- 

ten two centuries afterwards by Rowley and 
John h Iscam, was * a most merry interlude/ 
called * The Parliament of Sprites.** Of another 

ing additional manuscripts, such aa the poem 
on ' War,* and the ' Historie of Peyncters yn 
Englande.* He informed Walpole at tJie same 

L 2 




time that lie was the son of a poor widow who 
supported himself with much difficulty, and 
that he was clerk to an attomeyybut nad a 
taste for more elegant studies. The revela- 
tion changed Walpole's whole manner ; more- 
over, shortly after the receipt of this second 
letter, Walpole showed the enclosures to 
Mason and Gray ( Cole MSS. vol. xxv. fol. 50 &), 
both of whom at once pronounced them fa- 
brications, and advised their being returned 
without delay to Chatterton. Walpole, while 
retaining the manuscripts, wrote to Chatter- 
ton, saymg that when he had made a fortune 
he might unbend in his favourite studies. 
Chatterton, in a brief note dated 8 April, 
begged for the immediate ret urn of his manu- 
scripts. Receiving no answer to this, he con- 
sulted Barrett as to what further repljr should 
be made. He wrote on 14 April, insisting 
upon the genuineness of the Rowley papers, 
and requesting their return as documents 
likely to be of use to his friend the intending 
historian of Bristol. At the moment of the 
arrival of this communication Walpole was 
starting for Paris, and paid no attention to 
Chatterton*s wish. Having been detained in 
France six weeks, and having then returned 
to London, more than three months had 
elapsed when Walpole received from Chat- 
terton a final and haughty letter on 24 July 
demanding the papers. NValpole calls this 
note singularly impertinent, while Southey 
pronounces it * dignified and spirited.' Wal- 
pole now returned all the papers to Chatter- 
ton, and * thought no more of him or them.' 
Chatterton*s feelings are expressed in his lines 
* To Horace Walpole,* written in Au^pist 1709. 
Walpole's defence of his conduct, in answer 
to an attack in Warton\s * History of Eng- 
lish Poetry ' (vol. ii. § 8), Avas privately printed 
at Strawberry Hill in 1779, and afterwards 
published in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' in 

Chatterton was embittered by the repulse. 
He satirised all the leading |)eople of Bristol, 
even those who were the most intimately as- 
sociated with himself, and to whom he was 
under some small personal obligations. His 
derisive poetical * JlCpistle to the Rev, Alex- 
ander Catcott,' written on 6 Dec. 1769, and 
his prose ' Postscript to tho Epistle,' dated 
the 20th of the same month, brought their 
hitherto friendly acquaintance abruptly to a 
close. One Bristolian alone never had from 
him other than the most respectful treat- 
ment. This was Michael Clayneld, a distil- 
ler, of Castle Street, to whom lie was first in- 
troduced in the autumn of 1769. He it was 
who lent Chatterton Martin's ' Philosophical 
Grammar ' and one of the volumes of Mar- 
tin's ' Philosophy.' Tlianks to him also, he 

obtained access to books on astronomy, out 
of his study of which c«me his fine metrical 
celebrat ion of ' The Copemican System.' This 
appeared in the ' Town and Country Moga* 
zme,' to which in 1769 he had supplied in all 
no less than sixteen contributions. Among^ 
these, in the October number, was his affect- 
ing * Elegy on Thomas Phillips,' then recently 
deceased, formerly junior usher at Colston'i^ 

Chatterton's position at Lambert's had be- 
come at last intolerable. The attorney burnt 
any manuscripts not on business, calling them 
* stuff.' Chatterton at last wrote to Clajrfield, 
avowing an intention of suicide. Lflmoibert 
intercepted the letter, and at once forwarded 
it to Barrett, who so earnestly remonstrated 
with Chatterton, that the boy was moved to 
tears. It was after this inter\-iew that Chat- 
terton wrote to Barrett perhaps the most 
characteristic letter he ever penned. It is 
facsimiled (i. cxvii) in the 1842 edition of 
Chatterton's * Works,' and may be turned to 
in the original manuscript in Chatterton's 
hand^vriting at the British Museum (6766 B, 
76). He says in it that nineteen-twentieths 
of his composition is pride. The editor of the 
1842 edition of his * Works' (i. cxvi) says 
that one day he snatched a pistol from his 
pocket, and, holding it to his forehead, ex* 
claimed, *Now, if one had but the courage to 
pull the trigger.' His seven fatalistic Tines 
on suicide were without doubt written about 
this period. One morning, in the sprincr of 
1770, Lambert found conspicuously placed on 
Chatterton's desk a document in the boy's 
handwriting, which is still preser\'ed under a 
glass case in the library of the Bristol Institu- 
tion. It is entitled * The last Will and Tes- 
tament of me, Tliomas Chatterton of Bris- 
tol,' and begins thus : 'All this wrote between 
eleven and two o'clock on Saturday, in the^ 
utmost distress of mind, 14 April 1770.' It is 
a bitter expression of his misery, with sar- 
castic bequests to his acquaintance. 

On Lambert's reading this extraordinary 
document Chatterton's indentures were at 
once cancelled. A guinea subscription was* 
got up among a few friends. With barely 
five pounds in his pocket after paying his 
fare, Chatterton left Bristol for London by 
coach on 24 April. His first letter to his 
mother, dated two days later, gives a graphic 
description of his joui'ney. Through a cousin, 
Mrs. Ballance, he obtained shelter in a house 
in Shored itch where she was lodging, and the 
tenant of which was oneWalmsley , a plasterer. 
There he remained for the first seven weeks 
of his life in town, sharing the bed of tho 
plasterer's nephew, a young man of twenty- 
four years of age, according to whose evidence- 




the boy hardly ever slept, writing with a sort 
of fury all through the night. Before his 
advent to London Chatterton had contributed 
to several of the leading periodicals. On the 
first day of his arrival in town he called upon 
four of these editors or publishers, receiving 
from them all, as he tells his mother, ' great 
encouragement.' During the next four months 
!ie is known to have written largely in eleven 
of the principal publications tnen in circu- 
lation : the * Middlesex Journal/ the * Court 
iind City Journal/ the 'Political Register/ 
and the * London Museum ; ' as well as in 
the *Town and Country/ the * Christian/ 
the ' Universal/ the * Gospel/ the * London/ 
the * Lady's/and the * Freeholder's' magazines. 
Such was the rapidity with which he wrote 
at this time, that of the 444 lines of his sati- 
rical poem of ' The Exhibition,' the unpub- 
lished manuscript of which yet lies at the 
Bristol Library, tne first line was dated 1 May, 
und the line 3 May, the whole of it having 
l)een run off at a heat at Shoreditch. The 
merest fragment of it (fourteen lines in all) 
has been printed, the rest having been sup- 
pressed as unfit for publication. Chatter- 
ton's life, however, was not licentious. He 
retained his affection for his family. He was 
.abstemious in diet, preferring a few cakes and a 
glass of water for his meals ; drinking tea and 
disliking hot meat. Chatterton's letters to 
his mother speak of his literary employments, 
and show that he was still thinking of his 
Rowley manuscripts. He wrote squibs, tales, 
and songs, and tried to rival Junius by letters 
signed * Decimus' in the ' Middlesex Journal.' 
He wrote a letter signed * l^bus/ addressed to 
the Lord-mayor Beckford [q. v.], which pro- 
cured him a personal interview with Becklord 
himself. It appeared in June in the * Poli- 
tical Register. A second was written, but 
was never published ; for when Chatterton's 
hopes were at their highest, Beckford's death 
on 21 June was annoimced. At the first 
shock of those tidings Chatterton, according 
to Mrs. Ballance, * was perfectly frantic and 
out of his mind, and said he was ruined.' 
"VValpole eight years afterwards averred, in 
his attempted vindication of himself (p. 51), 
that he had seen in Chatterton's handwriting 
that second letter to Ix)rd-mayor Beckford 
signed * Probus/ and a letter of his to Lord 
North signed * Moderator/ both of them being 
■dated 20 May, the former a denunciation 01, 
the latter a panegyric on, the administration. 
The imputation, though based solely on Wal- 
pole's assertion, tallies with Chatterton's re- 
mark to his sister on 30 May, that ' he is a 
poor author who cannot write on both sides.' 
A second letter was sent by Chatterton to 
liis friend Gary, with this endorsement : — 

Accepted by Bingley, set for and thrown out 
of the * North Briton/ 21 June, on account of 
the lord mayor's death : — 

£ s. d. 

Lost by his death on this essay . Ill 6 

Gained in elegies • . .220 

„ in essays . . .330 

Am glad he is dead by . .3136 

Chatterton's change of residence about this 
time was indicated by the dates attached in 
the * London Magazine ' to his two * African 
Eclogues ; ' * Nerva and Mored ' being dated 
2 May, Shoreditch, and * The Death of Nicou,' 
12 June, Brooke Street. In quitting Shore- 
ditch he bore with him to nis new abode 
near Holbom not only the good opinion of 
Walmsley and his nephew, but the testimony 
to his exemplary conduct while under their 
roof of Mrs. Ballance, his cousin, the plasterer's 
wife, and her niece, aged 27. Once only during 
his stay with them, as Crofts states on their 
testimony (p. 1 18), did he stay out all night, 
Mrs. Ballance assuring the author of ' I^ve 
and Madness' that on that night to her cer- 
tain knowledge he lodged at a relation's. 
There can be no doubt that in removing to 
Brooke Street he was in search of greater 
seclusion. There, for the first time in his life, 
he had a sleeping apartment entirely to him- 
self, in which he could write all through the 
night. He was by this time beginning to lose 
heart as to his chances in London. Hamilton, 
of the * Town and Country Magazine/ gave 
him no more than 10^. 6d. for sixteen songs; 
while Fell, of the * Freeholder's Magazine/ 
gave him the same sum for the two hundred 
and fifty lines of* The Consuliad.' The whole 
of his earnings during ISIay and June could 
not possibly have exceedea 12/. 

On 4 July he sent to the ' Town and Coun- 
try Ma^zine/ with a brief note, signed with 
his familiar initials, D. B., the last and one of 
the most exquisitely finished of all his Rowley 
poems, 'An Excelente Balade of Charitie.* 
It was rejected. Fortunately he had just 
then completed the adaptation and expansion 
of a musical extravaganza called 'Amphi- 
tryon,' which he had begun writing nearly a 
year before at Bristol. In its improved and 
enlarged form it appeared now as * The Re- 
venge: aBurletta. Written for Mary lebone 
Qardens it was there acted, not certainly 
during its author's lifetime, but some time 
before 1777. It was first published in 1796, 
twenty-five years after the death of Chatter- 
ton. The original manuscript was acciden- 
tally discovered in 1824 by >Ir. Upcott, one 
of the librarians of the London Institution, 
on the counter of a city cheesemonger. In 
1841 it was purchased by the British Museum 
with the manuscripts of Samuel Butler, the 

Chatterton 150 Chatterton 

bishop of Lichfield. On one of its kst leaves ; were the tom-up atoms of all the manu- 
is written, inChatterton's handwriting, a re- ; 8cri])ts that had remained at the last in his 
ceipt for oL os. paid for the copyright by : possession. Among them in all probability 
LuHman Atterbur}'. Chatterton immediately was his manuscript * (glossary.' It remains 
sent a box of presents to his family, includ- I still doubtful, however, whether those Chat- 
ing a china tea-senice, a cargo of patterns, ' terton or Rowley poems which are known 
a curious French snutl'-box, and a fan for | to have been at one time in existence, but 
his mother, another fan for his sist^*r, some , which have never yet been published, such 
British herb tobacco for his grandmotlier, and as * The Justice of the Peace,' * The Flight,* 
some trifles for Thome. Two more of Chat- , the unfinished tragedy of * The Dowager,' and 
terton's home letters have been preserved, that other complete tragedy, a mere frag- 
both to his sister. On 20 July he tells her ment of which reached the hands of Barrett, 
besides, *Almoift all the next **Town and entitled * The Apostate,' perished on this 
Country Magazine " is mine.' On its publi- ; occasion, or were torn upas * stuff' by Lam- 
cation, eleven days afterwards, however, he bert. Chatterton's remains, enclosed in a 
finds that Hamilton has held almost all his shell, wen^ interred in the Shoe Lane work- 
contributions over, and for the few that ap- houst^ burying-ground on 28 Aug. 1770, as 
pear he receives no payment. On 12 Aug. appears from the register of burials at St. 
Chatterton addresses to George Catcott the ^ Andrew's,Holbom,wherethe name is entered 
last letter he is known for certain to have as * "William Chatterton,' to which another 
addressed to any one. He writes : * I intend hand has added ' the poet.' Years afterwards, 
going abroad as a surgeon. Mr. Barrett has Avhen that site had to be cleared for the 
It in his power to assist me greatly by his building up of the new Farringdon Market, 
giving me a physical character. 1 hope he the paupers' bones, all huddled together, wen? 
will.' He speaks of a proposal for building removed to the old graveyard in the Gray's 
a new spin^ for St. Mary liedcliffe, and Inn Koad. A wildly improbable story about 
concludes: * Heaven send you the comforts the exhumation and remterment of his re- 
of cluristianity ! I request them not, for I mains at Bristol was first told by George 
am no christian.* His narrow resources were Cumberland in Dix's Apjjendix A (p. 299), 
now rapidly drawing to an end. In his and afterwards reiterated more in detail by 
Brooke Street lodgings he had won thealVec- Joseph Cottle in Pryee's * Memorials of tin- 
tion of all who knew him. Though litendly \ Canynges Family ' (p. 293). A still wilder 
btarving he could never be persuaded to ac- ' story was put forth in 1858 by Mr. Gutchiii 
cept of invitations, Avhich were frequent, to ! * Notes and Queries \vii. 188, 139), and which 
dine or sup. * One evening, however, accord- i purported to be an authentic record of the 
ing to Warton,* human frailty so far prevailed , coroner's inquest on the occasion of Chatter- 
over his dignity as to tempt him to partake ton s suicide. Four years afterwards, how- 
of a regale of a barrel of oysters, when Mr. . ever, Mr. Moy Thomas was able to demon- 
Cross observed him to eat most voraciously.* ; strate, from theparishbooksof St. Andrew's, 
Three days afterwards Mrs. Angel, knowing Ilolborn, in the * Athenjcimi' of 5 Dec. 1857, 
that during those three days he had eaten tliespuriouscharacter of th(? whole narrative, 
nothing, begged him,on24Aug., to take some The books also showed that Chatterton died 
dinner with her, *but ' (see CK0Fr,p. 121) *he in the first house from Hollwrn on the left- 
was offended at her expressions, which seemed hand side, the last number of all in Brook^^ 
to hint that he was in want, and assured her ' Street, No. 39. It is shown by an entry in 
he was not hungry.' "Withdrawing into his i Chatterton's pocket-book that there were still 
garret at nightfall and quietly locking him- | owing to him by the publishers mort» than 
Sflf in, death Ciime to him before daybreak , eleven guineas for writings of his already iii 
on 25 Aug. 1770. "When, on his continued their possession and accepted. Three of Jiis 
non-appearance in the morning, the attic door ! contributions appeared in the *Town and 
was broken open, it was found, from the con- ! Country Magazine' for September, and others* 
tents of a nearly empty phial still gi-asped in j in the numbers for October and November^ 
his hand, that he had died from the effects i among these latter being his friend Gary's 
of arsenic. Barrett, in his * History of Bris- , simple but affecting * Elegy on Chatterton.' 
tol,' nearly twenty years later, says (p. 647) , Nearly a year after Chatterton's death, at tht> 
that the (Irug with which he poisoned him- \ first bancjuet of the lloyal Academy, Ho- 

self was opium. But Croft, who nine years 
before had stated that it was arsenic (Zore 
and Madness, p. 122), had heard the facts 
from the coroner. Covering the floor of the 

race "Walpole heard for the first time from 
Goldsmith, on 23 April 1771, of the tragic 
close of the boy's career. Tyrwhitt,the edi- 
tor of Chaucer, gave to the world in 1777 

garret were minute fragments of paper which the first edition of Rowley. Warton, the 

Chatterton 151 Chatterton 

hist<)rian of English poetry, accorded to that, ■. 1857 (see Bristol Past and Preseiit^ iii. 348), 
monk in 1778 a distinct place among the near the north-east angle of liedclittVs church- 
poets of the fifteenth century; while Dean yard. Shelley celebrates Chatterton in *Ado- 
MilleSy the president of the Society of Anti- nais.' Coleridge dedicates to his memory his 
quaries, published in 1782 his sujH'rb edition most impassioned * Monody.' Keats inscribes 
in 4to of the * Rowley Poems/ with elaborate to him lovingly his maiden poem * Endymion.* 
commentaries in proof of their authenticity. Horace Walpole says of Chatterton, * I do not 
Arguments one way or the other, however, , believe there everexisted so masterly a genius.' 
have long since ceased. By internal and JosephWarton declares that he was* a prodigy 
external evidence alike Chatterton is now r)f genius, and would have proved the first of 
known to have been the one sole author of English poets had he reached a mature age.' 
these productions. The proofs are abundant. , Dr. Johnson said of him, * This is the most ex- 
The Rowlcyan dialect is of no age, but rather, I traordinary yoimg man that has encounten.»d 
as Mathins expresses it, * a factitious ancient i my knowledge.' Malone declared him to be 
diction at once obsolete and heterogeneous.' | *the greatest genius that England has pro- 
In the m<Te penmanship of the so-iralled . duced since the days of Shakespeare.' Britt on, 
originals there is a more than suspicious ab- ^ Southey, Wordsworth, Byron, Moore, Scott, 
sence of the old contractions, with a super- Campbell, have all spoken of him in the 
abundance of capitals, rare in antique manu- highest terms, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 
scripts. The poems swarm with anachro- ' besides inditing in his honour one of the 
iiisms in statements of fact and in style and , noblest sonnets in the language (see Hall 
metre. There are many plagiarisms, besides, Caine, Hecollections of liossettij p. 180), 
from later writers. speaks of him elsewhere {ib, chap, vi.) as 

Xeale, the author of the * Romance of His- * the absolutely miraculous Chatterton, and 
tory,* truly sjiys {Lectures j ii. 75) : * Perhaps declares him to be, without any reser>*ation, 
there never was a more slender veil of for- * as great as any English poet whatever.' 
ffery woven t han that which he threw around : Cliatterton's appearance has been described 
iiis pretended ancient productions.' Yet for- by those who were familiar with it. Accord- 
gerv is hardly the word; for, dSXer all, the ing to them all he was Avell grown and manly, 
most heinous charge directed against Chat- having a proud air and a stately Iwaring. 
terton can only in fairness be thus summed Whenever he cared to ingratiate himself, he 
up now, as ir was in 1782, by Henr}* Maty's is said to have been exceedinglyprepossessing; 
* New Review ' ( pp. 2 18-33 ) : * Gentlemen of though as a rule he bore himselfas a conscious 
the jury, the ])risoner at the bar is indicted and acknowledged superior. His eyes, which 
for the uttering cert^iin poems composed by were grey and very l)rilliant, were evidently 
himself, purporting them to be the poems of his most remarkable feature. One was brighter 
Thomas Rowh*y, a priest of the fifteenth cen- than the other (Ge7it. Mag, newser. x. 133), 
turv, against the so frequently disturbed peace appearing even larger than the other when 
of Parnassus, to the great disturbance and flashing \mder strong excitement. George 
confusion of the Antiquary Society, and like- Catcott describes it as ^ a kind of hawk's eye,' 
wise notoriously to the prejudice of the lite- ' adding that 'one could see his soul through 
rarv fume of tlie said Thomas Chatterton.' it.' Barrett, who had observed him keenly as 
Southey's L't*er in the * Monthly Magazine* ; an anatomist, said whenever saw such eyes — 
for November 1799, announcing the subscrip- fire rolling at the bottom of them.* He ac- 
tion edition of Cliatterton's works, which was 

eventually jiublislied in 1803 for the benefit 
of his family, secured comfort at last to his 

knowledged to Sir Herbert C'roft (Zoiv and 
Madness y p. 272) that he had often puq)Osely 
diilered in opinion from Chatterton * to see 

surviving rehitives, whose only |)ecuniaiy be- how wonderfully his eye would strike fire, 
nefit from his poems until then had amounted ■ kindle, and blaze up ! ' 

to seventeen guineas. Lewis, a Bristol artist, 
painted a well-known picture of Chatterton 
in the luuibcr-rnom, which, though a mezzo- 

«•- T ill*. •!• 1 

Eight reputed portraits of Chatterton are 
said to be in existence. But of these one 
alone is of indisputable authenticity. 

tinlo, ])assed eventually into a wide circula- 1. * Hogarth's Portrait of Chatterton,' so 
tion. Two dramas, each entitled * Chatter- entitled, was on view in 1867 at the second 
ton,* have been producred ; one in France by spt?cial exhibition of national portraits in 
Alfred de Vigny, and one in England by ; South Kensington. It was lent by the Sal- 

^fessi-s. Jones and Herman in collaboration, 
which was first performed at the Princess's 
Theatre on 22 May 1884. A cenotaph Avas 
erected, by public subscription, in his native 
phice in 1840, and afterwards re-erected in 

ford Royal Museum. To that institution it 
had been presented a few years previously by 
Alderman Thomas Agnew, the picture dealer. 
But it is most certainly not a portrait of 




2. Gainsborough is supposed by some to 
have painted the poet's likeness, solely be- 
cause of this entry at p. 87 of the artist's 
biography by Fulcher : * It is said that Chat- 
terton also sat to Gainsborough, and that the 

Sortrait of the marvellous boy, with hiB long 
owing hair and childlike face, is a master- 
piece.' Two quite inconsistent descriptions 
of this picture are giyen in 'Notes and 
Queries/ 2nd ser. iii. 492, 6th scr. v. 367. 

3. Francis Wheatley, R.A., is stated to 
have painted Chatterton's portrait. But the 
assertion that he did so rests solely on the 
fading recollections years afterwards of Mrs. 
Edkins, as jotted down by Qeor^e Cumber- 
land in appendix A, p. 317, of Dix's untrust- 
worthy * Life of Chatterton.' 

4. A profile of Chatterton, sculptured in 
relief by some unknown artist, decorated a 
rustic monument raised in 1784 in the grounds 
of the Hermitage, near Lansdowne Crescent, 
Bath, the residence of Philip Thicknesse (see 
Gent. Mag, vol. liv. pt. i. p. 231). 

5. Chatterton is said to naye drawn a pic- 
ture of himself in his bluecoat dress, being 
led by his mother towards the canopied altar- 
tomb of William Canynge. No such draw- 
ing, however, has been anywhere discoyered. 

6. An odious fancy sketch, hideously out 
of drawing and execrably engraved, has for 
many years passed current among the print- 
sellers OS a portrait of Chatterton. 

7. Prefixed to Dix's * Life of Chatterton,' 
in the October of 1837, as its frontispiece, 
was an exquisite engraving, by 11. Woodman, 
of what purported to be a portrait of the poet 
drawn by Nathan Branwhite, from a picture 
in the possession of George Weare Braiken- 
ridge. A letter, however, from an obscure 
Bristol sugar-baker, named George Burge, 
written on 23 Nov. 1837, to a private friend, 
first published in the 'Gentleman's Magazine' 
for December 18.*^, and twice afterwards in 
* Notes and Queries/ 2nd ser. ii. 231, and 2nd 
ser. iii. 53, declared that this picture was 
painted by Morris and intended as a portrait 
of his own son. The portrait was therefore 
suppressed in a second edition of Dix's book. 
It is stated, however, in the same place 
(Notes and Queries^ iii. 53), that Chatterton's 
mother wrote a letter (omitted by Dix) saying 
that she had had her son painted in a red 
coat by Morris. This is clearly 

8. Morris's portrait of Chatterton in a red 
coat — a cabinet picture representing him in 
profile to the rigiit, as a child of eleven years 
of age, with grey eyes and auburn hair flow- 
ing on his shoulclers. This portrait belonged 
to Sir Henry Taylor. It was presented by 
Mrs. Newton, Chatterton's sister, to Southey, 
in return for his kindness in producing an 

edition of her brother's works for her boiefit 
(Cottle, Recollections^ ^, i. 271). Miss 
Fenwick bought it at South^s sale, and 
gave it to Wordsworth. On Wordsworth's 
death his widow gave it to Sir Henry Taylor. 
It is fairly represented by Goodmaxrs engra- 
ving from Branwhite. 

Chatterton's works, with one exception^ ap- 
peared posthumously : 1. ' An Elegy on the 
much lamented Death of William SedcfDrd, 
Esq.,' 4to, pp. 14, 1770. 2. ' The Execution 
of Sir Charles Bawdwin ' (editod by Thomas 
Eagles, F.S.A.),4to, pp. 26, 1772. 8. < Poems 
supposed to have been written at Bristol, by 
Thomas Bowley and others, in the Fifteenth 
Century ' (edited by Thomas Tyrwhitt), 8vo, 
pp.307, 1777. 4. * Appendix '(to the 8rd edi- 
tion of the poems, eoited by the same), 8yo, 
pp. 309-333, 1778. 5. ' Miscellanies in Prose 
and Verse, by Thomas Chatterton, the sup- 
posed author of the Poems published under 
the names of Ilowley, Cannmg, &c.' (edited 
by John Broughton), 8vo, pp. 245j 1778. 
6. * Poems supposed to have oeen written at 
Bristol in the Fifteenth Century by Thomas 
Rowley, Priest, &c., [edited] by Jeremiah 
Milles, D.D., Dean of Exeter,' 4to, pp. 545, 
1782. 7. ' A Supplement to the Miscellanies 
of Thomas Chatterton,* 8vo, pp. 88, 1784. 
8. ' Poems supposed to have been written at 
Bristol by Tnomas Ilowley and others in 
the Fifteenth Century ' (edited by Lancelot 
Sharpe), 8vo, pp. xxix, 329, 1794^. 9. * The 
Poetical Works of Thomas Chatterton,' An- 
derson s * British Poets,' xi. 297-322, 1795. 
10. ' The Revenge : a Burletta ; with addi- 
tional Songs, by Thomas Chatterton,' 8vo, 
pp. 47, 1795. 11. *The Works of Thomas 
Chatterton ' (edited by Robert Southey and 
Joseph C(jttle), 3 vols. 8yo, 1803. 12. ' The 
Poetical Works of ITiomas Chatterton ' (edi- 
ted by Charles B. Willcox), 2 vols. 12mo, 
1842. 13. * The Poetical Works of Thomas 
Chatterton '(edited by the Rev Walter Skeat, 
M.A.), Aldine edition, 2 vols. 8vo, 1875. 

The principal documents in the Rowleyan 
I and Chattertonian controversy are as follows : 
, 1. ' Letter to the editor of the Miscellanies 

sect. viii. 8vo, pp. 139-64, 1778. 3. 'Re- 
marks upon the Eighth Section of the Second 
Volume of Mr. Warton's History of English 
Poetry ' (by Henry Dampier),8yo, pp.48, 1778. 
4. * Observations on the Poems of Thomas 
Rowley, in which the authenticity of those 
Poems is ascertained, by Jacob Bryant,' 8vo, 
pp. iv, 597, 1781. 5. * An Exam'ination of 
the Poems attributed to Thomas Rowley and 
William Canynge, with a Defence of the 




Opinion of Mr. Warton/ 8vo, pp. 38, 1782. 
4>. * Observations on the Poems attributed to 
Rowley, tending to prove that they were 
really written by him and other ancient au- 
thors ' (by Rayner Hickford of Thaxted),8vo, 
pp. 35, 1782. 7. ' Remarks on the Appendix 
of the edition of Rowley's Poems ' (by the 
Rev. John Fell of Homerton), 8vo, pp. 35, 
1782. 8. 'Cursory Observations on the 
Poems attributed to Thomas liowley,a Priest 
of the Fifteenth Century ; with some remarks 
on the commentaries on those Poems by the 
Rev. Jeremiah Milles, Dean of Exeter, and 
Jacob Brvant, Esq. ; and a salutary proposal 
addressed to the niends of those gentlemen ' 
(by Edmund Malone), 8vo, pp. 62, 1782. 
^. 'Enquiry into the authenticity of the 
Poems attributed to Thomas Rowlev, in 
which the arguments of the Dean of Exeter 
And Mr. Bryant are examined, by Thomas 
Warton,' 8vo, pp. 126, 1782. 10. * Strictures 
upon a Pamphlet entitled Cursory Observa- 
tions, &c. ; with a Postscript on Mr. Thomas 
Warton's enquiry into the same subject * (by 
Edward Bumaby Greene), 8vo, pp. 84, 1782. 
11.' The Prophecy of Queen Emma ; an an- 
cient Ballad lately discovered, written by 
Johannes Turgotus, Prior of Durham, in the 
reign of William Rufus ; to which is added 
by the editor an account of the discovery 
And hints towards a vindication of the au- 
thenticity of the Poems of Ossian and Row- 
ley ' (by NVilliam Julius Mickle), 4to, pp. 40, 
1782. 12. * An Archseoloffical Epistle to the 
Reverend and Worshipful Jeremiah Milles, 
D.D., Dean of Exeter, President of the So- 
ciety of Antiquarians, and Editor of the su- 
perb edition of the Poems of Thomas Rowley, 
Priest, to wliich is annexed a Glossary, ex- 
tracted from that of the learned Dean (by 
William Mason, according to a correspondent 
of the Gent. Mag, vol. Ixxxvi. pt. i. pp. 489, 
490, but far more probably by John Ba3rnes of 
Gray's Inn, according to the editorial foot- 
note on p. 489), 4to, pp. 18, 1782. 13. ' Vin- 
dication of the Appendix to the Poems called 
Rowley's, in reply to the answers of the Dean 
of Exeter, Jacob Bryant, Esq., and a third 
anonymous writer; with some further obser- 
vations upon those Poems, and an examina- 
tion of the evidence which has been produced 
in support of their authenticity, by Thomas 
Tyrwhitt,' 8vo, ijp. 223, 1782. 14. ' Rowley 
And Chatterton in the Shades, or NugSD An- 
tiquse et Nov® ; a new p]lysian Interlude in 
Prose and Verse ' (by Thomas James Mathias), 
^vo, pp.44, 1782. 16. 'Thegenuinecopyofa 
Letter found 5 Nov. 1782, near Strawberry 
Hill, Twickenham, addressed to the Hon. 

H ce W le,'8vo,pp.34,1783. 16. 'An 

Essay on the Evidence, external and internal; 

relating to the Poems attributed to Rowley ; 
containing a general view of the whole con- 
troversy, by Thomas James Mathias,' 8vo, 
pp. 118, 1783. 17. ' Chatterton and "Love 
and Madness." A Letter from Denmark to 
Mr. Nichols, editor of the "Gentleman's 
Magazine," respecting an unprovoked attack 
made upon the writer during his absence from 
England, by the Rev. Sir Herbert Croft, Bart .' 
8vo, pp. 30, 1800. 18. ' Chatterton's Works, 
edited by Southey and Cottle' (reviewed 
by Walter Scott), * Edinburgh Review,' iv. 
214-30, April 1804. 19. 'An Introduc- 
tion to an Examination of some part of the 
internal evidence respecting the antiquity 
and authenticity of certain publications said 
to have been found in manuscripts at Bristol, 
written by a learned priest and others in the 
Fifteenth Century ; but generally considered 
as \jic\ the supposititious productions of an 
ingenious youth of the present age, by John 
Sher^ven,M.D.,'8vo,pp.l37Jl809. 20. 'Chal- 
mers's Plnglish Poets ' (reviewed by Robert 
Southey), ' Quarterly lleview,' xi. 492-5, 
July 1814. 21. 'Specimens of the British 
Poets' (edited by Thomas Campbell), 8vo, 
vi. 152-62, 1819. 22. ' Chatterton : an Es- 
say, by Samuel Roffev Maitland,D.D., F.R.S.,' 
8vo, pp. 110, 1857. 23. 'Essay on the Row- 
ley Poems, by the Rev. Walter Skeat, M.A.,' 
Aldine edition, ii. vii-xlvi, 1871. 

The Chatterton manuscripts in the British 
Museum are ' Additional MSS. 5766, A, B, 
and C They were left by Barrett, in 1789, 
to Dr. Robert Glynn, who in 1800 bequeathed 
them to the trustees of the British Museum. 
A is a large thin folio containing twelve of 
the reputed Rowley originals, ^1) 'The Storie 
of William Canynge,' beginnmg ' Anent a 
brooklette as I laye reclined,* (2) ' The Yellow 
Roll,' (3) 'The Purple Roll,' and (6VW. 
I Canynges Feast.' B is a medium folio, in 
which are eighty-six manuscripts, the most 
remarkable of which are (4) ' The Parliament 
of Sprites,' (8) * The Account of the Mayor's 
passmg over the Old Bridge,' (48) and (49) 
the two letters from Chatterton which Horace 
Walpole said he never received, but which 
have clearly stamped on them the evidence 
of their having passed through the post-office 
into hispossession, (52) ' The Articles of Be- 
; lief of Thomas Chatterton,' and (75) the let- 
ter to Barrett. C is an octavo, consisting of 
I twenty-two leaves of manuscript filled with 
. heraldic and architectural drawings, only a 
I few of which are of any importance. Another 
i notable Chattertonian relic treasured up at 
the British Museum is the original manuscript 
of his burletta, 'The Revenge,' numbered 
among Additional MSS. 12050, all of it in 
Chatterton's handwriting. At the Bristol 

Chatto 154 Chaucer 

Librar}' in t he Queen's 1 Joad ( see its Catalogue^ Oliver,* and in 1 8^16 * Tlie Angler's Souvenir^ 

p. 1511) are, with other Chattertonian manu- by P[ayne] Fisher, Esq., assii^ted by several 

script8,tliehologTaj)hsof*TheBattleof Hast- eminent piscator\' characters, with Iliiistra- 

ings' and * The Tournament.' At the Bristol tions by Beckwith and Topham,* 2nd ed. 

Institution, in a f^lass case, is the poet's* Last 1871. His other works are: *A Treatise 

Will and 1'estament.' on Wood Engraving, historical and practi- 

Lifc of CliJittcrtou, 8vo, pp. 2G3, 1789 ; Ilarrctts from the " Illustrated London News,"' 1848: 

ChamcU'^^^^^ Ll' ^^\^' ^^"^'"A'' \t*:M an<l '*tyt8 and 

Walsh'H Eii^rlihh Po«ts, xxix. 115-33, 18-22; ver, the music by W. Blake, illustrated by 
Bristol .Memorialist, pp. 283-0. 1823; Cnttlrs II. K. Browne (/Phiz'), 1838. He was edi- 
Miilvcrn IIiIIh, Po(;nis ami Kssays. i. 4-7, ii. 380- tor in 18.*J0— 41 of the * New Si>orting Maga- 

Alilinecd. of hisPoem>. i. xiii-ivii. 1871 ; Mas- the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle-on- 
&«.ii'srhatterton:-u Story r)f 1770. in Ks^ays, Tyne. lie died in the (.'hiirterhouse, 28 Feb. 
pp. 178-310, 187') ; AVsltts 1)11 Cliattirtnii, in 1804, and was buried in Highgate cemeterv. 
Ward's Poets, iii. 400-8, 1S80; (Jeorjjrr's His epitaph, by his lifelong friend, Tom Tay- 
Now Facts n?lating to tho (Jhattorton Vamily, lor, describes him as a Mrue-hearted and uj»- 
pp. 1.'), 1«S3; als*) tho voluminous AVilliam Cole i-j^rlit man.* Bv his wife, Margaret, daughter 
.MSS.. and Haslowo.KVs collection of cuttinnrs and (,f ]^„i^^. | jirch of Cornhill, London, he had 
coiTispond.Muv with G.'oi-v Dyrr. pa^hini, both ij^.,, ,,(,„^ ^„f y,.\^Q^ the thinl, Andrew, be- 
in thr BntLsli .Mu-snim.] ('. K. ^^^^^ ^ member of the publishing firm of 

CHATTO,AVILLIA.M ANDIlKW(17in)- ' Messrs. Chatto ^AVindus) and three daugh- 
18(U), mistH'llaneous writ«T, only s(m of "\Vil- ters. 

liamClmtto,a merchant who died at Gibraltar ! [(^enr. Mag. .?rd ser. xvi. 638; information 
in 1804, was l)orn at Xewcust le-on-Tyne on from Mr. Andrew Chatto, of Messrs. Chatto & 
17 April 171«>. Aftt-r a good education at a , Windus ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. F. H. 

grammar school in the north, hetMitered into CHATTODUNUS, WALTER. [See 
mercantile pursuits, and about IKJOacipiiivd pY^ryy i 
thr business of his, a wholrsalo tea- : ' * -^ 
dealer, in Eastcheap, l^)ndon. In ISU he , CHAUCER, GEOFFllEY (1340?-! 400), 

\and and on tlie Scottish Bonier bv Stephen founded on the statement, no doubt correct^ 

Chaucer jss * s^^ Chaucer 

that C'Luucer diedin l4(X),andon tlietradition pn)bable age. Again, in the * Man of Lawe^^ 
that ho died an old man. But there can be no : Prolog-e^ we are told that * in youtho he made 
doubt that in the middle ages an daft era man , of Coy s and Alcionn. This refers to the 
of about sixty was held to )ie an old man. . *Boke of the Duchesse.' AVe may feelconii- 
The date 13:^8, moreover, makes Chaucer's .dent that he was not more than twentv-eight 

artistic life most ditticult to understand, if 
not quite unintelligible. 1£ he'^lfiBHiorn in 
132S, then when he wrote the *Boke of the 
1 )uchesse' he was forty-one, which is scarcely 
credible, the comparative crudity of that 

I or twenty-nine at the very most wlien he 
wrote it, and therefore, as the date of that 
work is known and proved by its subject to 
be li369, that he was born in 1340 or shortly^ 

work considered. Mr. "Walter Kve has lately I Much of the obscurity that once involved 
>hown that Chaucer's father was not fourteen Chaucer's ])arentage has been dispelled by the- 
years old in Decemljer 1324, and so not eigh- , industry of Sir Harris Nicolas, Dr. FumivalL 
teen at the close of 13:^8. This appears from i ftiid others. He was the son of a London 
the record of certain legal proceedings taken ivintner. This has been finally settled by a 
against one Agnes de Westhale and three ' document, in which ht- n>leases his right to 
]»ersons of the name of Stace fur carrying oif his father's house to one Ilenry Herbury, and 
the said young Chaucer ( see ^■irr/<//»;w7/, 29 Jan. describes himself as son of John Chaucer^ 
I8sn. Some twenty years ago Mr. E. A. Brmd i * citizen and vintner of London ' (CV/;/ Ilits- 
cliscovered the name of Geoiirey Chaucer on [ titifjs Jio/ff 110, 6 Rich. 11, membrane 2). 
two parchment leaves, which proved to be ■ The house was in Thames Street, by AVal- 
fragments of the household account of the brook, i.e. at or near the foot of Dowgate Hill. 
La4y Klizabeth, wife of Prince Lionel, third This John Chaucer w»is son of Robert Chaucer, 
.•sbn of Kdward III (see Forlniyhtly lierieuj and John's mother was a certain Maria, who 
15 Aug. 18ti6). In April 1357 * an entire suit was married, lirst, to one Heyroun, by whom 
of clothes, consisting of a paltock or short ! she had a son Thomas, mentioned in several 
cloak, a pair of red and black breeches, with , documents of Chaucerian interest; then to 
shoes,' is provided for Geoffrey Chaucer. M)n | Robert Chaucer of Ipswich and London, by 
the 20th of May an article of dress, of which I whom she became the mother of John ; and 
the name is lost by a defect in the leaf, is lastly to Richard Chaucer, who till lately 
purchased' for him. * In Deeember of the has commonly been regarded as the poet's 
same year (1357) a man receives money for grandfather, but was, it now appears, his 
acconii)anying Philippa Pan' from a place step-grandfather. Thus, on his father's side, 
named Pullesdon to Hatfield (in Yorkshire) J Chaucer's pedigree seems traceable to Ips- 
* and this item is imme<liatel> followed by the ' wich. His father was married at least twice, 
entry of a donation of three shillings and six- ; fifSt probably to Joan de Esthalle, and later 
ence to Geoffrey Chaucer " for necessiiries."' I to a lady whose christian name was Agnes, and 
These entries seem to suggest that Chaucer Awho was a niece of one Hamo deCopton. It 
was a ])agein Prince Liont'l's household, and ;Kvas his second wife who gave birth to Geoffrey 
his being a page then* in 1357 would agree ' (sGeAcademi/f 13 Oct. 1877). The date of hi- 
with the hypothesis that he was then about second marriage is not ascertained ; we know 
seventeen years of age. " only that Joan was living in 1331, and that 

Evidence on this jwint is furnished by Agnes was his wife in 1340. The name 
Chaucer himself in the deposition he made Chaucer was not uncommon in London in 
in I'WG in favour of Richanl lord Scrope's the fourteenth century (setj Riley, Memo- 
chum to cert ain arms which were also claimed , riah of London and London Life in XIII-X V. 
by Sir Robert Gra*»venor. He is described I Centutie/t, pp. xxxiii-v). We may fairly sus- 
tiiere, no doubt on his own authority, as ]>ect that the two Chancers whom the poet's 
*Geffray Chaucerr, P^squier, del age de xl grandmother married were kinsmen of one 
ans et plus, armeez par xxvii ans.' In the degrtMj or another, and that Henry Chaucer, 
case of several of the deponents the age is ; vintner in 137 land thereabouts, also belonged 
given inaccurately; but the presumption re- to the family — was perhai)s the i)oet's first 
mains in favour of * forty years and upwards.' cousin. 

Moreover, the second statement as to the j The one fact of importance respecting Jolin 
length of time he had borne arms must be Chaucer is that he was in attendance on the 
taken well into account. The fact is known king and queen in their expedition to Flon- 
from other sources that Chaucer took part in ders and Cologne in 1338 (itYMER, Fcedera, 
the famous campaign of l'J59. If he was bom vol. ii. pt. iv. p. 23). * He may,' says Nicolas, 
in 1328, he did not bear arms till he was thirty. * have been the John Chaucer, deputy to the 
If about liJ40, he first * bore arms ' when ho king's butler, in the j^nt of Southampton in 
was about nineteen. The latter is the more February and November, 22 Edward HI, 


Chaucer 156 Chaucer 

1348, wlio seems afterwards to have held the order of tlio Garter/ again in Jjondon, then 
.same situation in the ix>rt of London.' < at Woodstock at the celebration of the feast 

It is thus pretty certain that Chaucer was a of Pentecost, at Doncaster, at Hatfield in 
native of London. Mr. Walter Rye holds that Yorkshire, where he spends Christmas, again 
ho w^as bom at King's L}*nn (see Academy^ at Windsor, in Anglesea (August 1858), at 
:X) Jan. 1886). But undoubt^ly the evidence Liverpool, at the funeral of Queen Isabella 
in favour of London preponderates at present. , at the Greyfriars Church, London (27 Not. 
We can associatehim and his family with Yin- ISoS), at lieading, again in London visiting 
trv Ward, Dowgate ; with Thames Street ; the lions in the Tower. In this way Chaucer 
with the (ihurch of St. Mary Alderniarv ; with saw a great deal of the world. Prince Lionel 
*■ a newly built house at the corner o^ Crown {b. 13ife) was some two or three years the 
Ijane.; ' with ' a tenement in the nartsh of St. ' older. Ilis wife at this time was l^lixabeth, 

t Michael's, Paternoster Church.* We may be- i the heiress of William de Burgh fq. v.], third 
ieve him to have been born in Thames Street, ' earl of Ulster. She died in 1363. In 1368, 
lis father, a well-to-dn wine merchant, keeping a few months before his own death, Prince 
also one or more taverns, being both a Vin- Lionel married Violante, daughter of Ga- 
tinarius and a Tabemarius — a person of good leazzo, duke of Milan ; but some years before 
|)osition in * the city.' ' that second marriage Chaucer's immediate 

We know nothing of (!'haucer's life before . connection with liim had probably ceased. It \ 
1357. He was a vigorous student in his was in j 359, as we have seen, t tat Chaucer ' 
later life. * The ac(juaintance he possessed first *Xore arms.' 

with the classics, w^ith divinity, with astro- 1 ' Chaucer's life may be divided into periods ; 
nomy, with so much as was then know^n and as our chief interest in him springs from 
of chemistry, and indeed with everv other his literary distinction, we shall base our 
' branch of the scholastic learning of the age, arrangement upon lite^rv considerations, 
proves that his education had been part icu- Chaucer was not only singularly original but 
tarly attended to' (Nicolas). London was singularly impressible and receptive. The 
not without its grammar schools. It is i)os- literary influences of the age were reflected 
sible that Chaucer may have been sent to ^ in its rising genius. The influence of the 
Oxford or to (.'ambridge, but no evidence has M^Vench poetry is visible in Chancers first 
been discovered to connect him certainly with ' period, and that of Dante and other ffreat 
either. The * Court of Love,' which used to ; Italians — also Florentines — in his second. In 
be quoted as definitely proving a Cambridge " the last period the qualities that make him 
undcrgraduateship — one of tlie great masters of our literature 

Philogenet I c^iUd am fer and nere, ?^V*i«i ^'^^"^«*^^i7 "^ ^^^^' in promise but 

Of Canibridgo clerk- "^ fulfilment. If we arrange Chaucer s life 

according to these suggestions, we shall nnd 
s not now believed bv aiiv competent critic to that it falls readily into these three periods : 
b«K^hauc«'r\s work, the knowledge he shows (i) 1359-72, (ii) 1372-86, (iii) 1386-1400 
of Oxford in the *Milleres Tale' is equalled . (see Ten Brink, Chaucer: Studien zitr Ge- 
by that of Cambridge shown in the * Jleeves schichte stiner EntwicMuny und zur Chrono- 
Tale ; ' und in each case hu may have been , loyie winer tSrhriften). 

indebted to visits paid to the universities in i 1359-72. — In the autumn of 1359 Chaucer | 
later life. CiTtainly in later life he had a took part in the expedition into France. Ac- 
friend at Oxford at least, * the philosophical cording to Matteo Villani, the number of the 
Strode,' *oiie of the most illustrious oma- king's army exceeded 100,000 men. The king's 
ments of Merton College.' ' four sons embarked with him. Froissart gives 

\ In l.*557 Chaucer appears as occu]»ying the ' us the order of the march: first five hundred 
* position of a page in t lie household of Lionel, ' men to clear and oj)en the roads ; then thecon- 
diiktj of Clan»nce, Edward Ill's second son. stable, the Earl of March; then the 'battle' 
Thef prosperity of the vintners at this time of the niarslials; then the king's 'battle' 
and their imi)ortance in the city may i>erhaps ! and some eight t:liousand cars • carrying the 
account for his appearance in such a place; , baggage; and, last of all, the 'battle' of the 
and possibly his father's previous connection , Prince of Wales ^nd his brothers, consisting 
with the court may have procured the son of 2,500 men-at-^rms * nobly mounted and 
an introduction. With the assistance of the richly caparisoned.' Chaucer was probably 
document mentioned above, so happily dis- ; in this last body. Scarcity of provisions was 
covered by Mr. Bond, we may catch glimpses soon keenly felt. There was no fighting, tho 
of Chaucer in London, at Windsor, at * the weather was dreadful ; the king's resolution 
feast of St. George held there with great I at last gave way, and on 8 May a treaty of 
pomp in connection with the newly founded | peace was signed at Bretigni. Chaucer was 




taken prisoner at a place called Ketiers in 
Brittany, some twenty miles S.E. of Rennes, 
in the direction of An^rs. We can only sur- 
mise that he was out with a fprapng party and 
met with some misadventure. It is commonly 
stated that he was released at the peace of 
Bretigni ; but, in fact, he was ransomed more 
than two months before. At least on 1 Marph 
the king paid 16/. towards his ransom, as 
Dr. Fumivall has discovered from leaf 70 of 
' Wardrobe Book ' ^ in the Public Record 

We now lose si^ht of Chaucer for six or 
seven years. We Know that his father died 
in 1366 (see Academy, 13 Oct. 1877), and that 
his widowed mother soon after married one 
* Bartholomew Attechapel.' But of the son 

Iwe know nothing till, on 20 June 13^ ^. th0 
king, then at Queenborough, grants hima pen- 
sion * de gratia nostra speciali et pro bono ser- 
vitio quod dilectus valettus noster Galfridus 
Chaucer nobis impcndit et impendet in futu- 
rum ... ad totam vitam ipsius' Ghilfredi vel 
Quousque pro statu suo aliter duxerimus or- 
uinandum ; * and in 1367 occurs the first men- 
tion of him in the Issue Bolls of the Ex- 
chequer: 'Die Sabbati vi*® die Novembris. 
Galfrido Chaucer cuidominus Hex xx marcas 
annuatim ad scaccarium percipiendas/ &c. 
8 pension, it will be noticed, is given for 
gpod service done. In the following year the 
recipient is more fully described as * unus Va- 
Ipttorum Camene Reffis,' that is, as a yeoman 
of the king's chamber. The pension is sepa- 
rate from his pay as a ' valettus,' and must 
refer to some different ser>-ice. He is then 
no longer in Prince Lionel's household, but in 
the king's. Possibly the fact that 16/. towards 
his ransom was paid by the king and not by 
Prince Lionel may indicate that this trans- 
ference had taken place some years before. 

The duties and the pay of a valettus may 
be gathered from 'Household Ordinances,' 
printed for the Society of Antiquaries, 1790, 
pp. 8, 9, 1 1 , 18, and especially the * Liber Nigjer 
Domus Regis Angliie, id est Domus Regise 
sive AulfiB AnglisB Regis Edw. IV,' pp. 15-85. 
Chaucer would have, like his fellows, ' to make 
beds, bear or hold torches, to set boards, to 
apparel all chambers, and such other ser\'^ice 
as the chamberlain or ushers of chamber com- 
mand or assi^^ t(^ attend the chamber, to 
watch the kmg^by course, to go messages, 
taking for ' his ' wages, as yeomen of the crown 
do in the Chequer Kol I, and clothing like, be- 
side their watching clothing, of the king's 
wardrober.' This position Chaucer seems to 
have held till 1372, from which time, with one 
J exception — in 1373 — he is styled *armiger' or 
' scutifer,' that is esquire. In December 1368, 
however, he is an ^esquier of less degree' 

in the order for gifts of robes to the house- 
hold (see No. 14 of the second series of the 
Chaucer Society). 

In 1369 he seems to have been campaign-x 
in^ again in France. In that year Henry de I 
W akefield advances 10/. to him while in the 
war in France (see Chaucer Soc. 2nd series,' 
No. 10, p. 129). In that same year, in Au- 
gust, died Queen Philippa, and a little later , 
the Lady Blanche, wife of John of Oaunt. Of ' 
Chaucer s poem on Lady Blanche's death we 
shall speak presently, fn 1370 he was abroad 
on the Kin^ service, from June to September ; 
at least his ' letters of protection ' cover the 
period from 20 June to Michaelmas. But what 
nis business was and where it took him are 
questions yet unanswered. 

Chaucer's marriage belongs to this period, 1 
but it is involved in profound obscurity. It 
is certain that he was married by 1374, for 
in that year, in June, * the Duke of Lancaster 
granted him 10/. for life, to be paid to him 
at the manor of the Savoy, in consideration 
of the good service which he and his wife 
Philippa had rendered to the said duke, to- 
his consort, and to his mother, the queen ' 
(Aldine ed. i. 19). But as early as Septem- 
ber 1366 a Philippa Chaucer is mentioned 
among the ladies of the chamber to the 
queen. It may be taken as certaifi that this 
was the same person who was afterwards- 
his wife, for we know that his wife's chris- 
tian name was Philippa, and also that she 
was in the queen's service. It is highly , 
probable that she was his wife in ^366. She ^ 
may have been a namesake, possiblyacbusin^ 
but there is some reason for oelieving her sur- 
name %as Roet. 

In the * Assembly of Foules,' ' Troylus and 
Cryseyde,' the * House of Fame,' and the 
* Canterbury Tales,' as well as the ' Boke of 
the Duchesse,' some certainly written after he 
was married, Chailcer brings himself before 
us as one never crowned with happiness in 
love, as an alien from love's courts, one 
banished from his favour. The well-known 
lines in the *' Boke of the Duchesse ' were 
quoted long ago by Godwin as portraying 
some love trouble (see Boke of the Dimhesse, 
verses 30-42). The date of the ' Boke of the 
Duchesse ' is, as already pointed out, 1369. 
' The Compleynte of the Deth of Pit6' pro- 
bably belongs to this period — a poem in which 
he complains of the obduracy of some lady, 
how pity is dead, buried, and extinct, in her 
heart. In the * Assembly of Foules ' he writes : 

For al be that I knowe not Lore in dede, &c. 

And further on he makes African his guide 
say to him, as he stands peiplexed by the- 
venes written on the gate before them : 


Chaucer 158 Chaucer 

y>\it dmle the not to come into this place, i Chaucer [q. v.~i wtis the poet's son. This 
For this writinpe j-s nothing ment be the, ' question Ls, as 'it happens, closely connected 
Xe \)e noon Imt he Loves servant be ; | with the (iue.stion whether the maiden name 
For thou of love hast lost thy taste, y gcise, I ^f Chaucer's wife was Roet. On the tomb of 
As seke man hath of swote and bitternesse. Thomas Chaucer at Ewelme occur repeatedly 
The date of this poem is unknown. A recent the arms of Roet — viz. gules three Catherine 
theory places it as late as l.'Wl. This is, we wheels or. Thomas Chaucer also at one time 
think, too late. But it is genenilly agreed used the aims Perpale argent and gules, a bend 
that it was not written till after l.*573 — that counterchanged. This is proved from a draw- 
it certainly belongs to the italianised period, inj? of his seul to be found in the Cottonian 
'^ In tlie * Troylus and Cryseyde * we also hoar ^IS. Julius C. vii. f. 153 (see an * accurate copy 
' the cry of one crossed in love. Even more of it given by Nicolas in Aldine edition, i.' 
'suggestive of failure and rejection is the 4o«.), and from an impression of it attached 
picture he so fully draws of liimsolf in tlie to a deed preserved among the * Miscellanea 
* House of Fame,' which there is very good of the Queen's Uemembraucer of tlie Ex- 
reason for btjlieving was written after 1374, chequer* (see Arch(eohtyia,x\ii\Y. 42). Xow 
andby Professor ten Brink is assigued to 13S4. these anns are found on the poet's tomb at 
It is the picture of a heavy-laden person who Westminster. * In front,' writes Nicolas, 
tries to forget his cares in excessive apjilica- * are three panelled divisions of starred 
tion to * business' and studies, not forgetting quatrefoils, containing shields with the arms 
the j)leasui*es of the table. He was certainly of Chaucer—viz. Per pale argent and gules, 
married when he wrote this. All the passage a bend counterchanged ; and the same arms 
(Book ii. 1-152) should be carefully read, also occur in an oblong compartment at the 
His dmmatic power is so largely developed back of the recess,' &c. Sp<.*ght too accej)ts 
in his third ])erio(l that personal allusions are thesis as Chaucer's arms. ' It may be,' he 
much rarer, and can be much less positively says, 'that it were no absurdity to think 
jisserted. But the bitter remarks one or two (nay, it seemelh likely, Chaucer's skill in geo- 
husbands — e.g. the Host and the Merchant metry considered) that he took the grounds 
— make about their wives naturally recur to and reason of these ai'ms out of Euclid, the 
. everyone's mind in this connection. And the 27th and 28th proposition of the first book, 
( significance of his * envoy' to the Clerk's Tale and some perchance are of that opinion 
' cannot bti ignored. It is \\Titten inaspirit of whose skill therein is comparable to the 
the fiercest sarcasm, which renders it uni(iue best.' * But Thomas Fuller,' remarks I*rc>- 
in Chaucer's poetry. He exhorts* noble wyves fessor Morley {EnylUh Writers^ ii. jmrt i. 
fill of heigh prudence' not to let humility nail p. 144, 1867), * left us word that " some mon? 
their tongues, to imitate Echo that keeps no wits have made it the dashing of white and 
silence, to ever *clap' like mills, to make red wine (the parents of our ordinary claret^, 
their husbands * care and weep and wring as nicking his father's profession." The truth 
and waille.' . , may have been spoken in that jest. Arms 
It 8e<;ms im]>ossible to put a pleasant con- were not granted to merchant* till the reign 
struction on these ])assages. It is incredible of Henry VI. But long before that time 
that they have no ])ersoiial significance. ' The wealthy merchants of the middle ages bore 
conclusion clearly is that Chaucer was not their trade-marks upon their shields.' (Fuller 
happy in his matrimonial relations. Itjs a is wrong, however, for, strangely enough, it 
fact that while Chaucer was domiciled, as we appears that the coat of Chaucer's father was 
shall see, at Aldgate, his wife was in at- quite diflferent: it was ermine on a chief three 
tendance upon the Lady Constance, John of birds' heads issuant — see Mr. Walford D. 
Gaunt's second wife. Of course such an ar- Selby's communication to the Academy for 
rangement does not necessarily prove there 13 Oct. 1877.) We have then proof of some 
was any discord between them, but certainly connection between the Roets and Thomas 
it does not discourage the idea. And unless Chauc(»r, as he uses the Roet arms, and proof 
the passage in the*Boke of the Duchesse' of some connect i<m between Thomas Chaucer 
refers to his wife and some estrangement be- and Geoffrey, as they use the same arms. It is 
tween him and her, we must suppose that odd, to be sure, that these latter arms do not 
Chaucer was for many years possessed with a occur on the tomb at Ewelme, but Thomas 
jgreat ])assion for some other lady — a passion Chaucer did use them elsewhere. Th&<*(* proved 
/not nif'rely conventional — and that when he connections obviously countenance a belief in 
was certainly married, he spoke of himself as what indeed no one used to doubt — viz. that 
hopeless of bliss Inicaiise in that grand passion the poet married a Root, and that Thomas was 
lie had met with no success. \ the firstfruit of the union. This relationship 
It has been doubted whether Thomas j is further confirmed by the recently asccr- 

Chaucer 159 Chaucer 

v>^ ..^ 

tained fact that Thomas Chaucer succeeded deuce of metre, and grammar, and style 

Geoflrey Chaucer in the post of forester of cries aloud against their pretensions. 

North Petherton Park, Somersetsliire, an ' * The Romaunt of the llose ' demands ji 

office which the poet held in his latter days , few words. We have already said that the 

(C0LLIN8ON, 8omer9eUhit'Cy iii. 62 ; Mr. W. D. influence that especially acts upon this first 

Selby's letter in Athenmim, 20 Nov. 188G). period is that of France. The French critic 

Andthereisnocountervailingevidenceofany Sandras has undoubtedly exaggerated this 

{ importance ; what there is is merely negative, influence (see his Etude, gur Chavcer con- 

Possibly the patronage John of Gaunt ex- mUre vomme un imitateur den Trouvereti) ; 

! tended to Chaucer and his wife may be ac- but no competent judge can deny that it is 

I counted for by the consideration that that botli marked and considerable. We have 

wife was the sister of a lady (Catharine Chaucer's own w^ord for it, that he translated 

Swynford*s maiden name was Roet) to whom the 'Roman de la Rose, the most famous 

he seems to have been greatly attached, who poem nf mediaeval France. In the * Prologue 

was for some years his mistress, and at last (in to the Legtmde of Good Women ' the God of 

1 35)6) his wife. The year of Thomas Chaucer's Love angrily indicts Chaucer thus : 

birth is unknown ; Nicolas suggests 1 367, we Thou hast translat the Romaunt of the Kosq, 

1361 or thereabouts. That is an heresio ayenst my lawe, 

A great many of Chaucer's writings have And makest wise folk fro me withdrawe. 

been assigiied to the first period which a more The impeachment is not denied. The con- 
^xact criticism refuses to assign to Chaucer , ^^^^^^^^, j,.^^,^^,^ ^^,^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

at all. Any anonymous poem of the later j^^^ tiiiswork in his mind when he ends everV 

fourteenth or early fifteenth centuries was at ^,^^^^ ^^ ^^^ well-known ^balade'with the 
f)ne time said to be Chaucer s. Much rubbish 
has thus been heaped up at Chaucer^s door, and 
one of the chief results of recent Chaucerian 

criticism has been to sweep this away. Much (see (J*Aivres Completes d/t East ache Des- 

meritorious work has also been given to him champs, ii. 138-9, published by the Society 

which is certainly not from his hand. Thanks des Anciens Textes Fran^ais). On the 

to Mr. Bradahaw, Professor Skeat, Professor strength of this information, a copy of a 

ten Brink, and others, a scrutiny has been translation of the * Roman de la Rose ' 

instituted that may fairly be described as ' having been found, it was at once confidently 

scientific, with the result that many pieces taken to be Chaucer's, and is always pub- 

that used to pass current as Chancers are lished among his works. But this assum])- 

now confidently pronounced spurious. *The tioii cannot be justified. It would be a 

Cuckow and the Nightingale,' acce])ted by strange thing if Chaucer were the only Eng- 

Wordsworth (see Wordsworth, Selections lishman who produced a version of so popular 

from Chaucer modernised) ; * The Flower and a poem as the * Rose.' We can point to at 

the Leaf,' attributed to him by the donor of . least four versions of the * Troy-book/ several 

the Chaucer window in Westminster Abbey of the ' Story of Alexander,' ' and so on.' 

(a poem years and years later in point of date, (See Skkat's ' Why the " Romaunt of the 

as its language and grammar show, quite Rose " is not Chaucer's,' in his Prioress* Tale, 

un-Chaucerian in point of metre, and which 3rd ed. 1880.) And the internal evidence) 

words : 

Grant tranelatcur, noble Geffroy Chaucer 

and * The Romaunt of the Rose,' have no shape, make ; it neglects the final e, which is 
claim to a place among Chaucer's works. su(;h a noticeable feature in Chaucer's Eng- 
With the merely seeming exception of the lish. Moreover, the dialect is not Chaucer's; 

* Romaunt/ not one of them is mentioned in nor can this difficulty begot over by su])po8ing 
any of the four most important lists of . that we have here a copy of Chaucer's version 
Chaucer's works — the list in the 'Prologue , put into the transcriber's dialect, for the signs 
to the l^gende of Good Women,' that in the of a dialect in which Chaucer did not write 
' Proh)gue to the ^lan of LawesTale,' that in | — a * midland dialect exhibiting Northum- 
the * Preces de Chauceres ' at the end of the brian tendencies ' — can be shown to be in- 

* Persones Tale,' and that in Lydgate's* Fall of eradicable. Lastly, the test of vocabulary 
Princes,' I*rol. Nor for any of them is there points to an un-Chaucerian authorship. So. 
any othef external evidence of any value. In far as is at present known, Chaucer's trans-f 
the case of *The Complaint of the Black lation of the < Roman de la Rose' is not 
Knight ' there is decisive external evidence . extant any more than his translations of the 
in favour of Lydgate. And the internal evi- * Book of the Lion,* of ' Origenes ux>on the 

Chaucer t6o Chaucer 

Maudeleyne/ and Pope Innocent's treatise Dante had been dead some half-century^ 

• De Miseria/ all three of which we have his but Petrarch and Bocgaccio were still living^ 
own testimony that he executed. and it is possible Chaucer saw them both. 

The extant work that best represents his With regard to Petrarch, he makes his Clerk 

first period is * The Boke of the Duchesse.' of Oxford say in the prologue to his tale in 

There can be no reasonable doubt that it is the * Canterbury Tales' that he had learnt 

an elegiac poem written on the death of the the story he was about to tell — the story of 

Lady Blanche, duchess of Lancaster, the first Griselda — 
wife of John of Gaunt. That it is Chaucer's 

is proved by abundant evidence, both exter- . /;? Padowe of a worthy clerk 

naf and internal. That it refers to the Lad v t^ ^"^""^ 5^ j*^ T"*""*! ^^^ ^^- ''^^^' 

Blanche is shown by the words ' the Duchesso ' I nil^Tor^Tio^tr'l^ '1 ^'' fT"" ' 

• 4.1^ *.•*! /riu V ijf M.' -^ \ JL pray to liod 80 yive his soule reste ! 
in the title (Chaucer himself mentions it by i.^^ ^^08 Petrark'the laureat poete, 

that title) taken in connection with the alln- Highte this clerk whose rethorique swete, &c. 
8 ion to the name Blanche in the poem : i » 

And goode fnire white she hole, ^^ J^J ^^^^ ^^ Petrarch's life were mainlv 

That was my lady name righto. Ti ** ^^T'- ^^^. sixteen miles south of 

•^ "^ ^ Padua, which is 130 miles from Florence. 

It is strange indeed that the widower should He was certainly there in the first half of 
be carefufiy described as of twenty-four 1373, probably till September. There is evi- v 
years of age, whereas John of Gaunt was dence that just at the time — just at the time \ 
twenty-nine at the time. Artistically con- when Chaucer might have visited Padua — | 
sidered, the work, though not without beauty, j Petrarch was taking a special interest in the 
is juvenile and crude. It is conventional in tale of Griselda. He sent a translation of it 
form, awkward in arrangement, inadequate in " to Boccaccio, whose version of the story in 
expression.. There is scarcely anythmg spe- the * Decamerone ' had specially delighted 
cially Ch^iucerian in it. And indeed the great him, with the date * Inter coUes Euganeos 
interest of the poem is that it brings Chaucer C Idiis Junii MCCCLXXin.' (De Sade in his Me- 
before us just at this early stage. mm'rs of Petrarch gives 1374, ' on the autho* 

' 1372-86.— By 1372 France had taught rity of a manuscript in the Royal Library at 
Chaucer what it had to teach. It had made Paris ; ' but Nicolas seems to have been un- 
him no mean master of versification, for in ftble to verify this reference ; see Aldine ed. 
metrical skill and finish its poets — ^both of the i. 12.) This circumstance and the fact that 
north and the south, both troubadours and '. the Clerk's version ofthe tale is most certainly 
trouveres — were liighly distinguished. He taken from Petrarch's translation, give ex- • 
was now to be brought into contact with poets | treme probability to the suggestion that Chau- 
^ of a higher order. Public business took (;hau- ccr did visit Petrarch, and was permitted to 
cer to Italy. It is possible, perhaps probable, , read the touching story in Petrarch's render- 
that he may have already known the Italian ing. AVe may, we think, very justly ask, from 
language and studied Italian literature ; but whom did Chaucer get a copy of Petrarcli's 
there is no evidence of any such knowledge. '■ translation if not from Petrarch himself or 
His official visit in 1.27^ ^^^ l^^S may be ; from Boccaccio ? It was sent in a letter to- 
taken to mark the time at which he was | Boccaccio. So if he did not get it from Pe- 
first brought under Italian influence. In trarch, surely he got it from Boccaccio? 
November 1372, described now as one of the Tliere may, of course, have been copies given 
king's esquires, he * was joined in a commis- to specially favoured friends. But the pro- 
sion with James Pronam and John de Mari, i babuity is that he got it from either Petrarch 
citizens of Genoa, to treat with the duke, I or Boccaccio, probably from Petrarch. But 
citizens, and merchants of Genoa for the "^ho introduced him to Petrarch? Likely 
purpose of choosing some port in England enough Petrarch's friend. For many years 
where the Genoese might form a commercial Boccaccio had been living at Florence or on 
establishment' (NicoriAs). Some time early his paternal domain at (jertaldo, only some 
in December he left England ; by 23 Nov. twenty miles from Florence. Wien (Jhaucer 
1373 he was home again, for on that day he was there, Florence must have been rin^^ng 
received his pension in person. Of the details with his name, for ho was just then appoint^ 
of his journey we know nothing, except that to the Dante professorship — to a chair for the 
he visited Florence as well as Genoa. This exposition of the ' Divina Commedia.' It is 
appears from the note of the payment of the conceivable Chaucer may have been present 
expenses incurred by him — ^m)m the words at his first lecture on 3 Aug. 1373. Certainly 
* profisciendo [sic apud Nicolas] in negociis Chaucer became profoundly impressed with 
Kegis versus partes Jannue et FlorenceJ Dante's greatness. 

Chaucer i6i Chaucer 

He returned to England in the autumn or Geollrey.' lie is to maintain and repair it, 
the late summer of 1373, and soon after re- * to bo ousted if the chamberlain to whom the 
ceived several marks of the royal satisfaction, rij^ht of inspection is reserved finds he is not 

iOn 23 April 1374 he had granted him for doing so, not to sublet. And they on their 
life a daily pitcher of wine, to be received in part promise not to make a gaol of it while 
the port of London from the hands of the ne is there, nor disturb him except it becomes 
kinjfs butler ; this was afterwards commuted necessary to arrange for the defence of the 
into a second pension of twenty marks. On city.* 1 his was his abode for some twelve 
8 June he was appointed comptroller of the years ; in liJ86 one Richard Forster suc- 
customs and subsidy of wools, skins, and ceeded him (see Academy, 6 Dec. 1879). 

^ tanned hides in the port of London during With it the picture of himself in the * House 
the king's pleasure, taking the same fees as of Fame* is associated, 
other comptrollers of the customs and 8ul>- The monotony of his life was broken by 
sidy. * He was, like his predecessors, to write several diplonmt ic employments, for the terms 
the rolls of his ofHce with his own hand; he of his oath as comptroller were made com- 
mas to be continually present ; to perform patible with absences on the king^s 8er\'ice. 
his duties personally ; and the other part of Towards the end of 1376 he was appointed with x, 
the seal which is called " the coket " was to Sir John Burley to discharge some secret ser- ' 

. remainin his custody '(Nicolas). On 13 June vice, which is yet a secret. In February 1377 
the Duke of Lancaster granted him 10/. a year he wassent with Sir Thomas Percy (aften^-anlS 
fir life, to be paid him at the manor of Savoy, Earl of Worcester) on another secret mission 
in consideration of the good service which he into Flanders ; a little later inthat yearhewiu* 
and his wife Philippa had rendered to the again abroad, possibly in France. Pearly in the 
said duke, to his consort, and to his mother following ^^gaX-he w^as in France once more, 

/. the queen. On 8 Nov. 1375 he obtained a p'Jobably attached to the ambassadors who 
grant of the custody of the lands and person i went over to negotiate Richanl II's marriage 
ofEdmondStaplegateof Kent. This brought with a French princess. In I^ay he was des- y 
him 104/., some 1,200/. or 1,.'300/. of our patched again to Italy,thi8 time to Lgijibardy, 
money. On 28 Dec. of the same year he alongwi<hSirEdward Berkeley, to treat with 
4, had granted him the custody of five * soli- I Bernardo Visconti, lord of id[ilan, and the 
dates * of rent in Solys, Kent, during the ; notorious Sir John Hawkwood, * pro certis 
minority of the heir of John Solys, deceased, negociis expeditionem guerrto llegis tangen- 

f On 12 July 1376 the king granted him tibus,* probably to support in some way the 
71/. 4«. dd.f being the price of some forfeited proposed expedition into Brittany. And ho 
wool, one John Kent of London being fined seems to have been abroad again in 1379.-*' 
to that amount for having conveyed the said | One signal interest apj)ertaining to the second 
wool to Dordrecht without having paid the Italian appointment is that Chaucer named 
duty. He was also one of the king's esquires 1 one John Gower as one of his two * attorneys ' 
(40*. is twice recorded as paid by the keeper or representatives during his absence, and it 
of the king's wardrobe for his half-yearly is fairly certain that this was Gower the 

^ robes). But thrift does not seem to have been | poet. He mentions him also in 'Troylus and 
one of Chaucer's virtues. At • Michaelmas Cryseyde,' which was probably written about 
1376 we find him having an advance made this very time, with the epithet * moral,' 
at the exchequer of fifty shillings on account which has ever since adhered to his naipe — 
of the current half-year's allowance. an epithet probably suggested by his'Si)ecu- 

JT He lived at this time in the dwelling- lum Meditantis,' to judge from what we are 

^ bouse above the gate of Aldgate. It was told of the contents of that lost work. Gower 
leased to him in May 1374. Probably — repaid the compliment in his* Con fessioAman- 
though his formal appointment as a comp- tis.* But Chaucer and Gower were very dif- 
troller of the customs is dated 8 June — he , ferent types of men, and their friendship does 
knew some weeks before that it was coming, ' not seem to have remained unshaken. Chaucer 
and secured in good time convenient accom- reflects somewhat sharply on Gower in the 
modation in the city, within an easy walk prologue to the * Man of Lawes Tale,' and 
from his office. A translation of the lease is • cries * fie ' on certain * cursed stories,' which, 
given by lliley in his * ^lemorials of Lon- as it happened, * the moral Gower' had care- 
don.' The tenant was to have * the whole of fully related. It has been urged that the 
the dwelling-house above the gate of Aid- point of this reprimand is blunted by the 
gate with the rooms built over and a certain * fact * that the * Man of Lawes Tale ' is it- 
cellar beneath the same gate on the south self taken from Gower. But the fact is 
side of that gate and the appurtenances there- doubtful. The Man of Law implies that 
of *for the whole life of him, the same i Chaucer had 'of olde time' written the tale 

VOL. T. M 




he is about to tell. We are strongly dis- 
posed to think that the tale of Constance, 
like the tale of Griselda, was written some 
years before its enlistment among the * Can- 
terbury Tales/ and therefore written l>efore 
the ' Confessio Amantis/ There can be no 
doubt either that censure is aimed at Gower 
in the 'Man of Lawes Prologe/ or that 
Gower omits his complimentary lines on 
Chaucer in his second edition in 1393. 

In 1380 we come to what seems a dark 
spot in Chaucer's life. In May of that year 
one Cecilia Chaumpaigne, daughter of the 
late William Chaumpaigne and Agnes his 
wife, remits, releases, and for herself and 
her heirs for ever 'quit claims' 'Galfrido 
Chaucer armigero omnimodas acciones t-am 
de raptu meo tarn de aliqua alia re vel causa, 
cujuscumquc condicionis fucrint, quas un- 
quam habui habeo seu habere potero a prin- 
cipio mundi usque in diem confeccionis pre- 
flencium.' The witnesses are Sir William de 
Beauchamp, the king*s chamberlain, Sir John 
de Clanebow, Sir William de Nevylle, John 
Phillpott, and Richard Morel (see Chaucer 
Society's Second Series, No. 10, pp. 131, 130- 
144). The matter is at present veiy obscure. 
It may perhaps be that Chaucer' had some- 
thing to do with the carrying off of Cecilia 
from her friends in the interest of some other 
person. Possibly he had 'carried her off* 
lor himself. It may be a mere coincidence 
that in 1391 Chaucer's son Lewis seems to 
have been just ten years of age. Whatever 
this ' release * mav mean, it is certain that it 
brought no discredit on Chaucer in his day. 
It was after this that the 'moral Gower' 
made mention of him, and in Mav 1382 he 

^ was appointed comptroller of the petty cus- 
toms m the port of London during pleasure, 
with the usual wages and permission to exe- 
cute his duties by a competent deputy. In 
November l.*i85 he was also allowed to nomi- 
nate a permanent deputy to discharge his other 

Well to do in a pecuniary way — holding 
two pensions, one irom the crown and one 
from John of Gaunt, besides his emolu- 
ments from the customs' comptroUerships, 
with probably other additions to his income 

V — he was in \38U elected a knight of the 

^ flhire for Kent/T^ut at the end of that year 
he was deprived jof'bbth his offices, Adam 
Yardley super^dinghim as comptroller of the 
custojo^rtmcL subsidies, and a few days afYer 

^ Jfehry Gisors superseding him as comptroller 
of the petty customs in the port of London. 
This sudden collapse has been variously ac- 
counted for. The old biographers, misled 
by the ' Testament of Love ' erroneously attri- 
buted to Chaucer, connect it with some dis- 

pute between the court and the citizens of 
London respecting the election of John of 
Northampton to the mayoralty in 1382. 
They go on to state with groundless assur- 
ance that in 1384, when Northampton's ar- 
rest was ordered, Chaucer, to avoid a like 
fate, fled to the island of Zealand ; that after 
remaining two years in exile there, he re- 
turned to England, and was imprisoned in 
the Tower; that he lay a prisoner in the 
Tower till 1389, when, through the mediation 
I of Queen Anne of Bohemia, he was released 
on the condition that he should impeach 
liis former associates, which at last he did. 
All this romance is at once dispersed by the 
fact that during these years ne 'regularly 
received his pension half-yearly at the ex- 
chequer with his own hands (Nicolas). 
A'ery probably Chaucer's dismissal is con- 
nected with the political intrigues which 
prevailed from 1386 to 1389. John of Gaunt 
was abroad in Spain (May 1386 to November 
1389), and Kicnard had' been glad of any 
pretext to remove him out of the kingdom ; but 
anotherof the king's uncles, the Dukeof Glou- 
cester, presently seized supreme power, and 
t here was much tumult. For over two years the 
king was virtually suppressed. In November 
1386 he was compelled to appoint a commis- 
sion to inquire into abuses. The commissioners 
began their work by examining the accounts 
of the officers employed in the collection of 
the revenue. There seems to have existed 
special dissatisfaction with the officers of the 
customs and their conduct, as is shown by 
the fact ])ointed out by Sir Harris Nicolas 
that in 11 Hie. II, 1387-8, the commons peti- 
tioned that no comptroller of the customs 
and subsidies should in future hold his office 
for any other term than during good be- 
haviour, to which request the royal assent 
was given (liot. Pari. iii. 250). 'In August 
1389, after Richard had assumed the govern- 
ment, the council ordered the enactment to 
be enforced, and that all appointments of 
custunier should in future be made, and the 
existing officers confirmed by the treasurer 
and privy council ' {Proceedings of the Privy 
Council, 1. 9). It was then a time of vigorous 
reform for Chaucer's department of the civil 
service, and he found nimself at the close 
of 1386 without an income, except what his 
pensions brought in. 

The chief works composed between 1372 
and 1386 are : 'The House of Fame ; ' 'The 
^Vssembly of Foules ; ' ' Troylus and Cry- 
seyde ; ' ' Palamon and Arcite,' an earlier ver- 
sion in stanzas of what is known to us as 
the ' Knightes Tale ; ' the stories of Saint Ce- 
cilia and of Griselda, afterwards respectively 
utilised as the ' Secounde Nonnes Tale,' and 




the * Clerkes Tale ; ' probably the story of Con- 
stance, afterwards the * Man of Lawes Tale ; ' 
the translation of Boethius's ' De Consolatione 

noticeable in the ' Assembly of Foules ' and 
in the * House of Fame.' In the former poem 
he pictures himself conducted into a certain 

PhilosophiaB ; ' and, lastly, ' The Legende of park by Africanus just as the great Florentine 
CKx>d Women/ called in the * Man of Lawes pictures himself conducted into the infernal 
Prologe * the ' Saints' Legend of Cupid/ i.e. regions by Virgil ; and the parallel is carried 

the * Legend of Cupid's Saints.' 

The special mark of this period is the influ- 
ence of the Italian literature. Chaucer's in- 

out in several incidents. In the ' House of 
Fame ' Chaucer represents himself as borne 
off into the air to Fame's house by an eagle, 
troduction to the Italian masterpieces gave just as Dante represents himself borne up by 
him a new conception of literaryart, and the an eagle to the gates of purgatory (Purg, ix*) 
~ "Of course, the classical story of Ganymede 

effect is quickly perceptible. lie presently 
abandons the octosyllabic couplet — the metre 
of the * Roman de la Rose ' — for a metre of 
more weight and dignity. He uses it in 
only one more work, in * T^he House of Fame,' 
and in that poem he shows dissatisfaction 
with it. At the beginning of the third book 
he seems specially conscious of it« inadequacy, 
as when he speaks of the * ryme ' as * lyght and 
lewed.' He is longing for a better * art poetical ' 
— a finer * craft. The result is seen in two 
new metrical developments — in the stanza of 
seven * heroic ' lines, commonly called * rime 
royal,' because a kihg, a humble imitator of 
Chaucer, used it ; and secondly in the heroic 
couplet which has ever since been one of our 
most popular measures. He did not adopt these 
metres from the It^ans, but Italian example 
and influence led him to adopt them because it 

was familiar to Chaucer as well as to Dante, 
but a comparison of the two passages will 
certainly snow Chaucer's familiarity with the 
lines in which Dante describes his translation. 
(For further illustrations of Chaucer's know- 
ledge of the * Divine Comedy ' see Ten Brink's 

* Studies.') With Petrarch's poetry Chaucer 
does not show a like sympathetic intimacy. 
Perhaps the most prominent recognition of it 
is to DC found in * Troylus ana Cryseyde,' 
where the * Song of Troilus* in book i. is 
simply a translation of the sonnet beginning 

* S' amor non 6, che dunque e quel, ch'i' sento ? ' 
in the * Rime in Vita di Laura.' 

It is from Boccaccio that Chaucer borrows 
most. * Troylus and Cryseyde ' is to a great 
extent a translation 01 Boccaccio's *Filo- 
strato,' as may be admirably seen from Mr. 

inspired him with^ desire for richer .metrical \W. M. Rossetti's comparison of the two works 

forms. He did not servilely copy his masters, 
for he has left us nothing written in terza 
rima or ottava (the stanza of the ' Monkes 
Tale ' is eight-lined, but the rhymes have an 
order of their own), or in sonnet shape, but 
by adopting suitable forms which ho found 
elsewhere. Chaucer's genius could never have 
worthily expressed itself in the couplet which 

published by the Chaucer Society. It is pro- 
bable that ' Palamon and Arcite,* the earlier 
form of the • Knightes Tale,' was a render- 
ing, more or less faithful, of the 'Teseide,' the 

* Knightes Tale' being a yet freer treatment 
of that poem. And it has generally been held, 
and we think rightly, that in designing the q 

* Canterbury Tales ' Chaucer was influenced 

he found reigning in England when he beg^an | by the design of Boccaccio's * Decamerone.' 
to write. The stanza (* rime royal ') which ; Again, the * Reeves Tale,' the 'Frankeleynes 
he developed was a favourite form with him | Tale,' the 'Schipmannes Tale' are all to be 
in his second period. It became a great i found in the ' Decamerone.' Tlie ' Monkes 
favourite with English poets down to the Tale ' is formed upon the plan of the same 
""" ' ' -r. , , , . , author's ' De casibus virorum i 

Elizabethan age. It did not completely 
answer Chaucer's needs. Towards the close 

Chaucer never mentions Bocoaccio, unless it 


of his second period we find him transferring , be he whom he denominates ' Eollius.' But, 
tiis allegiance to the heroic couplet, which in I very strangely, Chaucer specially connects 
the third period becomes the dominant form. ; with Lollius that sonnet which is turned into 
His first poem in this metre is the * Legende i Troilus's song ; so that Lollius, by this con- 
of Good Women.' nection, ought to be Petrarch. Lollius appears 

Of the three great Italians, perhaps the one again in the * House of Fame,' where his sta- 
that moved him most deeply was Dante, as tue appears side by side with those of* Omer,' 
it should be. Several times he mentions him Dares, ' Titus ' (Dictys), Guido *■ de Colump- 
by name, as in the ' Wyf of Bathes Tale ' nis/ and * English Galfride.' No writer of 
(comp. Purg, vii. 12V) ; the ' House of Fame,' the name of Lollius is known, and no satia^- 
i. 460, ' Legende of Good Women,' ProL, the | tory explanation of its introduction by Chaii- 
^ Freres Tale ; ' see also ' the grete poet of cer has been given. Chaucer speaks of ' olde 
Itaile, that highte Daunt,' in the 'Monkes stories 'as his sources; when he does mention 
Tale.' In other places he is obviously under a definite authority, it is not Boccaccio, but 
Dante's full influence. This \b particularly ' Stace of Thebes ' — Statius's ' Thebais.' 

H 2 





It would cast a valuable light on the 
ffrowth of Chaucer's art if we could assign 
definite dates to the works that fall within 
this second period. But this is scarcely pos- 
sible, at least at present. The * Assembly 
of Foules ' must certainly refer to some actual 
occurrence. It used to be connected with 
John of Gaunt's first courtship, because the 
conclusion of it — that the suitor must wait 
a year — is just what the * Man in Black ' in 
the * Boke of the Duchesse/ who is almost 
certainly John of Gaunt, states to have been 
his own sentence. That must be allowed to 
be a curious coincidence, though there is so 
much conventionality in medifleval poetry 
that it is of less importance than it might 
seem. But John of Gaunt's first marriage 
took place in 1358 ; and it is incredible that 
a poem so greatly superior to the *Boke 
of the Duchesse ' should have been written 
eleven years before it. Also, the * Assembly 
of Foules ' abundantly shows the influence 
of Dante; and there is no reason for sup- 
posing that Dante*s great poem influenced 
Uhaucer so early as 1358, or before his first 
visit to Italy in 1372-3. Others have linked 
the * Assembly * with llichard II's first mar- 
riage — his marriage with the Princess Anne 
of Bohemia in January 1382. The poem must 
then have been written in 1380 or 1381. But, 
to judge from its style, 1380 seems much too 
late, just as 1358 is much too early. We are 
inclined to hold that the * Assembly of Foules ' 
was written as soon after the * Boke of the 
Duchesse * as is compatible with the fact that 
in the interval the Italian influence had come 
upon Chaucer. In conventionality of struc- 
ture and incident the two poems curiously 
resemble each other. But in metre and style 
the ' Assembly ' shows remarkable progress. 
We think that it was written in or about 
1375, and that the occasion has yet to be dis* 

That the * House of Fame ' belongs to this 
period is sufficiently prt)ved by the words : — 

For when thy labour al doon is 
And hast made alle thy reckeninges, 
In stcde of rest and newe thinges 
Thou goost hoome to thin hous anoon, 
And also domb as any stoon, &c. 

It is commonly assigned to 1384, or there- 
abouts. But it was surely written before 
February 1384, when Chaucer was permitted 
to appoint a deputy, and, judging from the 
style, we should leel disposed to place it some 
years earlier in the second period. The ex- 
tent of Dante's influence upon it would seem 
to indicate a recent introduction to Dante. 
The metrical form, too, encourages the view 
that it was a comparatively early work. 
The glory of this period is certainly * Troy- 

lus and Cryseyde,* one of the most delight- 
ful poems in our literature. The genius of 
Chaucer shines out in it with a wonderful 
brightness. The date of this poem is about 
1380. When Gower produced the first edi- 
tion of his * Confessio Amautis' — about 1384, 
as we maintain (see the Atkenaum, 24 Dec. 
1881) — it was already well known and popu- 
lar (see Pauli's Conf. Am. ii. 95). 

This noble achievement accomplished, he 
; went on preparing himself for something yet 
I nobler. He gathered fresh stores of know- 
ledge, both of men and of books ; and hn 
again adopted a new metrical form which 
seemed to secure yet fuller expression of that 
knowledge. His first choice did not prove 
a happy one. It was to write 

A glorious legende 
Of gode women, maidencs and wives, 
That weren trewe in loving all hir lives. 
And telle of false men that hem betraien, 
That al hir life no do nat but asstiien 
How many women thoy may doon a shame. 

But he grew tired of the task he had ap- \ 
pointed himself. Of the nineteen heroines, 
or more, whose tales were to be recounted, 
he brings only nine before us. The poet's 
healthy spirit soon rebelled against a long 
succession of tragedies. He was endowed in 
a rare degree with the gift of humour. It be- 
came clear that this siibject would not serve 
his purpose. Part of the * Legende of Good 
Women ' is of great excellence and value. 
The prologue is to be classed with Chaucer's 
best writings. And in the legends there are 
passages of admirable vigour and beauty, 
such as could come only from the hand of a 
master. The poem is a noble fragment, but 
it would not fully have expressed the mature 
genius of its author. The mention of the 
queen in one manuscript proves its compo- 

' sit ion to be subsequent to January 1382. 

^i 1386-1400.— Chaucer's third period would 
seem to have been a time of pecuniary dis- 
comfort. His dismissal from his offices at 
the close of 1386 seriously reduced his in- 
come. AVhat remained was his pensions. And 
in May 1388, probably in great distress, he 
seems to have sold two of these to a certain 
John Scalby. There is reason for believing 
that in 1387 his wife died ; at least there is 
no trace of her after 18 June of that year, up 
to which time the pension granted her in 
1366 was more or less regularly paid. From 
' L'Envoy <\ Bukton * we gather tiiat Chaucer 
was a widower at the time of its writing. He 
says that though he had promised to express 

The Borow and wo that is in marriage, 
I dar not writ« of it no wickeduesse, 
Lest I myself falle efte in sad dotage ; 

that is, ' lest I again make a fool of myself 




by marrying again.' Still he commends the 
* Wyf of Bathe' — i.e. the prologue to her tale 
— to his friends* reading. But these lines 
'were written sotfte years aft«r his wife died, 
and their raillery must not be taken too 
seriously. However, Chaucer's troubles did 
^ not seem to have prostrated him. In or 
. about 1388, in April, the famous pilgrimage 
to Canterbury took place, for there can be 
little doubt that in the prologue to the 'Can- 
terbury Tales ' he is referrinjf to an actual 
pilgrimage. If it took place m April 1388, 
it was just before he sold his pensions, so 
that he must have spent at the Tabard and 
on the road to Canterbury some of the last 
^iooins he had to spend. 

For a while the sky cleared for him in the 
summer of 1389. It is probably a mistake 
to connect the improvement in his fortunes, 
as is commonly done, with the return of John 
of Gaunt from Spain. In fact, John of Gaunt 
did not return till November, whereas Chaucer 
©received a neijy appointment in* July. The 
improvement is really to be connected with 
the king's reassertion of his authority. In 
May the king freed himself from the coimcil 
that for some two and a half years had so 
closely controlled him, and the party at whose 
instance Cliaucer had been ousted from the 
customs ceased to have power. But he was 
not restored to his old places. AVe presume 
that those who succeeded him in 1386 were 
appointed for life ; and there appears to have 
been a genuine dissatisfaction witli the way 
in which he had performed the duties of the 
jj^comptrollerships. He was now appointed 
\j clerk of tlie king's works at the palace of 
1^ AVestminster, Tower of London, castle of 
Berkhampstead, the king's manors of Ken- 
nington, Eltham, Clarendon, Sheen, Byfleet, 
Childeni Langley, and Feckenham ; also at 
the royal lodge at Hatherburgh in the New 
Forest, at the lodges in the parks of Claren- 
don, Childem Langley, and Feckenham, and 
at the mews for the king's falcons at Charing 
Cross. His duties are minutely stated in the 
patent. Fortunately for the poet, he was 
permitted to execute them by deputy. In 
* July 1390 lie was ordered to procure work- 
men and materials for the repair of St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor, and also made a 
member of a commission to repair the Thames 
banks between Woolwich and Greenwich. 
In January 1391 he nominated John Elm- 
hurst to be his de^)uty in the clerkship. Then 
cnme trouble again. In September we find 
)v on« John Gedney hqlding^heplace that has 
been given to Cl\aucerr Orlhe cause of this 
supersession nothing whatever is known. It 

(certainly looks as if Chaucer did not succeed 
as a man of business. But another place was 

found for him about the same time. In 14 
Richard II (1390-1) Richard Brittle and 

* Gefterey ' Chaucer were appointed by Roger 
Mortimer, earl of March, foresters of North 
Petherton Park, Somersetshire, and in 21 
Richard II (1397-8) Alienora, Roger Morti- 
mer's wife, reappointed Chaucer sole forester. 
Roger Mortimer, it will be remembered, was 
the grandson of the Duchess of Clarence, 
to whose husband's household the poet was 
attached in youth (Collixsox, Somersetshire, 
iii. 62; Mr. Selby, in Athen. 20 Nov. 1886). 

One incident of his personal life at this 
time is preserved. On Tuesday, 9 Sept. 1390, 
he was * feloniously despoiled ' twice in one 
day, at Westminster of 10/. by one Richard 
Brerelay, and at Hatcham of 9/. 3*. 6d, by 
that same Brerelay, along with three others. 
Probably enough Chaucer was going from 
Westminster to Eltham. It was at the 

* fowle ' oak at ' Hacchesham,' a little to the 
west of New Cross, that he fell among thieves 
the second time. The writ, dated Eltham, 
6 Jan. 1391, discharging him for repayment, 
speaks of the whole robbery as perpetrated at 
' le fowle ok.' It adds that his horse was also 
taken from him * et autres moebles' (see Mb. 
Walford D. Selby's Bobberies of Chaucer, 
Chaucer Soc. 2nd ser. No. 12). 

He had now for some two years and a half 
to subsist as well as he could on John of 
Gaunt's pension of 10/., his salary as forester, 
and whatever wages, if any, he received as 
the king's es([uire. It is not till 1394 that he "V^ 
obtained from King Richard a grant of 20/. for i 
life. That, even with this addition, it went 
hard with him, may be justly concluded from 
his frequent anticipation of the pavments due 
every half-year — at Easter and ^lichaelmas. 
Thus: 1 April 1395 he procures an advance of 
10/., 25 June 10/., 9 Sept. I/. 6s. 8rf., 27 Nov. 
8/. 6*. &d. So on 1 March 1396 the balance 
he had to receive was only 1/. ISs. 4</. Yet 
30/. would be equivalent to some 400/. of our 
money. From 1391 to 1399 Chaucer seems ^ 
to have had much pediJHfary difficulty. In \ 
1397, when he was reappointed forester of I 
North Petherton, we find him having 5/. ad- 
vanced in July, and in August 6/. In May 
4388 letters of protection were issued to the >, 
effect that whereas the king had appointed hia 
beloved esquire Geotfrey Cliaucer to perform 
various arduous and urgent duties in divers 
parts of the realms of England, and the said 
Geoftrey, fearing that he might be impeded 
in the execution thereof by certain enemies 
of his by means of various 8uit8^4ttd prayed 
the king to assist him therein, therefore 
the king took the said Geoffrey, liis tenants, 
and property into his special protection, 
forbioding hmi for two whole years to be 

Chaucer it 

arrested or sued by anybody except on a plea I 
connected with land (sceacopyofthisdocu- i 
ment in GoBwiIf, iv. 2»9, 300). He must _ 
have been sorely pinched in thia year, 1398, | 
when twice, on ^4 July and 31 July, he ob- 
tained a loan of 6«. Sd. I 
f In October another grant of wine was 
made him, this time not a ' pitcher,' but a, | 
tun, to be received in the port of London by I 
the kinefs chief butler or his deputy. The , 
king's cnief butler at that time was Thomas ' 
Chaucer. ' 
He was not more satisfactorily placed till i 

/ the accession of H enry_I ^, the son of his old 
patron the Duke orOiicaBtur (S Oct. 1390). I 
Four days after Iliinry came to the throne he 

Hgranted Chaucer forty marks (28/. 13*. 4rf.) | 

Jfarly, in addition to the annuity Itichard II 
.ftdgivenhim,so nearly doubling' his previous 
income. This grant may have been made in 
annwer to the poet's appeal appended to the 
-i (,'ompleynte to his Purse ' — lints which show 
that his humour did not desert him amidst all 
h is troubles. Perhaps it is worth noting as pos- 
fliMy significant of Chaucer's character that in 
a few days he managed to lose his copy of this 
granti-jind also his cony of the grant of 1.^94. 
lie was furnished with new copies on 13 Oct. 
He was now, we may presume, in comfort- 
able circumstances, ibr some two months 
J, later, on Christmas eve, 1399, h e took a, tease 
for fifty-three years, at the annual rent of 
HI. VSi. 4d., of a house situated in the ganden 
oftheLadyChaiiel.Westminster. ThisLady 
Chapel occupied the ground now covered by 
Henry VII's Chapel. Chaucer's house pro- 
bably remained till a clearance was made 
for this latter structure. On 21 Feb. 1400 
('hftucer received one of bis pensions. The 
following months he was probably ailing, as 
he did not claim another payment then due to 
him { and not till June was any part of this 

Gymenl claimed, and then it was paid not to 
mnelf, bat to one Ilnnry Somere. This is 
our last notice of the poet. The inscription 
von his tomb says he died on 25 Oct. 1400. 
The date of thai, inscription is long after the 
event, but it may have been copied from some 
older stone, and its accuracy is extremely 
probable. Being not only a tenant of the 
abbey, but a distinguished •■'•— — ■' - 

Comer, in thceast aisle of the south transept, 
AVestminster. In Carton's time there were 
some Latin lines in his memory, ' wreten on 
a table hongyngon a pylereby his sepulture,' 
composed by one Surigonius, a poet laureat 
of Milan, beginning : 

Onlfriduc Chaocer vatei ot fama poeti* 

lacra nun tumnlatna humo, 


we suppose, 

where 'fama poesis mt 
means the 'glory of my mother-country's 
poetrj;.' In 1555 Nicholas Brigham [q. v.l, 
a special admirer of Chaucer's works, himself 
a poet, erected close by his grave the tomb 
which is now extant. His wife had probably 
died, as we have seen, in 1387. Ofhis'Iitel 
son Lewis,' for whom he compiled the ' As- 
trolabie' in 1391, we know nothing more. 
Thomas Chaucer, assumed to be the poet's 
elder son, is separately noticed. 

The great literary work of this third period 
is the supremo work of Chaucer's life — the " 
' Canterbury Tales.' lie probablv finally 
fixed on his subject about 1387. 'Iliad the 
scheme been carried out, we should have had 
some 130 tales. There are a hundred in the 
' Decomerone,' but. they are comparatively 
slight and brief; many of Chaucer's are long 
and elaborate. Severalof hisearlierwritings 
were adapted {not always thoroughly) to 
form a part of it, vii. ' Palamon and Arcite,' 
the 'Tele of Griselda,' the 'Tale of C-onstance," 
the ' Tale of Saint Cecilia.' Periinps the 
earliest allusion to the 'Canterbury Tales' is 
made by Gower in the prologue to the se- 
cond (the 1;«I3) edition of the ' Confessio 
Amantis' — 

But for my wittcs ben so smsle 
To tellen (-very man his tale, &c. 
We may well believe that by 1393 a great 
partof the work as we have it was completed. 
But no doubt Chaucer was intending to go 
on with it, at least till near the close of his 
life, till the time when he could only take 
' pleasure in ' the translation of Boes of con- 

■ solution and other bokes of legendes of 
Seintes, and of Omelies and moralito and 

■ devotion.' One would rejoice if this morbid 

ale,' could be shown to be the interpolation 
of some monk ; but as it is we must suppose 
that to Chaucer there came an hour of re- ' 
action and weakness. In the ' Oompleynt of 
Venus,' which is quit* a distinct piece from 
the ' Compleynt of Mars,' although so com- 
monly printed as a part of it, Chaucer bwa 
that his work may be received with indul- 
gence — 

I For cldo, that in my spirit dolleth me, 
I Hath of enditing al the sotelte 
I Welnigh baraft out of my remombraoce. 
. So that he felt his powers decaying. On the 
I other hand, the lines ' Flee from the prees,' 
known as the ' Good CounsAil of Chaucer,' are 
vigorously written, and theyTire said to have 
been written on his deathbed ; hut this can- 
notbeproved. The lines tohisPursoBent to 
Henry IV, as we have seen, in 1S99, are 
lively ; but it does not follow that they were 



written in that year. /More likely only the 
* envoy ' was written then. The words * out 
of this towne helpe me by your might * 
seem to point to 8omk special occasion, and 
' I am shave as nere/ as any frere ' is in his 
old manner. Other/pieces belonging to this 
period are the * Enviy to Scogan — certainly 
written in the days/ of distress, and possibly 
enough in 139.*J, as the references to exces- 
sive rains suggest- -the * Envoy to Bukton,' 

and a ^Balade dc 

C-redibly enough, 
^ life Chaucer, for o 
little, and his 
touched. In th 

Vilage sanz Peinture.' 

le last few years of his 
reason or another, wrote 
7tum opus was scarcely 
third period we see him 
jmature. Fully a0i|ther influences have acted 
ju[)on him, what strikes us is his extraordinary 
/originality. For what is best in his best work 
he is debtor to no man. He is the first great 
figure of modem English literature, the first 
great hUhiorist of ^modern I^rope, and the 
first great writerm whom th'e dramatic spirit, 
so long vanished and seemingly extinct, re- 
appears. Except Dante, there is no poet of 
the middle ages of superior faculty and dis- 

As to the manuscripts of Chaucer, see 
Fumivairs *Six Text Edition of the Canter- 
bury Tales, &c.,' an invaluable help to 
Chaucerian study. As to printed editions, 
we may mention that the *(Janterbury Tales' 
were printed by Caxton in 1475, and again 
from a better manuscript a few years later ; 
by \V}nken de Worde in 149."), and again in 
1498; by Kichartl Pynson in 1498, and again 
in 1526. The 'first printed collection of the 
poet's works was made by W. Thynne, and 
brought out in 1532, and again with the 
addition of the * Plowman's Tale* in 1542, and 
again about 1559, rearranged. Next in 1561 
came Stowe's edition ; then in 1598 Speght's, 
which was reissued and revised in 1602, and 
again in 1687. Later editors are Urry (1721 ), 
Singer (1822), Nicolas (1845), Morris (1866), 
&c. (see Skeat, Astrolabe, p. xxvi). Tyr- 
whitt's ela})orate edition of the * Canterbury 
Tales' (1775-8) deserves special mention. 
All these collections contain several works 
that are certainly not by Chaucer. On this 
matter see Aldine ed. vol. i. appendix B. 
Professor Skeat has edited sei>arate portions 
of the ' Canterburv Tales.' 

[The Chaucer Society publications; Tyrwhitt'a 
Introductory Discourse to the Canterbury Tales, 
&c., in his edition of the Ointcrbury Talcs, 
1775-8 ; Godwin's Life of Chaucer, 4 vols. 2nd 
ed. 1804; Nicolas's Life of Chaucer in the Aldine 
edition ; Todd*s Illustrations of Gowcr and 
Chaucer, 1810; 'Matthew Browne's' Chaucer's 
England, 2 vols. 1869 ; John Saunders's Cabinet 
Pictures of English Life : Chaucer, 1846; Bern- 

hard ten IJriniy^haacer Studion, 1870, and his 
Chaucer's Spn#he und Verkunst, 1884; Morris's 
Chaucer's Pn|)guc, &c. ; Skeat 's Man of Lawes 
Tale, &c. ; and also the Prioresses Tale, &c., in 
the Clarendon Press Scries; Henry Morley's 
English Writers ; Ward's Chaucer, in the Men 
of JLetters Serie** ; Wartou's Hist, of English 
Poetry ; Lowell's My Study Windows.] 

J. W. H. 

CHAUCER, THOMAS (1367 P-1434), 
speaker of the Ilouse of Commons, in all like- 
Iniood elder son of Geoffrey Chaucer fg. v.], 
by his wife Philippa, daughter of Sir Payne 
Roet and sister of Catherine Swnyford, mis- 
tress and afterwards wife of John, duke of 
Lancaster, was probably bom in 1367. Early 
in life he married Matilda, second daughter 
and coheiress of Sir John Burghersh, nephew 
of Henry Burghersh [q. v.], bishop of Lin- 
coln, treasurer and chancellor of the Kingdom. 
His marriage brought him large estates, and 
among them the manor of Ewelme, Oxford- 
shire. It is evident that his connection with 
the Duke of Lancaster was profitable to him. 
He was appointed chief butler to Richard II, 
! and on 20 March 1399 received a uension of 
twenty marks a year in exchange for certain 
, oiiices ^^nted him by the duke, paying at the 
same time five marks for the confirmation 
of two annuities of 10/. charged on the duchy 
{ of Lancaster and also granted by the duke. 
' These annuities were confirmed to him by 
. HeniT IV, who appointed him constable 
, of Wallingford Castle, and steward of the 
' honours of Wallingford and St. Valery and 
of the Chiltem Hundreds, with 40/. a year 
as stipend and 10/. for a deputy. About the 
same time he succeeded Geoffrey Chaucer as 
forester of North Petherton Park, Somerset- 
shire (CoLLiNSON, Somersetshire, iii. 62 ; Mr. 
SELBY'mAthentpumy20No\\ 1886). OnSNov. 
1402 he received a grant of the chief butler- 
ship for life. On 23 Feb. 1411 the queen 
gave him the manor of Woodstock and other 
estates during her life, and on 16 March the 
king assigned them to him after her death. 
Chaucer sat for Oxfordshire in the parliaments 
of 1400-1,1402,1405-6, 1407,1409-10,1411, 
1413, 1414, 1421, 1422, 1425-6, 1427, 1429, 
1430-1. He was chosen speaker in the par- 
liament that met at Gloucester in 1407, and 
on 9 Nov. reminded the king that the ac- 
counts of the expenditure of tne last subsidy 
had not been rendered. The chancellor in- 
terrupted him, declaring that they were not 
ready, and that for the future the lords would 
not promise them. He was chosen again in 
1410 and in 1411, when, on making his ' pro- 
testation ' and claiming the usual permission 
of free speech, he was answered by the king 
that he might speak as other speakers had 


1 68 


done, but that no novelties wo^j^H^llowed. j 
He asked for a day's grace, aiWvQien made I 
an apology. He was again chosen in 1414. | 
In that year he also received a commission, | 
in which he is called ' domicellus/ to treat 
about the marriage of Henry V, and to take i 
the homage of the Duke of Burgundy. The 
next year ne served with the king in France, ] 
bringing into the field twelve men-at-arms 
and thirty-seven archers, and was present at 
the battle of Agincourt. In 141/ he was 
employed to treat for peace with France. On 
the accession of Henry VI he appears to have 
been superseded in the chief butlership, and 
to have regained it shortly afterwards. In 
January 1424 he was appointed a member of 
the council with a salary of 40/., and the next 
year was one of the commissioners to decide 
n dispute between the earl marshal and the 
Earl of Warwick about precedence. In 
1430-1 he was appointed one of the executors 
of the will of the Duchess of York. He was 
very wealthy, for in the list drawn up in 
1436 (he was then dead) of those from whom 
the council proposed to borrow money for 
the war with France, he was put down for 
200/., the largest sum asked from any on the 
tist except four. He died on 14 March 1434, 
and was buried at Ewelme, where his wife, 
who died in 1436, was also buried with him. 
He left one child, Alice, who married first 
Sir John Philip {d. 1415) ; secondly, Thomas, 
earl of Salisbury (d. 1428), having no chil- 
dren by either ; thirdly, William de la Pole, 
earl and afterwards duke of Suffolk (be- 
headed 1450), by whom she had two sons 
and a daughter. 

[Sir Harris Nicobis's Life of Geoifrey Chaucer 
in vol. i. of the Aldino edition of ChaucerV 
Works, containing references to and extracts 
from original authorities, has afforded the main 
substanoe of the ahove notice : Manning's Lives of 
the S|>eakers, 44-o2 ; Return of Memlwrs of Par- 
liament, i. 261-319 pjissini ; Rolls of ParUament, 
iii. 609. 648, iv. 3o; Stubbs's Constitutional 
History, iii. 60, 63, 67, 90, 259.] AV. H. 

CHAUCOMBE, HUGH de (J. 1200), 
justiciar, wjis probably born atChalcombe in 
Northamptonshire ; at least, it is certain that 
it was from that place tliat he received his 
surname. lie is first mentioned in 1108, in 
the Great Roll of Henry II, as having" paid 
30/. for rt'lief of sixknijfhts' fees in the diocese 
of Lincoln, in which Chalcombe was then in- 
cluded. He next a])pears in the same record 
as having? in 1 1 84 been fined one mark to be 
released ifrom an oath which he had taken to 
the abbot of St. Albans. During the last 
three years of Richard 1(1 190-8) he was she- 
riff 01 Staffordshire, Warwickshire, and Lei- 

cestershire. On the accession of John he was 
emploved about the king's person, and accom- 
panied him into Normandy. In September 
1200 he witnessed a charter granted by John 
at Argentan, and sat as one of the judges in 
the king's court at Caen. In the same year 
the barons of the exchequer received instruc- 
tions that a debt which Chaucombe owed to 
the king should be respited so long as he 
continued abroad in the royal service. The 
next mention of Chaucombe belongs to 1203, 
when he appears as having been charged 
with the duty of making inquisition at the 
ports with regard to the persons who im- 
ported com from Normandy. During the next 
two years he frequently accompanied the king 
in his journeys through England, and several 
charters granted at different places are wit- 
nessed by him. In 1204 he acted as justice 
itinerant, fines being acknowledged before him 
in Hampshire and Nottinghamshire, and in 
July of that year he sat in the king's court at 
Wells. In the following October he was again 
appointed sheriff of Warwickshire and Leices- 
tershire, jointly with one of the king^s clerks 
named Hilary-, and was entrusted with the 
care of the royal castle of Kenil worth. Ho 
was also appointed to manag^e the revenues of 
Kenilwortn IMory during its vacancy. In 
January 1206-7 he failed to appear to a suit 
brought against him by R. de Aunger\^ile re- 
lating to the wrongful possession of some 
cattle, and orders were issued for his arrest. 
In the following July he was dismissed from 
his oflice of sheriff, being succeeded by Robert 
de Roppt»sley, to whom he was commanded 
to deliver up the castle of Kenil worth ; and 
subsequently he had to pay a fine of eight hun- 
dred marks to the king. In 1 209 he became a 
monk, and entered the priory at Chalcombe. 
By his wife Hodiema he had one son, named 
Robert, and two daughters, who were married 
to Ilamund Passalewe and Rali)h de Grafton. 

[Rot. Cur. Reg. ed. Palgrave, 109, 112,128, 
130, 429, 430; Madoxs Exchequer, i. 171, 175, 
316, 459, 497; Rot. Pat. i. pt. i. 33, 74; Placit. 
Abbror. 7, 55 ; Fuller's Worthies, i. 575, ii. 314 ; 
Foss's Lives of the Judges, ii. 60 ; Baker's Hist, 
of Xorthamptonshire, 588, 591.] H. B. 

1 777), physician, was the eldest son of Charles 
Chauncey, a London citizen, son of Ichabod 
Chauncey [q. v.] He wont to Benet College, 
Cambridgt^, in 1727, and graduated M.B. 1734, 
M.D. 1 739. In 1 740 he was elected a fellow 
of the College of Physicians, and became a 
censor in 1740. He was elected F.R.S. on 
29 Jan. 1740, but his chief reputation was 
as an antiquary. The portraits of Garth and 
of Mead at the College of Physicians were 



ffiven to the college by Chauncey. He col- 
lected paintings and prints, coins and books. 
He died 25 Dec. 1777, and his brother Na- 
thaniel, also a collector, succeeded to his col- 
lections. As a man fond of what was ancient, 
he is appropriately buried in the parish church 
which claims to be of the most ancient foun- 
dation of any in London, St. Peter's on Com- . 
hill. Three sale catalogues, dated 1790, one ' 
of pictures, one of coins, and one of books, ' 
in the British Museum, are almost the only 
remaining records of the tastes and learning 
of Chauncey and his brother. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, ii. 145; Thom- 
fion's History of Royal Society, p. xlii.] N. M. 

CHAUNCEY, ICHABOD (d. 1691), phy- 
sician and divine, the date and place of whose 
birth are unknown, was chaplain to Sir Ed- 
ward Harlev's regiment at Dunkirk at the 
time the Uniformity Act was passed. Shortly 
afterwards he obt-ained a living in Bristol, 
and, being ejected for nonconformity, prac- 
tised physic there for eighteen years, and ob- 
tained a considerable practice. In his ' Inno- 
cence vindicated' he states that in 1684 he 
was a M.A. of thirty years' standing, and 
for twenty had been a licentiate of the London 
College of Physicians. In 1682 he was pro- 
secuted for not attending church, &c. (36 
Eliz. c. i.) His defence was that he accom- 
modated his worship as nearly as he could 
to that of the primitive church, but he was 
convicted and lined. In 1684 he was again 
prosecuted under the same act, and was im- 
prisoned in the common gaol for eighteen 
wt»eks before he was tried, when he was sen- 
tenced to lose his estate both real and per- 
sonal, and to leave the realm within three 
months. From a declaration drawn up by 
the ^and jury, he appears to have been in the 
habit of defending such dissenters in Bristol 
as were prosecuted under the various acts re- 
lating to religion ; but from the * Records of 
the Broadmead Meeting, Bristol,' his perse- 
cut ion appears to have originated in t he private 
malice of the town clerk. Chauncey resided 
in Holland till 1080, when he returned to 
Bristol, where he died in 1691. His only work 
is * Innocence vindicated by a Narrative of the 
Proceedings of the Court of Sessions in Bristol 
against I. C, Physician, to his Conviction on 
the Statute of the 36th Elizabeth,' 1684. 

[Lempriere's Biog. Diet. ; Rccortls of a Church 
of Christ Meeting in Bromlmead (Hanserd- 
Knollys Society) ; Culamy's Nonconf. Mem. iii. 
778 (1805).] A. C. B. 

CHAUNCY, CHARLES (1692-1072), 
nonconformist divine, fifth and youngest son 
of George Chauncy of Yardley Bury and New 


Place ij^^^B^} Hertfordshire, by his second 
wife, .^^H^uiughter of Edward Welch of 
Great Wymondley in the same county, and 
widow of Edward Humberstone, was bap- 
tised at Yardley on 6 Nov. 1692. He received 
his preliminary education at Westminster, 
whence he was sent in 1609 to Cambridge 
and entered at Trinity College, of which so- 
ciety he subsequently became a fellow. He 
proceeded B.A. in 1613, M.A. in 1617, and 
was incorporated on that degree at Oxford in 
1019. He became B.D. in 1624. Distin- 
guished alike for oriental and classical scho- 
larship, Chauncy, it is said, was nominated^ 
Hebrew professor by the heads of houses ;\ 
but Dr. Williams, the vice-chancellor, wash- 
ing to place a friend of his own in that office, 
made Chauncy professor of Greek, *■ or more 
probably Greek lecturer in his own college.' 
On 27 Feb. 1627 Chauncy was presented by 
his college to the vicarage of Ware, Hert- 
fordshire, which he held until 16 Oct. 1633. 
He was also vicar of Marston St. Lawrence, 
Northamptonshire, from 28 Aug. 1633 until 

28 Aug. 1637. In each of these preferments 
his disregard of Laud's oppressive regulations 
brought him before the high commission 
court, once in 1030 and again in 1634. On 
the last occasion he was suspended from the 
ministry and imprisoned. After some months' 
confinement he petitioned the court on 4 Feb. 
1636-0 to be allowed to submit. A week 
later he read his submission ' with bended 
knee,' and, after being admonished by Laud 
in his usual style, was released on the pay- 
ment of costs. The text of his offences, sen- 
tence, and submission is set forth in ' Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1636-6,' pp. 123-4, 494-6. 
For making what he afterwards termed his 
' scandalous submission ' Chauncy never for- 
gave himself. He had resolved to retire to 
America, but before going he wrot« a solemn 
' Retractation,' which was published at Lon- 
don in 1641. Arriving at Plymouth in New 
England in December 1637, he acted for 
some time as assistant to John Reyner, the 
minister of that place. In 1041 he was in- 
vited to take charge of the church at Scituate, 
a neighbouring town, where he continued for 
more than twelve vears. He suffered fre- 
quently from poverty. When the puritans 
were masters of England, Chauncy was in- 
vited homo by his old parishioners at Ware, 
and was about to embark at Boston, when 
he was persuaded on 2 Nov. 1064 by the over- 
seers of Harvard College, New Cambridge, to 
become president of tnat society. He was 
accordinglv inaugurated as successor to Henry 
Dunster, the first president, on the ensuing 

29 Nov. Despite the poor stipend, irregu- 
larly paid, Chauncy continued in this post, 

Chauncy 170 Chauncy 

' a learned, laborious, and useful governor/ 
until his death, which occurred on 19 Feb. 
1672. He was buried at New Cambridge. 
Chauncy married at Ware on 17 March 1630 
Catherine, daughter of Robert Eyre, barrister- 
at-law , of Salisbury, Wiltshire. By her, who 

Hertfordshire, and Anne, daughter of Peter 
Parke of Tottenham, and great-nephew of 
Charles Chauncy the nonconformist [q. v.] 
He was educated at the high school, Bisnops 
Stortford, under Mr. Thomas Leigh, and 
admitted to Caius Collegpe, Cambridge, in 

died on 24 Jan. 1668, aged 66, he had six 1647. Two years afterwards he entered the 
sons, all bred to the ministry and graduates Middle Temple, and was called to the bar iu 
of Harvard, and two daughters. He was an 1656. In 1661 he was made justice of the 
admirable preacher, and in addition to a | peace for the county of Hertford, and in 167S 
single sermon printed in 1655, he published justice of the peace and chief burgess for the 
twenty-six sermons on * The Plain Doctrine borough of Hertford. In 1676 he became a 
of the Justification of a Sinner in the Sight bencher of the Middle Temple. He was the 
of God,' London, 1659, 4to. He also wrote ' last that held the title of steward of the 

* The Doctrine of the Sacrament, with the borough court, Hertford, being elected in 
right use thereof, catechetically handled by ! 1675, and in 1680, when Hertford obtained 
way of (juestion and answer,' 1642,and ' Anti- its charter, he became the first recorder. In 
synodalia Scripta Americana, or a proposal > 1681 he was made reader of the Middle 
of the judgment of the Dissenting Messengers Temnle, and in the same year was knighted 
of the Churches of New England assembled, i at Windsor Castle by Charles II. In 1685 he 
10 March 1662 ; ' both these works are ex- | was chosen treasurer of the Middle Temple, 
tremely rare. He contributed a poem to the and in 1688 he was called to the degree of 

* Lacrymse Cantabrigienses,' 1619, on the serjeant-at-law. The same year he was ap- 
death of Anne, queen of James I ; to the , pointed justice for the counties of Glamor- 
'Gratulatio Academifle Can tabrigiensis,' 1623, gan, Brecknock, and Radnor. He was thrice 
on the return of Charles from Spain ; to the | married : first, in 1657, to Jane, daughter of 

* Epithalamium,' 1624, on the marriage of Francis Flyer of Brent-Pelham, sheriff of 
Charles and Henrietta Maria; and to the Hertfordshire, by whom (d. 1672) he had 

* Cantabrigiensium Dolor & Solamen,' 1626, j seven children; secondly, to Elizabeth, daugh- 
on the death of James I and accession of ! ter and coheiress of Gregory Wood of Risby, 
Charles. He also delivered a Latin oration Suffolk, and relict of John Goulsmith of 
on 27 Feb. 1622, on the departure of the am- Stredset, Norfolk, who died in September 
bassadors from the king of Spain and the j 1677 ; and thirdly, to Elizabeth, daughter of 
archduchessof Austria, after their entertain- Nathaniel Thruston of Hoxne, Suffolk, by 
raent at Trinity College, which was pub- whom he had two children. 

lished the following year in * True Copies of ! His father died in 1681, and he succeeded 
all the Latine Orations made and pronounced to the rich family estates. He compiled the 
at Cambridge.' A brief* *E7rt/cpt<rtr' from his history of his ancestral county, which he 
pen was printed at the beginning of Leigh's published in a large folio volume of 620 
*Critica Sacra.' Among his earlier friends closely printed pages, entitled *The Histori- 
Chauncy numbered Archbishop Ussher. cal Antiquities oi Hertfordshire, with the 

[Clutterbuck'8Hertford8hire,ii.401,iii.307-8; Original of Counties, Hundreds, &c II- 

Savage's Genealog. Diet. i. 366-9 ; Fowler's Me- liistrated with a large Map of the County, a 
morials of the Chaunceys, pp. 1-37 ; Mathers Prospect of Hertford, and the Ichnography 
Ecclesiastical Hist. bk. iii. pp. 133-41 ; Wood's of St. Albans and Hitchin, &c.,' London, 
Fasti (Bliss), i. 391 ; Newcourt's Repertorium, 1700. This work shows indefatigable re- 
i. 904 ; Baker « Northamptonshire, i. 643 ; Cal. search, although pedantic in style. Only five 
State Papers, Dom. 1629-31, 1634-5, 1635-6, hundred copies were printed, and it has now 
1637 ; Rushworth's Hist. Coll. (1659-1701), pt. become highly valuable. The engravings are 
ii. vol. i. pp. 34, 316 ; Gartliner's Hist, of Eng- very curious. An analysis of the book is in 
laud. 1603-42, vin 116; Prynue's Canterbunes ' Savage's * Librarian' and Upcott's * English 
Doome, pp. 96 362, 494; Neals Hist. of the Topography.' Chauncy left many additions, 
Puntans u. 201 262 310-16; Brook^P^^^^ . ^^^^^ ^^/j^^^ Nathaniel Salmon incorpo^ 

m;™^ rL ?)?.? ^l '21 fi ^K V:il'« ii? n" ' rated in his ^ History of Hertfordshire,' L^nl 
mers s iJiog. JJict. ix. 216-18: Welch s Alumm , ttoq ri t lo.vr nc t» i J rn^^ 

We8tmon.(1852),p. 79; Allen's American Biog. *^<^?.» ^J^^^ ^^]: ^ ^P^ ^^-^ Mr Robert Clut- 

Dict. pp. 213-15 ; Wilson's Dissenting Churches, terouck published a new edition, entitled 

i. 289.1 G. G. History and Antiquities of the County of 

Hertford,' which includes additions by Mr. 

CHAUNCY, SiB HENRY (1632-1719), Blore. The Rev. Thomas Tipping of Arde- 

topographer, bom in London in 1632, was ley had a copy full of manuscript notes, which 

the son of Henry Chauncy of Yardley Bury, another hand had carried further down to 




1790. From this book Mr. John Edward 
Cussans has taken every note of value for his 
* History of Hertfordshire/ 3 vols. London, 
1870, fol. There is an exact reprint of the 
original work in two octavo volumes issued 
at Bishops Stortford by J. M. Mullin^r in 
1827. There are three interleaved folios in 
the British Museum (Add. MSS. 9062-4) en- 
titled * Chauncy and Salmon's History and 
Antiquities of Hertfordshire, illustratea with 
a great variety of Prints and Drawings, and 
some MS. Notes and Papers by the late 
Thomas Baskerfield, Esq.,' presented by Mrs. 
Baskerfield in 1832. Chauncy died at Yard- 
ley Bury (now called Ardeley) on 21 May 
1719, and is buried in the church there. 
Chauncy mentions in his preface that he was 
prevented from carrying out his original de- 
sign by having to spend money in resisting 
the ruinous machinations of a de^nerate 
member of his family and his malicious ac- 
complices. ITie reference is apparently to his 
grandson Henr\'. His son and heir, Henry, 
having died in 1703, this grandson succeeded 
in 1719 to the family estates, which he soon 
wasted and mortgaged, and died three years 
after without issue. Several books upon 
witchcraft which appeared in 1712 were oc- 
casioned by the apprehension, under Chaun- 
cy*s warrant, of an old woman, Jane Wenham 
of Walkern, for bewitching sheep and servant 
girls. She was found guilty at Hertford as- 
sizes and sentenced to death, but the queen 
grranted her a free pardon. 

[Chauncey's Historical Antiquities of Hert- 
fordshire, 1 700 ; Salmon's History of Hertford- 
shire, 1728; Clutterbuck's History and Antiqui- 
ties of the County of Hertford, 1815-27 ; Cu*- 
sans's Hertfordshire, i. pt. ii. 137, pt. iii. 87, 89 ; 
Savage's Librarian, i. 49-63 ; Upcott's English 
Topography, i. 333-8; Gough's British Topo- 
graphy, i. 419; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 132, iii. 
179; Nichols's Illust. iv. 79 ; Discovery of Sor- 
cery and Witchcraft, London, 1712.1 

J. W.-G. 

CHAUNCY, ISAAC (1082-1712), dis- 
senting minister, eldest son of Charles ■ 
Chauncy [q. v.], was bom on 23 Aug. and | 
baptised at \Vare, Hertfordshire, on 30 Aug. 
1632. He went as a child to New England 
with his father, and was ent-ered at Harvard 
in 1651, where he studied both theology 
and medicine, but, coming to England, com- 
pleted his education at Oxford, where he pro- 
ceeded M.A. Before 1660 he was given the 
rectory of Woodborough, Wiltshire, where 
he resided until ejected by the Act of Uni- 
formity in 1662. Thereupon he removed to 
Andover, Hampshire, where he took charge 
of a congregational churck On 5 July 1669 
he was admitted an extra-licentiate of the 

College of Physicians. * Having,* says Calamy, 

* quitted Andover some time after the re- 
calling of Charleses Indulgence, he came to 
London with a design to act chiefly as a phy- 
sician ' {Nonconf, Memorial^ ed. Palmer, iii. 
380-1). On 30 Sept. 1687 he was induced 
to accept the pastorate of an independent 
meeting-house in Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, 
over which he presided for fourteen years. 
Chauncy, although a learned man, was not 
a popular preacher, and being somewhat bi- 
goted, he so tormented his hearers with in- 
cessant declamations on church government 
' that they left him * (Chalmers, Biog, Diet. 
ix. 218 71.) He therefore resigned his charge 
on 15 ApriJ 1701, and was succeeded by Isaac 
Watts, who had been his assistant for two 
years previously. During the whole period 
of his ministry he had also practised medi- 
cine. He afterwards became divinity tutor 
to the newly founded Dissenting Academy 
in London, an oflSce which he held until his 
death. Chauncv died at his house in Little 
Moorfields on 28 Feb. 1712. By his w^ife, 
Jane, he had three sons and a daughter. 
Chauncy was a voluminous author. Besides 
a ])refatory epistle to Clarkson's * Primitive 
Episcopacy,' 1688, and an edition of Owen's 

* Gospel Grounds,* 1 709, he published : L * The 
Catholic Hierarchy,' 1081. 2. 'A Theolo- 
gical Dialogue, containing a Defence and Jus- 
tification of Dr. John Owen from the forty- 
two errors charged upon liim by Mr. Richard 
Baxter,' 1684. 3. ' The Second Part of the 
Theological Dialogue, being a rejoinder to 
Mr. Richard Baxter,' 1684. 4. *The Un- 
reasonableness of compelling Men to go to 
the Holy Supper,' 1684. 6. * Ecclesia Enu- 
cleata : the Temple opened, or a clear demon- 
stration of the True Gospel Church,' 1684. 

6. * The Literest of Churches, or a Scripture 
Plea for Steadfastness in Gospel Order,' 1690. 

7. 'Ecclesiast icon , or a plain and famil iar Chris- 
tian Conference concerning Gospel Church 
and Order,' 1690. 8. * Examen Confectionis 
PacificiB, or a Friendly Examination of the 
Pacific Paper.' [By I. C], 1692. 9. ' Neo- 
nomianism unmasked ; or the Ancient Gos- 
pel pleaded against the other, called a New 
Law, or Gospel, &c.,' three parts, 1692-3. 
10. * A Rejoynder to Mr. D. Williams, his 
reply to the first part, of Neonomianism un- 
maskt, &c.,' 1693. 11. * A Discourse con- 
cerning Unction and Washing of Feet, &c.,' 
1697. 12. ' The Divine Institution of Con- 
gregational Churches, Ministry, and Ordi- 
nances, &c.,* 1697. 13. * An Essay to the 
Interpretation of the Angel Gabriel's Pro- 
phesy deliver'd by the Prophet Daniel, chap. 
IX. 24,' 1699. 14. * Christ's Ascension to fill 
all things ... a sermon [on Eph. iv. 10],' 

Chauncy 172 Chauncy 

1699. 15. ' Alexipharmacon ; orafreeh Anti- , turned to Bruges in 1559, and remained in 
dote against Neonomian Bane and Poyson to ' the Flemish monastery of Carthusians, till 
the Protestant Religion, &c.,* 1700. 16. *The in 1569 they obtained a house of their own 
Doctrine which is according to Godliness, in the street St. Clare. They were obliged 
Ac. * [ 1700 ?] (another edition, 1737). to leave Bruges in April 1578, in consequence 

[Savage's Genealog. Diet. i. 368; Fowler's of the tumufts raiseS by the Calvinists, and 
Memorials of the cSunceys, pp. 46-8 ; Munk's ^^^^ expenencine^ various vicissitudwi, they 
Coll. of Phys. (1878), i. 416-16: Wilson's Dis- arrived in July the same year at the Car- 
senting Churches, i. 289-91 ; WUl reg. in P.C.C. , thusian convent at Louvam, where thev were 
46, Barnes.] G. G. received and lodged by order of Don John of 

' Austria. The prior. Father Chauncy, died at 

CHAUNCY, MAURICE {d. 1581), Car- Bruges on 12 July (O. S.) 1581. It may be 
thusian monk, whose surname is foimd under added that the community removed irom 
the forms of Chamney, Chawney, Chancy, Louvain to Antwerp (1590), and thence to 
Channy,Cheiive,Chasee,andChawsey,wastne Mechlin (1591), where they resided till 1626, 
eldest son of John Chauncy, esq., of Ardeley, when they settled at Nieuport. Here they 
Hertfordshire, by his first wife, Elizabeth, ' remained till their final suppression by the 
widow of Richard Manfield, and daughter and emperor, Joseph II, in 1783. This was the 
heiress of John Proffit of Barcomb, Sussex. He only community of religious men which had 
received his education at Oxford, and Wood continued without dispersion from the reign 
conjectures that he prosecuted his studies of Queen Mary. 

* in an ancient place of literature near to | Chauncy was the author of ' Historia all- 
London college, alias Bumell's Inn,' in that quot nostri sieculi Martyrum cum pia, turn 
university. He next proceeded to Cray's Inn jucunda, nunquam antehac typis excusa,' 
to study the common law. There he led a ; Mentz, 1550, 4to (anon.), reprinted at Bruges 
life of pleasure with some jovial companions 1583, 8vo. This second edition has a preface 
until he was sharply reproved by his father ' written by Theotonius&Bragan9a, archbishop 
for his conduct, when he laid aside his gay of Evora in Portugal. The book contains the 
apparel and assumed the habit of a monk in ' epitaph of Sir Thomas More ; the captivity 
the London Charterhouse. In 1535, when ! and martyrdom of John Fisher, bisnop of 
the monks were ordered to take the oath ac- i Rochester ; the captivity and martjrrdom of 
knowledgin^ the kinc^'s supremacy, most of Sir T. More ; the martyrdom of Reynold Bri- 
the Curthusians stood firm in tlieir refusal, \ gitt, a pious divine, and of others ; and the 
and eighteen of them suffered martyrdom in i passion of eighteen Carthusians of London, 
consequence, but Chauncy did not share the | The autograph manuscript of the last four trea- 
constancy of his brethren, and reluctantly , tises was formerly in the possession of More, 
consented to take the oath. Finally, on bishop of Ely, and is now preserved in the 
10 June 1537 Prior Trafford and sixteen | Cambridge University Library, Ff. iv. 23. 
monks, including Chauncy, surrendered their j The last part, illustrated with copper-plate 
possessions into the king's hands, when the engravings, was reprinted under the title of 
prior received of his majesty's ' mercy and | * Commentariolus de vitte ratione et martyrio 
grace ' a pension of 20/. and the monks an ' octodecim Cartusianorum qui in Anglia sub 
annual pension of 5/. apiece. Chauncy's , Rege trucidati sunt,' Ghent, 1608, 8vo ; and 
name is not found in the list of those who ' with a slightly different title-page, and more 
on this occusion signed the oath of the king's 1 prefatory matter, Wiirzburg,lo08,8vo. Tan- 
supremacy, but ho acknowledges that he was ner mentions an edition printed at CJologne in 

Chauncy revised and made some additions 
to Peter Sutor's * Vita Carthusiana,' Louvain, 

weak enough to take it, though against his 

Chauncy was allowed to leave England, 
and retired to Flanders, where he became as- | 1572, 8vo. Wood ascribes to him ' A Book 
sociated with the Carthusians, who on being , of Contemplacyon, the whiche is clepyd the 
ex])elle(l from the monastery of Shene in ' Clowde of Unknowyng' {Harl. MSS. 074, 
Surr(»y had settled at Bruges. In Queen i art. 4, and 959) ; but this is no doubt the 
M arys reign Chauncy left that city w ith seve- i production of a much earlier writer. The 
ral other monks, and came to London in June , same remark applies to * The Book of Prive 
1555. InNovember 1556 they recovered their Counseling' (Harl. MS. 074, art. 5), the au- 
anciont monastery at Shene, and Chauncy i thorship of which is likewise ascribed by 
was made prior. On the accession of Queen , Wood to Prior Chauncy. 
Elizabeth they were permitted to quit the | Sir Henry Chauncy [q. v.], the historian of 
kingdom unmolested, being in number fifteen Hertfordshire, was descended from Maurice 
monks and three lay-brothers. They re- Chauncy's younger brother Henry. 




[Addit. MS. 9062, f. 64 6 ; Knox s Letters and 
Memorials of Card. Allen, 31, 37; Aungier's 
Hist, of Syon Monastery, 438 ; Bale, Script. Brit. 
Cat. i. 713; Bancroft's Account of T. Sutton, 
261-3 ; Cat. of MSS. in Camb. Univ. Lib. ii. 467 ; 
Cat. Librorum Impress. Bibl. BodL ( 1 843), i. 505 ; 
Chauncys Hertfordshire (1826), i. 116, 117, 121 ; 
Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, ii. 401 ; MS. Cotton. 
Cleop. E. iv. f. 247 ; Dodd's Church Hist. i. 527 ; 
Diaries of the Engl. Coll. Douay, 126, 156, 180, 
301 ; FroudesHi8t.ofEngland,ii. 343-62; Bibl. 
Grenrilliana, i. 444 ; Husenbeth's Colleges and , 
Convents on the Continent, 36. 37 ; Morris's 
Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, 1st series, 
9, 13, 15, 24, 25 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd series, 
xii. 226 ; Petreius, Bibl. Cartusiana, 245 ; Pit«, 
De Anglise Scriptoribus, 775 ; Rymer's Foedera 
(1712), xiv. 491, 492; Strype's Memorials, fol. 
i. 199; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 166; Wood's Athonae 
Oxon. (Bliss), i. 459.] T. C. 

CHAVASSE, WILLIAM (1785-1814), 
an oHicer in the East India Company's ser- 
vice, attempted, in conjunction with a bro- '• 
ther officer, Captain Macdonald, to explore in 
1814 the route traversed by the ten thousand 
under Xenophon. They penetrated as far as 
Ingra, near Bagdad, where they were cap- 
tured by a Kurdish chieftain and imprisoned 
in a dungeon. They obtained their liberty 
by the payment of eight hundred piastres, 
but Chavasse was seized with brain fever 
and died. He was buried near Bagdad. 

[Gent. Mag. Ixxxiv. pt. ii. 498.] J. M. R. 

1674 ?). [See Chedset.] 

CHEAPE, DOUGLAS (1797-1861), ad- 
vocate and author, younger son of John 
Cheape of Rossie, Fifeshire, was bom in 1797. 
Sir John Cheape [q. v.] was his elder brother. 
He studied law, and was admitted a member 
of the Faculty of Advocates, Edinburgh. In 
1827 he was appointed professor of civil law in 
the university. This appointment he resigned 
in 1842, owing to 'domestic circumstances,' 
when the faculty recorded * their hij^h sense 
of the veiT able and efficient manner in which 
he had discharged the duties of the chair.' 
He introduced some useful reforms, the chief 
of which was the substitution of English for 
Latin in the class examinations ; but nis only 

Sublication on the subject was his 'Intro- 
uctory Lecture on the Civil Law,' delivered 
in the university of Edinburgh (Edinburgh, 
1827). He was engaged for the pursuer in 
a famous case, Southgate and Mandatory v, 
Montgomery, on which he wrote a once well- 
known squib called 'Res Judicata.' This 
with some other contributions of a like na- 
ture was published in the ' Court of Session 
Garland '(with Appendijc, Edinburgh, 1889). 

Other sauibs of his were * The Book of the 
Chronicles of the City ; being a Scriptural ac- 
count of the Election of a member for the 
City of Edinburgh in May 1834 ' (manuscript 
prefatory note to Museum copy), and (pro- 
bably) * La festa d'Overgroghi ' (viz. Over 
Gogar, near Edinburgh), a burlesaue opera in 
Italian and English. Cheape died at Trinity 
Grove, Trinity, near Edinburgh, 1 Sept. 1861. 
He married in 1837 Ann, daughter of General 
Rose of Holme, Nairnshire. 

[Grant's Story of the University of Edinburgh, 
1884; Irving's Book of Scotsmen; Scotsman, 
3 Sept. 1861 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. iv. 
236 ; Blackwood's Mag. January 1871, pp. 111- 
112; Brit. Mus. Cat.; information from J. R. 
Stewart, esq., of Edinburgh.] F. W-t. 

CHEAPE, Sib JOHN (1792-1876), 
general, son of John Cheape of Rossie, Fife- 
shire, was bom in 1792. He was educated 
at Woolwich and Addiscombe, and entered 
the Bengal engineers as a second lieutenant 
on 3 Nov. 1809. He first served in Lord 
Hastings's two campaigns against the Pin- 
darrees, and was present at the sieges of 
Dhamouni and Mondela in 1815 and 1816. 
He next served with the Nerbudda field force 
under General Adams in 1817, and under 
Sir John Doveton and Sir John Malcolm 
in 1818, and was present at the siege of 
Asseerghur, aft^r which he was promoted 
captain on 1 March 1821. In 1824 he was 
ordered to Burmah, and served through the 
I three deadly campaigns of the first Burmese 
war. For more than twenty years aft^r the 
conclusion of the Burmese war he had no 
opportunity of going on active service, but 
was employed in civil engineering. His pro- 
motion, however, went on, and he became 
major in 1830, lieutenant-colonel in 1834, 
and colonel in 1844. In 1848 Cheape hap- 
pened to be employed in the Punjab when 
the siege of Mooltan was determined upon ; 
he was at once appointed chief engineer, and 
conducted the operations which led to the 
fall of that fortress. He then joined the 
army under Lord Gough, and though an en- 
gineer officer and chief engineer with the 
army, it was Cheape who directed the mur- 
derous artillery fire which won the battle of 
Goojerat. Lord Gough mentioned his ser- 
vices in his despatches, and Cheape was made 
a C.B. and an aide-de-camp to the queen. 
When the second Burmese war broke out in 
1852, Cheape was made a brigadier-general 
and appointed second in command to General 
Godwin. As in the first Burmese war, the 
fatal mistiLke of despising their enemy led 
the English commanders into great straits, 
and the origand chief Myat-thoon inflicted aa 




severe defeats and menaced the English as 
seriously as Maha Bundoola had done in the 
first Burmese war. Just as in the first war 
General Cotton failed in his attack on Dona- 
bew, so did General Steel in this second war 
fail at the same place, and in February 1853 
Cheapetook the command and inyaded Pegu. 
He was as successful as General Campbell 
in the first war, and though Ensign Garnet ' 
Wolseley of the 80th regiment, who led the 
storming party, was wounded, the stockade 
was carried. With this success the war was 
at an end, and the provinces of Pegu and j 
Tenasserim were annexed to the territories 
of the East India Company. Cheape was pro- 
moted major-general on 20 June 1854, re- 
ceived a medal and clasp, and was made a 
K.C.B., and he then left India after a service 1 
of forty-six years. He established himself in 
the Isle of Wight, and after being promoted 
lieutenant-general on 24 May 1859, and gene- | 
ral on 6 Dec. 1866, and being made a G.C.B. 
in 1865, he died at Old Park, Ventnor, on 
30 March 1875. He married in 1835 Amelia, 
daughter of T. Chicheley Plowden of the 
Beng^ civil service. 

[Laurie's Second Burmese War, 1852-3 ; Marsh- 
man's Hist, of India, chap. xl. ; Major Siddons's 
Siege of Mooltan ; Sir Herbert Edwardes's Nar- 
rative of the Campaign; Homeward Mail, 
25 March 1878 ; private information supplied 
by Major-general Bamett Ford and J. R. Stewart, [ 
esq., of Edinburgh.] H. M. S. 

CHEBHAM, THOLVS de. [See Chab- 


D.D. (1510 P-1574?), divine, was a native of 
Somersetshire. He was admitted a scholar 
of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 10 March 
1528, was elected a probationer fellow of 
that society on 13 Oct. 1531, and two vears 
later a complete fellow. He graduat^id M.A. 
in 1534, B.D. in 1542, and D.D. in 1546, 
having about that time subscribed the thirty- 
four articles. He became chaplain to Bonner, 
bishop of London, who highly esteemed him 
on account of liis learning and zeal for the 
catholic religion, and who collated him on 

9 July 1548 to the prebend of Twyford in 
the church of St. Paul. In 1549 he distin- 
guished himself in a public disputation with 
Peter Martyr, held m the divinity school 
at Oxford. After the disgrace of the Duke 
of Somerset, Chedsey inveighed openly at 
Oxford against the reformed doctrmes, and 
in consequence was, by an order in council of 

10 Marct 1550-1, committed to the Mar- 
shalsea for seditious preaching, and there he 
was imprisoned till 11 Nov. 1551, when he 
was removed to the house of the Bishop of 

Ely, * where he enjoyed his table and easier 

On the accession of Queen Mary he re- 
gained his liberty and received several marks 
of the royal favour. He was presented by 
the queen to the living of All Saints, Bread 
Street, London, on 2 April 1554 (Rtxeb, 
Fcedera, xv. 382, ed. 1713) ; a few days later 
Bonner collated him to the prebend of Chis- 
wick in the church of St. Paul; and by 
letters patent, dated 4 Oct. the same year, he 
was appointed a canon of the collegiate chapel 
of St. George at Windsor. 

On 28 Nov. 1554 the lord mayor and alder- 
men in scarlet, and the commons in their 
liveries, assembled in St. Paul's, where Ched- 
sey preached in the presence of the Bishop of 
Lonaon and nine other prelates, and read a 
letter from the queen's council, directing the 
Bishop of London to cause * Te Deum ' to be 
sung in all the churches of his diocese, with 
continual prayers for the queen, who had 
conceived and was quick with child. When 
the letter had been read, Chedsey began his 
sermon with the antiphon, ' Ne timeas,ld!aria, 
invenisti enim gratiam apud Deum.' At its 
close ' Te Deum ' was sung and solemn pro- 
cession was made of * Salve fest« dies,' all the 
circuit of the church (Stow, Annates, 625, 
ed. 1615). On 10 Oct. 1556 he was collated 
to the archdeaconry of Middlesex, and by 
letters patent, 18 June 1557, he was nomi- 
nated by the king and queen to a canonry of 
Christ Church, Oxford (Rtmer, FoRdera, xv. 
467). Writing to Bonner from Colchester, 
21 April 1558, he says that he had just re- 
ceived letters by a pursuivant, directed to 
himself alone, requiring him to appear ' in- 
delayedly ' before the council. lie remarks 
that he and the other commissioners were 
engaged in the examination of such obstinate 
heretiks, anabaptists, and other unruly par- 
sons, how as never was harde of;' ana he 
urges that if they were to leave off in the 
midst of their labours his own estimation and 
the wisdom of the commissioners would be 
for ever lost (Harleian MS. 416, f. 74). On 
the 5th of the following month he was ad- 
mitted to the vicarage of Shottesbroke, then in 
the diocese of Salisbury, on the presentation of 
King^ Philip and Queen Mary {Kennett MSS. 
xlvii. 3, citing Reg. Pole, 43). He was ad- 
mitted president of Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, on 15 Sept. 1558, but was removed 
from that office in the next year by the com- 
missioners sent by Queen Elizabeth to visit 
the university. In 1559 he was one of the 
eight catholic divines who were summoned to 
Westminster to dispute with a like number 
of protestant champions before a great as- 
sembly of the nobility (Stbtpe, .^Inna/^, 1.87, 

died worth 175 Ched worth 

folio). At length he was deprived of all his 
preferments on account of recusancy, and com- 
mitted a prisoner to the Fleet in London. 
He appears to have been living in 1674. 

W^ood says * he was by the protestants ac- 
counted a very mutable and unconstant man 
in his religion, but by the Roman catholics 

worth was selected to succeed him as the se- 
cond provost of the society (1446). He is 
said by Godwin to have exercised his office 
as head of the new college * strenuously.* In 
addition to his Cambridge appointment, Ched- 
worth held the office of archdeacon of Wilt- 
shire (1449), having previously held in succes- 

not ; but rather a great stickler for their re- sion the stalls of Yatesbury (1440), Stratford 
ligion, and the chief prop in his time in the (1443), Netherbury (1445), and Hurstbom 
university for the cause, as^it appeared not ; (1447), all in Salisbury Cathedral. He also 
only in his opposition of P. Martyr, but of I had a prebend at Lincoln, and was incum- 
the three bishops that were burnt in Oxon,' bent of the living of Stoke Hammond in 
i.e. Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer. Leland Buckinghamshire. As provost of King's, 
describes him as * Cheadseyus resonae scholae Chedworth was no doubt under the special 
columna ' {KvKV€tov 'Aur/io, 22, ed. 1668). attention and regard of the king, and that 

He was the author of: 1. *A Sermon Henry's judgment of him continued to be 
preached a^St. PauVs Cross 16 Nov. 1643 i favourable was shown by his recommending 
on Matthew xxli. 16,' and printed in 1644. him to the Lincoln chapter for election as 
2. ' Replies in the Disputations held with , bishop on the death of Marmaduke Lumley 
Peter Martyr at Oxford in 1649,' Harl. MS. \ (1461). The chapter at once elected him, 
422, f. 17 ; Sloan. MS. 1676; MS. Corp. Christi and this was signified to the pope by a letter 
Coll. Oxon. 266, f. 166. An account of the from the king (11 Feb. 1462), in which he 
disputations was printed in Latin at London, prays the pope for the confirmation of the 
1549, 4to, and in Peter Martyr's Works. An election. Henry usually prayed the pope in 
English translation also appeared. 3. Re- , the first instance to 'provide' the bishop, 
plies in disputations with Philpot, Cranmer, mentioning the name of the man whom he 
Kidley, and other protestant martyrs. Printed desired, and then the election by the chapter 
in Foxe's * Acts and Monuments. would follow. William Gray, archdeacon of 

[Ames's Tj'pogr. Antiq. (Herbert), 1656 ; Ays- , Northampton, and nephew of a former bishop 
cough's Cat. of MSS., 47 ; Coxe's Cat. Codd. I of Lincoln, had been already ' provnded. 
MSS. in Collegiis Aulisque Oxon. ii. 108 ; Gran- Some report of this probably induced Henry 
mer's Works (Cox), ii. 383, 445, 653; Dodd's to anply first to the chapter; but the pope 
Church Hist. i. 609 ; Foxe's Acts and Monuments (Nicholas V) was of a conciliatory spirit, and 
(Townsend); Fuller's Church Hist. (Brewer), iii. cancelled his appointment of Gray, and by 
16, iv. 276 ; Jewel's Works (Ayre), iv. introd. letters dated 6 May 1462 confirmed Ched- 
p. viii, 1199, 1200 ; Lansdowne MS. 981, ff. 3, 4; worth as bishop of Lincoln. Gray was soon 
Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), ii. 330, 443, 627, iii. 394, afterwards appointed bishop of Ely. One of 
666 ; Newcourf 8 Repertormm, i. 218, 246 ; Phil- ^he earliest acts which Chedworth was called 

Tanners cibi. ririt. 171 ; wooas Atnenae Uxon. ^ xn-i *^ 1 t^- , /> i, j ^ , 

(Bliss), i.322; Wood's Annals of Oxford (Gutch), ^^ J'^,'^ *^? Kings CoUeges, and to make 
ii. 93,99, 126, 142; Zurich Letters, i. 11.1 such alterations as the experience which had 

T. C. ! "^^^ gained in the working of the mstitutions 

suggested. The record of the visitation is in 

CHEDWORTH, JOHN (d. 1471), bishop the bishop's register. Chedworth was one of 
of Lincoln, by birth a Gloucestershire man, the three assessors appointed by the convo- 
was educated at Merton College, Oxford, cation to conduct the trial of Reginald Pe- 
The time of the completion of Chedworth's cock,bi8hopof Chichester, for heresy in 1467. 
education was coincident with the esta- ' The attack on Pec©ck was mainly due to the 
blishment of Henry VI's grand foundations Yorkist lords, wh/i feared his exposing their 
of Eton and King's College, Cambridge, machinations ; biit he had also angered the 
Of this latter society Chedworth became j clergy, principstlly, it seems, by publishing 
a fellow at the second election of fellows, books in English, and by advocating the 
Here he gained the goodwill of his brethren meeting of the Lollards in argument rather 

by the statutes of the college, which had I Chedworth was much engaged throughout 
been settled by the king and Bishop A.ln- his episcopate in combating the Lollard opi- 
wick, with the approval of the pope, Ohed- nions, and his register is fuB of records of the 

Chedworth 176 Cheere 

proceedings against them which are not men- succeeded in establishing a reputation as the 

tioned by Foxe. For the most part the ac- principal statuary in the rather debased style 

cused persons abjure, and have appointed to of the age in which he lived. He worked in 

them a penance, including a ])ublic recanta- marble, bronze, and lead ; in the latter he 

t ion at the market-place and in church. In executed numerous copies of well-kno^Ti 

one instance the offender is given over to the statues and other ornaments, to meet the 

secular arm to be burned. Among the of- fashion of garden-decoration which was then 

fences charged we find the possession of Eng- in vogue. He had a large practice in fu- 

lish books, and the being acriuaintcd with neral monuments, and executed those of 

St. PauFs Epistles in English. The great Sir Edmund Prideaux; Dr. Samuel Bradford, 

jstrongholds of the I^Uaras appear to have bishop of Rochester; Admiral Sir Thomas 

b«'n Henk'y, Great Mario w, and especially Hardy ; John Conduitt, master of the mint ; 

Wycombe, and many curious details as to Dr. Hugh Boulter, bishop of Bristol and 

their opinions are noted. In the year 1467 archbishop of Armagh ; Captain Philip de 

Chedworth repn^sented the crown at the Sausmarez; Sir John Chardin, hart., the 

opening of parliament in the absence of the younger (to whom Cheere seems to have 

cnancellor, George, archbishop of York. It been related) ; and Joseph Wilcocks, bishop 

was usual on these occasions for the chancel- of Rochester, all of these being in West- 

lor to deliver a sort of sermon to parliament, minster Abbey ; also the monuments of Sir 

but there is no record of this being done by William Pole, master of the household to 

Chedworth ; he merely performed the formal Queen Anne, in Shute Church, Devonshire, 

acts necessary (Hot. FarL v. 571). It would a full-length statue in court dress, for which 

ai)pear from the selection of the bishop for he received 317/.; of Robert Davies of Llan- 

this office that he was now a partisan of erch, in Mold Church, Flintshire, a fuU- 

the Yorkist dynasty, and had forgotten his length statue in Roman dress; of Susanna, 

old obligations to the Lancastrian king, daughter and heiress of Sir Dalby Thomas, 

Chedworth died on 23 Nov. 1471, and was in Hampton Church, Middlesex ; and of 
buried in Lincoln Cathedral, near to the , Bishop Willis, in Winchester Cathedral. He 
tombs of Bishops Sutton and Fleming. He ! was also the sculptor of the equestrian statue 

appears to have resided principally at Wo- of the Duke of Cumberland which formerly 

bum Manor in Buckinghamshire. stood in Cavendish Square. At Wallington 

[Registrum Joannis Chedworth, MS. Lincoln; 
ArnalesWillelnii AVyrcester (Stephenson's Wars 
in France, vol. li. Rolls Ser.) : Loci e Libio veri- 

House, Northumberland, there is a large and 
elaborate chimney-piece by him, and another 
one also attributed to him. Cheere was em- 

tat um (ed. Koger.s); Godwin, De Praesulil/us; ployed by the fellows of All Souls* College, 

Rotiili Parliament i, vol. v.] G. G. P. 

Oxford, as the first statuary of the time, to 

r«Tx-cT\Ti7/M>rr-Lr t ^«tv /t-k i 1 QA *\ re execute the statue of Christopher Codrington 
How™S ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^'"^ [^:-^-^ ^" '^^ Codrington Library at that 

CHEEKE, WILLIAM (/. 161 3), scholar. 

college, and was further employed on the 
twenty-four busts of former fellows of the 

lihhed certain matters.' The only book of Green Park, and he is alluded to as the 
his extant is a very singular series of Latin , * man from Hyde Park Corner ' in Colman 
and Greek anagrams and chronograms, ad- I and Garrick's comedy of the * Clandestine 
dressed to James I and his sons, and son-in- i Marriage.' He seems to have lived in Old 
law, the Elector Frederick. Its title runs: I Palace Yard, Westminster, and to have oc- 

The dedication is signed * Gulielnio Checo I Free Fish Market in Westminster, and in 
Durobrige.' Wood states that Cheeke called : 1760 he was chosen on behalf of the county 
himself * Austro-Britannus.' of Middlesex to prest»nt a congratulatory ad- 

[Woo^'s Athenae Oxon." (Bliss), ii. 143; Brit. 

dress to the king on his accession. On that 

Mus Cut 1 ' S L L i <^ccasion ho received the honour of knight- 

* ' * ' hood, and in 1766 he was advanced to the 

CHEERE, Sir HENRY (1703-1781), dignityof a baronet. In 1750 he was elected 

statuary, was probably the son of John and ' a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and 

Sarah Cheere of CI apham in Surrey. He was ' in 1755 was one of the comniittee of artists 

a pupil of Peter Scheemakers, and rapidly j who originated the scheme for the foundation 

Cheesman 177 Chefer 

of an academy of arts ; in 1757 lie pro- | Artists, in 1834, when he lived at No. 2S 

ment of Artfl to decide on the two first pre- , before letter is in the British Museum) ; 

Koubiliac laid the foundation of a fame which Guercino (engraved in conjunction with P. 
has eclipsed that of his master. Tyers, W. Tomkins) ; * Venus,* after Titian ; por- 
the proprietor of Vauxhall Gardens, con- traits of G. dolman, sen., after P. de Louth- 

sulted Uheere as to the advisability of em- 
ploying statues to decorate the gardens. 
Checre suggested a statue of Handel, and, 

erbourg ; G* Colman, jun., after De Wilde ; 
Lady Hamilton, after G. Romney ; a son of 
the late Lord Hugh Seymour, after R. Cos- 

there being some difficulty as to expense, way ; Mrs. Powell, Mrs. Sharpe, Mrs. Gilles, 
introduced Roubiliac as a young foreigner 1 Mr. Fawcett, Madame Catalani, &c. To 
likely to do it on moderate terms. Tliis | these may be added * Spring and Summer,* 
statue, finished in 1738, first brought Rou- ■ * Plenty,* * Erminia,* * Nymphs Bathing,* &c. 
biliac into notice. Cheere died in West- [Redgrave's Diet, of Artists, 1878; manuscript 
minster on 15 Jan. 1/81, aged 7/, and was , ^^tes in the British Museum.] L. F. 

buried with his wife at Clapham. He mar- , 

ried before 1730 Helen, daughter of Sai.- , cHEPER or CHEFFER, RICHARD 
yigmon Randall, who d.ed on 25 Oct 1/60. theologian, was an Augustinian 

He Ieft8uryivingtwo8on8,ofwhom Wdham ^f ^ author of the foUowing works: 

succeeded to the baronetcy, and took holy . c? i ^ * « m rk« ««4.;,.:*„*5 ra,-:«*; 

orders- i- o-v.i>.Jto,l \^ l7Qft a Ur.A.n.^ nf ' Sermoncs clegautcs, ' De nativitate Chnsti 

ers; he exhibited in 1798 a landscape at ,.? • ,iT\ * ' •« -^-^ lu • > j 
a.1 T> 1 \ J en\ • «.> liber i.,*De quatuor novissimis liberi.,' and 

the Royal Academy, was governor of Christ's , p^n Ji^^^. ^i^-eB * These particulars were 

Hospital and other public institutions, and ^ i ^^l'"^"^?? Lio * ff I?:^!f;^^^ 

J. / 1 1 1 Aq T? V lono 4. Mru-i. taken bv Bishop Bale, * ex reliquiis inomse 

died a bachelor on 58 Feb. 1808 at White Q^g^/e' (seeL manuscript note-book in 
Roding, Essex, leaving a large f?rtune to ^ 3^, A j i^ ^ ^1^ g^ 

his two nieces, the daughters of his brother i icnT t\ x^ • V ^ ♦i^^^ • *« ♦!. 

Charles, who had prede^ased him. One of '• ^^ .*>> % ^°^'^} gp.^tlf""'. «»». *!»« 

these ladies marrieS in 1789 Charles Madryll po.ssessjon of whose &m.^y the j^U|f"8t«ian 

of Papworth Hall, Cambridgeshire, who L P"«r7 "i **»* 7*^ ^r.^ttw^^, Ir 
sumel the name if Cheere on the death of , '^^ ^l^^'}^'Zf!■''^Af^^^^J^'.^^^f^f 
Sir WilliamCheere, with whom thebaronetcy ^'"■f'>"'> "• ^^{ l^f^' Hence^pparently, 
exnired John Cheere brother of Sir Henrv '^'^ * natural inference that Chefer was a 
was also a statuary, and probably a partnS ^^^^F t^^^'l^^'^j.^^t^l^^^^^^ 
in his brother's works. ?^'- T' ^'t?* S ?2* He is further said to 

have been a Norfolk man, and it is presumed 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of English Artists ; i ^^liat he studied for some years at Cambridge ; 

Notes and Queries, 4th ser. vi. 625, vii. 46, 6th ^ |^^^ ^^i^ th^ge statements seem to be con- 

f/A"n ^I' ii'- ^?^i.n .^^'i^flr^^^i^T^'janfl jectural, and it is probably only the titles of 
340; Gent. Mag. 1760 p. 691 1781 p 47, 1808 ^j ]^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 1^^ \-^ biographers to 

S;wt^s'^onh^i:^W'A^^^^^^ ' <le-ibe Jiim as an industrious sfuZ^^^ aud 

of British Art; Chester's Registers of West- ■ » powerful preacher. How little is re^ly 
minster Abbey ; Miss Bradley's Popular Guide ' known of him appears from the fact that 
to Westminster Abbey ; Clapham Registers, &c., Bale placed him in the reip of Henry IVy 
per Rev. C. C. Mills ; information from Rev. while Pits (De Anglta Scrtptonbus, pp. 479, 
Edward Cheere and Mr. C. R. L. Fletcher, fellow 480) states that he flourished in 1364, and 
of All Souls.] L. C. Pamphilus (Citron. Ord. Fratr. Eremit. S. 

August., f. 70 b, Rome, 1581), who (like Pits) 

CHEESMAN, THOMAS (1760-1835?), i? other respects depends wholly on Bale, 

engraver and draughtsman, was bom in 1760, g;X^«,*te ^^^ ^? ^^^V^ ^\^Ti^ T^ 

and IS recogmsed as one 

of Francesco Bartolozzi 

manner (dotted) he engxav^u. *« xi*/w "« ,,, - . , . -lerkc i. v. • i -i 

resided at No. 40 Oxfo^ Street, and after- ' Monasticon,' vi. 1596, where he is also said 

wards changed his address to No. 71 Newman *<> ^*^« ^"^ V^ot of his house. The true 

Street. His name occurs for the last time, date remains unknown, 

as an exhibitor to the Society of British [Authorities cited aboye.] R. L. P. 

VOL. X. ' N 

Cheke 178 Cheke 

0HEKE,IIENRY(lo48?-ir>86?'),trans- which pretendeth holiness only for ffain.' 
lator, eldest 8on of SirJolin Cheke [q. v.] and The play is in five acts. The original, en- 
Mary liis wife, was bom about 1548. AfVer ' titled *Tragedia del Libera Arbitrio,* 1546, 

bright, as his father, who died when he was Sir J. Cheke; Cooper's Athenre Cantab, ii. 9; 
about nine years of age, left him land worth Chocke's Trngcdie in the Library of the British 
two hundnnl marks a year burdened with , Museum; LanglMiine's English Dramatic Poets, 
debts of a thousand marlcs. However, Cecil 161; Halliwell-Phillipps'sCatalogueof OldEng- 
was his uncle,and,in answerto aGreekletter lisli l^l^ys, 103; Ames's Typogr. Autiq. (Hei^ 
Cheke \\Tote him when he was about fifteen, ^e«), 1688; puj-dale's Baronage, ii. 289; Ly- 
promised to do wliat he could to hel]) him. «*^°«» IkKlfordshire, 143.] W. H. 
His life at Cambridge was studious, and in CHEKE, Sib JOIIX (1514-1557), tutor 
1568, when he was scarcely twenty, the uni- to Edward VI, secretary of state, and one 

^ , against 

living at Elstow in the same county. His the Market cross,* on 16 June 1514. The 
means were narrow, and he was indebted to house in which he was bom is supposed to 
friends for help. In 1574 he was living at have been that which stands at the comer of 
Wintney, llam])shire, and in 1575 at Bear in the Market hill and Petty Cury. His father, 
the same county. During 1575-6 he travelltnl Peter Cheke, one of the esquire-bedels of the 
on the continent, chiefly in Italy. (.)n his university, was descended from the ancient 
return to England he resided at Ockham, family of the Chekes of Motston in the Isle 
Surrey. He attended the court in the hope of Wight, and settled at Cambridge on marry- 
of obtaining place, and solicited his uncle the ing Agnes Dufibrd of the county of Cam- 
treasurer to give him some ofiice. At last, bridge, who is styled by Roger Ascham, in 
in 1581, he was appointed secretary- to the one of his epistles, a ' venerable woman,' and 
council of the north, and in 1584 was elected who sold wme in St. Mary's parish (Bakeb, 
member for IWoughbridge, Yorkshire. He Hi^t. of St. JohvLS, ed. Mayor, p. 105). AfVer 
resided at the ofiice of the council, a house receivinga grammatical education under John 
in York called * The Manor,' and appears to Morgan, M.A., who afterwards removed to 
have died there in 1586. Strype says that Bradfield, Essex, he was admitted of St. 
he was knighted, but of this there is no proof, John's College, Cambridge, where he obtained 
and it is probably a mistake. He married an extraordinary reputation for his know- 
(1) Frances, daughter of Sir Humphrey llad- ledge of the learned languages, especially 
cIifi*ofElst^)w, and sisterofthe Earl of Sussex, Greek. His tutor and principal * bringer- 
in 1569 or 1 570, bv whom he had Sir Thomas up,' from whom, as he himself acknowledges, 
Cheke of Pyrgo, fcssex, and other children ; he 'gate an entrie to some skill in learning,' was 
and (2) in Janiuiry 1584-5, at St. Michael- George Day, fellow, afterwards master of St. 
le-Belfry, Y'ork, Frances, daughter of Mar- John's, and ultimately bishop of Chichester, 
maduke Constable. He published a transla- He was admitted a fellow of his college on 
tion of an Italian morality play by Francesco 26 March 1529, proceeded B.A. in 1529-30, 
Negri de Bassano, with the title * Acertayne and commenced M.A. in 1533. He adopted 
Tragedie wrj-tten first in Italian by F. N. B., the doctrines of the Reformation while at St. 
entituled, Freewyl, and translated into Eng- John's, where many of the fellows in Car- 
lisheby Henr\'Cheeke,'4to, no placeordate, dinal Wolsey's time privately studied the 
211 pages besides dedication, prefatory epistle scriptures and the works of Luther. On one 
to the reader, and * faults,' black letter. The occasion, when he was on a visit to the 
play is dedicated to the Ladv Oheynie or court, his friend and patron Sir William 
Cheyney of Toddington, Ikidfordshire, and Butts [q. v.1, one of the royal physicians, 
the Cheney shield, charged with nineteen spokt^ so highly to Henry VllI of his profi- 
coats, is on the back of the title-page. Tlie ciency in the Greek tongue that the king 
Lady Cheney was Jane, daughter of Thomas, granted him an exhibition for encouragement 
lord Wentworth of Nettle.sted, who married in his studies, and the payment of the ex- 
Henry, creat«Hi Lord Cheney of Toddington peuses of his travels abroad. He introduced 
in 1572. In his dedication Clieke says that an im])roved method of study at St. John's, 
he had received great benefits from her, and and is said * to have laid the very founda- 
that the purpose of his work was to set forth tions of learning in that college * (AscHAXi 
^ the devilish devices of the popish religion , Epistolcp, ii. 45). He zealously promoted 




protestantism as well as learning, advising 
scholars to decide all questions by an appeal 
to the scriptures alone. In 1530 Nicnolas 
Metcalfe, master of St. John's, George Day, 
and Cheke were appointed the college proxies 
to appear })efore the king's commissioners in 
the matter of the oaths of the succession and 
supremacy. Baker charges Day and Cheke 
with ingratitude towards Metcalfe, * to whom 
they owed their rise and beginning,' and who 
was worriwl into abdicating the government 
of the college in 1587 {Hint, of St, John^s^ 
])p. 104, 105 ; AscHAM, Scholemaster, ed. 
Mayor, 1863, p. 161). Cheke appears to have 
been the last * master of the glomery ' in the 
university (1539-40), the precise duties of 
which office antiquaries have been unable 
to ascertain (Cole, ManiMcriptftf xlix. 26). 
Among Cheke's pupils at St. John's were Wil- 
liam Cecil [q. V.J, afterwards Lord Burghley 
(who in 1541 married Cheke's sister >lary), 
Koger Ascham [q. v.], and William Bill [q. v.] 
He became Greek lecturer of the univer- 
sity and discharged the duties of that office 
without salary, but on the foundation of the 
regius professorships in 1640 he was nomi- 
nated to the Greek chair, with an annual 
stipend of 40/., and he continued to occupy 
it till October 1551. In his lectures he went 
over Sophocles twice, all Homer, all Euripi- 
des, and part of Herodotus (IjANgbaine, Life 
of Cheke). At this period Greek was little 
known in England, and the few scholars who 
had acquired a knowledge of the language 
pronounced it in a manner resembling that 
in vogue nowadays in the continental uni- 
versities, which Cheke believed to be corrupt. 
Accordingly he and Thomas (afterwards Sir 
Thomas) Smith endeavoured to find out the 
true pronunciation; 'which at length they 
did, partly by considering the power of the 
letters themselves, and partly by consulting 
with Greek authors, Aristophanes and others ; 
in some whereof they founa footsteps to direct 
them how the ancient Greeks pronounced' 
(Strype, Life of Cheke^ ed. 1821, p. 14). 
Cheke publicly taught the new mode of pro- 
nunciation, which was not unlike that now 
adopted in England, and this mode was ve- 
hemently opposed by a strong party in the 
university, who sent a complaint to Gardiner, 
bishop of Winchester and chancellor of the 
university. Gardiner on 1 June 1542 issued 
a solemn decree confirming the old pronun- 
ciation. Those who did not obey this decree 
were, if regents, to be expelled from the senate ; 
if scholars, to lose their scholarships ; and the 
younger sort were to be chastised (Strypb, 
.Ecclesiastical MemoriaUt, vol. i. chap. i. Ap- 
pend. No. cxvi.; Cooper, Annals of Cambridge, 
1. 401-3). Seven letters which passed be- 

tween Gardiner and Cheke on the subject were 
given by Cheke to Coelius Secundus Curio, 
of Basle, who printed them in 1555. Cheke 
reluctantly submitted to the chancellor's de- 
cree, but the new pronunciation of Greek 
ultimately prevailed in this country (Leiqh, 
Treatise of Relit/ion and Learni7ig,jp. 92 ; 
Ellis, The English y Dionysian, and Hellenic 
Pronunciations of Greeks p. 6). 

In or about 1544 Cheke was elected public 
orator of the university. On 10 July in that 
year Henry VIII summoned him to court 
and appointed him to succeed Richard Cox, 
afterwards bishop of Ely, as tutor to Prince 
Edward. He accordingly left the university 
and gave up the office of public orator, in 
which he was succeeded by Ascham, who in 
his * Toxophilus ' laments the great loss suf- 
fered by the university by his friend's with- 
drawal from it. Sir Antnony Cooke was as- 
sociated with Cheke in the education of the 
young prince, who lived chiefly at Hertford. 
Cheke continued his course of instruction after 
his pupil's accession to the throne, being * al- 
ways at his elbow, both in his closet and in his 
chapel, and wherever else he went, to inform 
and teach him' (Strype, Cheke, p. 22). He 
read to the king Cicero's philosophical works 
and Aristotle's ethics, and also instructed him 
in the history, laws, and constitution of Eng- 
land. At his suggestion Edward wrote the 
journal of public events preserved in the Cot- 
tonian Library and printed by Burnet and by 
Nichols. Occasionally Cheke acted as tutor to 
the king^s sister. Princess Elizabeth. About 
the time of his appointment as tutor to the 
prince he was made a canon of King's Col- 
lege (now Christ Church), Oxford, and was 
incorporated M.A. in that university. From 
his preferment to a canonry Strype infers 
that he had been admitted to holy orders, 
but this is extremely doubtful. When, in 
1545, Henry VIII dissolved the new college 
and converted it into a cathedral, Cheke ob- 
tained, as a compensation for the loss of his 
canonry, an annual pension of 26/. 1«^. 4td. 
In or about 1547 he married Mary, daughter 
and heiress of Richard Hill, who had been 
Serjeant of the wine-cellar to Henry VIII 
(Stowe, Survet/y ed. Strype, vol. ii. Append, 
p. 70). 

Shortly after the accession of Edward VI, 
he received considerable grants of lands and 
lordships which had become vested in the 
crown by the dissolution of religious houses, 
colleges, and chantries. Thus he became 
owner of the house and site of the priory of 
Spalding, Lincolnshire ; and he acquired by 
purchase from the king the college of St. 
John Baptist de Stoke juxta Clare, Suffolk. 
This latter bargain Strype thinks was 'no 





qiKfHtion a jfood pennyworth/ Cheke was 
Tf.iUTrual ai» memwr for Bletchinjrley to the 
parliHinent which BKf«>nihh>d on 8 Nov. 1547, 
ami he nyrewntcd the same conntituency 
in the narliainent of 1 March 1^)5^^-;$ (WiL- 
IJH, Notltia Pariiamentaria, vol. iii. pt. i. 
]»p. 14,21 ). He wa« elected provost of Kinp's 
('ollep**, Cambridjfe, on 1 April 1548, after 
the rirHi^iation of (Jeorpe I)ny, hinhop of 
Chichester, who h<*ld tin? provost ship in rom- 
mfrndanif and (lieko was elected by virtue 
of a mandamiiK from the crown, dispensinjf 
with thn>e qiialifications required in a head 
of that collep?, that he Hhould be a doctor, a 
prieHt, and on tlif foundation. It may fairly 
iHi concluded from tin? t(;nuflof this docu